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EMERGENCY GENERATING STATIONS FOR SERVICE IN CONNECTION WITH HYDRO

ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION PLANTS UNDER PACIFIC COAST CONDITIONS A. M. Hunt

Vol. xxix-1910, pp. 675-684 Analytical study of the comparative merits of a gas engine and a steam turbine station for standby service, covering first costs, standby charges and continuous operation cost. The steam plant is kept in readiness to start by storing electrically generated heat in water under high pressure.

Discussion, pp. 685-704, by Messrs. L. B. Stillwell, L. Jorgensen, K. G. Dunn, C. L. Cory, L. L. Johnston, A. H. Babcock, W. A. Doble, F. G. Baum, A. M. Hunt, Cary T. Hutchinson, and P. H. Thomas.

General remarks on standby service in connection with hydroelectric plants, comparing conditions in the West with those in the East and considering the relative value of gas engine, steam and water-power so well built as to require no standby service.

HYDROELECTRIC POWER AS APPLIED TO IRRIGATION John Coffee Hays

Vol. xxix-1910, pp. 731-753 Description of a large ground water system of irrigation (Mount Whiting Power Company in California) operated with hydroelectric energy, covering the power equipment; forms of contracts and charges; load characteristics; power requirements for different classes of work, and effect of irrigation on land values.

Discussion, pp. 754-764, by Messrs. L. B. Stillwell, E. W. Paul, J. C. Hays, F. V. Henshaw, H. Homberger, L. Jorgensen, Ralph W. Pope, Markham Cheever, A. J. Bowie, Jr., W. A. Doble, and F. G. Baum.

General discussion of the relative advantages of construction having limited life and construction which is practically permanent, also general remarks on irrigation.

D. STEAM AND GAS-ELECTRIC PLANTS

TENDENCIES OF CENTRAL STATION DEVELOPMENT

Vol. xxi-1903, pp. 403-405 Introduction by President Chas. F. Scott.

ECONOMICAL AND SAFE LIMITS IN THE SIZE OF CENTRAL STATIONS H. A. Lardner

Vol. XXI-1903 pp. 407-416 Brief discussion of the factors that bear upon the relative economy of one large and several small stations. Probable effect of steam turbines on size of generator units. Actual figures as to most economical size of steam engine. Classified advantages and disadvantages of large central stations.

Discussion, incorporated with that of paper by Peter Junkersfeld on "Multiple Versus Independent Operation of Units and Central Stations."

MULTIPLE VERSUS INDEPENDENT OPERATION OF UNITS AND CENTRAL STATIONS Peter Junkersfeld

Vol. xxi-1903 pp. 425-440 General discussion of troubles encountered in the operation of a central station system, covering the different links between the coal pile and the consumer's circuits. Layout for sectional operation of large central station and advantages of this method of operation.

Discussion (including that of paper by H. A. Lardner on “Economical and Safe Limits in the Size of Central Stations,” and paper by Philip Torchio on “Safety Devices in Central Stations and Sub-stations”), pp. 441-477, by Messrs. C. F. Scott, H. G. Stott, H. A. Wagner, F. A. Waldron, E. H. Sniffen, J. W. Lieb, Jr., Townsend Wolcott, W. S. Rugg, W. L. Abbott, P. Junkersfeld, H. A. Lardner, Philip Torchio, Philip K. Stern, B. J. Arnold, H. B. Gear, W. G. Carlton, Carl Schwartz, F. Hodgkinson, H. Etheridge, C. W. Rice, P. M. Lincoln, Franz Welz, W. C. L. Eglin, Horatio A. Foster, Carl Hering, Chas. Hewitt, and Paul Spencer.

General remarks on central station operation-Fuel handling, prime movers, distribution system, etc., bearing upon the relative merits of a single interconnected system and several independent systems. Economy tests of steam turbines and discussion of the advantages of this type of prime mover. Utility of storage batteries in the operation of continuouscurrent central station system.

467-499

CENTRAL STATION ECONOMIES W. E. Goldsborough and P. E. Fansler

Vol. xxii-1903 pp. Description of power plant of the Indiana Union Traction Company and methods used in testing the equipment. Detailed discussion of tests, giving losses in the different parts of the system and the efficiency of the different steps in the transmission from the coal pile to the cars.

Discussion, pp. 500-505, by Messrs. W. E. Goldsborough, M. H. Gerry, Jr., H. G. Stott, Gano S. Dunn, W. F. Wells, and P. M. Lincoln.

Ultimate object in the design of a power plant.

GAS POWER FOR CENTRAL STATIONS J. R. Bibbins

Vol. xxii-1903 pp. 767-790 Analysis of the performance of a number of gas engine stations, covering the operation characteristics, the economy and cost of operation and maintenance. Discussion of the advantages of operating a gas-electric station in connection with gas works, with estimated revenues and cost of operation and maintenance. Much data in tabular form and in form of characteristic curves.

Discussion, pp. 791-797, by Messrs. Ralph D. Mershon, Philip Torchio, Herbert A. Wagner, H. G. Stott, and J. R. Bibbins.

Fixed charges of gas-electric and steam-electric plants. Amount of jacket water required by gas engines under different conditions. Relative importance of labor and maintenance with gas and steam engines.

MODERN CENTRAL STATION DESIGN AS EXEMPLIFIED BY THE NEW
TURBO-GENERATOR STATION OF THE EDISON ELECTRIC

ILLUMINATING COMPANY OF BOSTON
I. E. Moultrop

Vol. xxiv—1905 pp. 29-43 Description of principal features in the design of the power station with drawings of the station, wiring diagram and layout of switchboard.

Discussion, pp. 44-53, by Messrs. J. W. Lieb, Jr., H. G. Stott, F. C. Bates, Philip Torchio, J. H. Hallberg, C. O. Mailloux, W. F. White, I. E. Moultrop, and P. Junkersfeld.

Central station and financial statistics. Relative merits and costs of surface and barometric condensers. General remarks on central station design.

THE RATIO OF HEATING SURFACE TO GRATE SURFACE AS A FACTOR

IN POWER PLANT DESIGN Walter S. Finlay, Jr.

Vol. xxvi-1907 pp. 1709-1719 Account of results obtained in the power plant of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company by installing a second grate under the existing boilers. Analytical study of the economy and saving produced thereby, with graphical performance diagrams and tabular comparison of the cost of maintenance and operation of the single and double grate plants.

Discussion, pp. 1720-1737, by Messrs. Charles E. Lucke, W. F. Wells, Walter T. Ray, Henry Keisinger, W. L. Abbott, A. Bement, F. V. Henshaw, W. S. Finlay, Albert A. Cary, J. P. Sparrow, and J. E. Moultrop.

General remarks on boiler efficiency, with results of experimental investigation and tests on methods of improving efficiency. Actual figures on grate surface, heating surface, rate of combustion, efficiency, etc.

A NEW CO, RECORDER C. 0. Mailloux

Vol. xxvi-1907, pp. 1771-1787 Description of Orsat apparatus followed by detailed description of the Westover recorder.

Discussion, p. 1788, by A. A. Adler.

DOUBLE-DECK STEAM TURBINE POWER PLANTS J. R. Bibbins

Vol. xxvii-1908, pp. 1099-1118 General discussion of the advantages of the double-deck turbine station, based on a description of three actual plants, giving space, weights, foundation design, cost and other interesting features.

Discussion, pp. 1119-1121, by Messrs. C. W. Ricker and J. R. Bibbins. Actual itemized cost of West Point double-deck turbine station.

WORKING RESULTS, GAS-ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS J. R. Bibbins

Vol. xxvii-1908, pp. 1123-1134 Account of thirty-day test of producer-gas engine plant, with analysis of results indicating the commercial efficiency and the cost of energy at

different load factors. Comparison of costs with steam-turbine station
practice.

Discussion, pp. 1135-1137, by Messrs. J. P. Jackson and J. R. Bibbins.
Reliability and overload capacity of gas engines.

THE PURCHASE OF FUEL ON A BRITISH THERMAL UNIT BASIS Lawrence P. Crecelius

Vol. xxviii-1909, pp. 51-62 Details of a fuel contract on heat unit basis and discussion of sampling and testing.

No discussion.

TESTS OF A 15,000-KW. STEAM-ENGINE-TURBINE UNIT H. G. Stott and R. J. S. Pigott

Vol. xxix-1910, pp. 183-229 Description of the combined high-pressure reciprocating engine and low-pressure turbo-induction generator plant of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, together with reasons for adopting this type of apparatus and summary of results accomplished by its use. Results and principal data of tests covering economy and performance of the prime movers presented in tabular and diagrammatic form.

Discussion, pp. 230-248, by Messrs. W. L. R. Emmet, Max Rotter, E. F. Miller, Edward L. Clark, E. D. Dreyfus, Charles P. Steinmetz, J. W. Lieb, Jr., D. S. Jacobus, Schauber, G. R. Parker, O. Junggren, F. Samuelson, R. J. S. Pigott, and H. G. Stott.

E. ELECTRIC STATION APPARATUS AND WIRING

THE CONTROL OF HIGH-POTENTIAL SYSTEMS OF LARGE POWER E. W. Rice, Jr.

Vol. xviii-1901, pp. 407-420 Description of the type H oil switches designed for Metropolitan Traction Company and Manhattan Railway Company plants, together with short account of performance of oil, air and expulsion tube type switches under tests at high tension. General discussion of principles which should govern the layout of a central station.

Discussion (including that of paper by William S. Aldrich and George W. Redfield on “Performance of an Artificial Forty-Mile Transmission Line;" paper by F. A. C. Perrine on “Elements of Design, Particularly Pertaining to Long Distance Transmission;" paper by Charles F. Scott on “The Induction Motor and the Rotary Converter, and Their Relation to the Transmission System,” and paper by Chas. P. Steinmetz on “Theoretical Investigation of Some Oscillations of Extremely High Potential in Alternating-Current High-Potential Transmissions”), pp. 421-442 and 667-669, by Messrs. Gano S. Dunn, Geo. D. Shepardson, Henry W. Fisher, W. L. R. Emmett, A. E. Kennelly, Chas. P. Steinmetz, F. A. C. Perrine, L. B. Stillwell, Oberlin Smith, R. D. Mershon, Paul Janet, W. S. Aldrich, C. F. Scott, and Percy H. Thomas.

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Relative advantages and comparative performance of induction motors and synchronous motors. Atmospheric losses at high-tension lines as affected by diameter and stranding of conductor. Equation of rise of potential due to opening a circuit.

OIL SWITCHES FOR HIGH PRESSURES E. M. Hewlett

Vol. xxiii---1904, pp. 215-216 Comparison of oil break with air break switches.

Discussion, pp. 217-224, 242-245 and 249-251, by Messrs. C. C. Chesney, F. A. C. Perrine, Alex Dow, Ralph D. Mershon, C. F. Scott, P. N. Nunn, C. L. de Muralt, H. F. Parshall, W. A. Blanck, James Lyman, P. Junkersfeld, W. G. Carlton, E. O. Sessions, G. N. Eastman, I. E. Brooke, P. H. Thomas, R. F. Schuchardt, Edw. Schildhauer, H. F. Sanville, W. C. L. Eglin.

Experience with oil switches in many large plants. Accounts of tests under short circuit conditions. Specifications for oil switches and brief reference to some of the mechanical difficulties encountered with present types.

DUPLICATION OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS TO SECURE RELIABILITY OF SERVICE H. W. Buck

Vol. xxiv—1905, pp. 261-268 Brief detailed discussion of the conditions which govern the economic usefulness of reserve apparatus in different divisions of a power plant system.

Discussion (including that of paper by George F. Chellis on “TimeLimit Relays”), pp. 269-282, by Messrs. H. G. Stott, Philip Torchio, C. 0. Mailloux, S. D. Sprong, W. F. Wells, G. F. Chellis, H. W. Buck, H. R. Stuart, P. M. Lincoln, and Charles F. Scott.

General remarks on and experience with time-limit relays. Description of the relay practice of The New York Edison Company. Practice of large company in maintaining continuity of service.

ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS FOR POWER STATIONS David B. Rushmore

Vol. xxv-1906, pp. 559-584 General discussion of the choice and arrangement of station apparatus. Classification of switches, relays and modes of connecting generator and station equipment to the lines.

No discussion.

ENCLOSED STATION WIRING

F. 0. Blackwell

Vol. xxvi-1907, 851-856 Photographs of high-potential arcs. General rules for wiring hightension stations.

Discussion, pp. 857-871, by Messrs. C. W. Stone, L. C. Marburg, P. M. Lincoln, E. N. Lake, J. D. Jamieson, Fay Woodmansee, P. B. Woodworth,

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