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13.

TRANSMISSION LINES

A. STRUCTURAL FEATURES

THE ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION OF POWER FROM NIAGARA FALLS

Lewis B. Stillwell

Vol. xviii-1901, pp. 445-531 Historical outline of the development, design, construction and operation of the electrical equipment of the Niagara Falls power plant. Description of the generators, their design and their performance under tests and in operation. Also a description of the transmission and distribution system, its construction and difficulties encountered in its operation.

Discussion, pp. 532-544, by Messrs. L. B. Stillwell, Chas. P. Steinmetz, H. W. Buck, M. Lincoln, E. A. Sperry, F. A. C. Perrine, P. K. Stern, H. G. Stott, and Clarence E. Gifford.

General discussion of the methods of operation for large transmission and distribution systems with reference to interruptions from various causes. Experience with grounded wire on long lines in the West. Difficulties in operation of railway converter sub-stations in Buffalo.

THE BUFFALO HIGH-TENSION CABLE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Harold W. Buck

Vol. xviii-1901, pp. 835-841 General description of system of distribution of Niagara power in Buffalo.

Discussion, incorporated with that of paper by Philip Torchio on “250Volt Three-Wire Distribution for Lighting and Power.”

MECHANICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF THE PROPOSED STANDARD INSULATOR PIN Ralph D. Mershon

Vol. xxi-1903, pp. 233-237 Mathematical investigation of fiber stresses in wooden insulator pins with design and dimensions recommended for standard practice.

Discussion, incorporated with that of paper by W. S. Franklin on "Model Showing Distribution of Electromotive Force and Current Along a Single-Phase Alternating-Current Transmission Line.”

THE TESTING OF INSULATORS

F. 0. Blackwell

Vol. xxi-1903, pp. 239-243 Factors which enter into the selection and testing of line insulators, based upon actual experience in the operation of high-tension lines.

Discussion, incorporated with that of paper by W. S. Franklin on "Model Showing Distribution of Electromotive Force and Current Along a Single-Phase Alternating-Current Transmission Line.”

BURNING OF WOODEN PINS ON HIGH TENSION TRANSMISSION LINES C. C. Chesney

Vol. XI-1903, pp. 253-260 Brief report of experience with charring of wooden pins in California, with photographs of the damaged pins.

Discussion, incorporated with that of paper by W. S. Franklin on "Model Showing Distribution of Electromotive Force and Current Along a Single-Phase Alternating-Current Transmission Line."

METHODS OF BRINGING HIGH-TENSION CONDUCTORS INTO BUILDINGS C. E. Skinner

Vol. xxii – 1903, pp. 313-318 Conditions that determine the choice of construction for line entries, and requirements that must be met by such constructions. Examples of medium and high-tension entries.

Discussion, pp. 319-329, by Messrs. Henry Floy, 0. H. Ensign, A. L. Mudge, F. C. Pierce, J. Harisberger, R. F. Hayward, V. G. Converse, P. H. Thomas, P. M. Lincoln, and Louis Bell.

Description and sectional drawings of various types of high-tension entries in actual use.

AN EFFICIENT HIGH-PRESSURE WATER-POWER TRANSMISSION PLANT George J. Henry, Jr. and Joseph N. LeConte

Vol. xxii-1903, pp. 627-645 General description of Pelton wheels and hydraulic equipment for 1,923-foot head. Methods of making performance tests, the results of tests being given in tables and curves.

Discussion, pp. 646-647, by Messrs. F. O. Blackwell and H. A. Lardner.

First three-phase transmission plant in United States. Pipe lines for high pressure.

OVERHEAD HIGH-TENSION DISTRIBUTING SYSTEMS IN SUBURBAN DISTRICTS George H. Lukes

Vol. xxii—1903, pp. 735-739 General discussion of the construction and operation of a satisfactory distribution system for saburban towns and villages surrounding a large city.

Discussion, incorporated with that of paper by W. C. L. Eglin on "Safeguards and Regulations in Operation of Overhead Distributing Systems."

SAFEGUARDS AND REGULATIONS IN OPERATION OF DISTRIBUTING SYSTEMS W. C. L. Eglin

Vol. xxii-1903, pp. 747-754 General specifications for the material and construction of overhead distribution systems so as to attain a high degree of safety in operation. Method of testing pole transformers that are damaged by lightning disturbances.

Discussion (including that of paper by George H. Lukes on "Overhead High-Tension Distributing Systems in Suburban Districts,” and paper by E. J. Bechtel on “Automatic Apparatus for Regulating Generator and Feeder Potentials”), pp. 755-765, by Messrs. H. B. Gear, G. T. Hanchett, Ralph D. Mershon, Calvert Townley, P. M. Lincoln, M. P. Ryder, George F. Sever, H. G. Stott, W. C. L. Eglin, A. C. Pratt, C. F. Scott, S. P. Grace, and C. H. Chalmers.

Analysis of accidents which interrupt service of overhead distribution systems and general rules for minimizing them. Construction of lines through trees. Rules for the protection of telephone lines from power lines.

EUROPEAN PRACTICE IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF HIGH-PRESSURE

TRANSMISSION LINES AND INSULATORS Guido Semenza

Vol. xxiil—1904, pp. 147-163 Outline of method of designing transmission lines, selecting conductor section, line material and type of construction so as to attain proper balance between fixed and operating charges. Notes on relative merits of iron and wooden poles with comparative costs. Factors which enter into the design of insulators.

Discussion, pp. 164-168, by Messrs. W. N. Smith, B. J. Arnold, L. L. Perry, W. S. Dix, J. W. Lieb, Jr., C. F. Scott, N. J. Neall, and W. A. Blanck.

Relative merits of steel and wooden pole line construction.

LONG SPANS FOR TRANSMISSION LINES F. 0. Blackwell

Vol. xxiii-1904, pp. 511-521 Mechanical features in the design of long-span steel tower lines, giving the physical properties of copper, aluminum, iron and steel cable; sag span curves and equations, and tower construction.

Discussion, pp. 523-545, by Messrs. Ralph D. Mershon, F. O. Blackwell, A. S. Hatch, Charles F. Scott, N. J. Neall, William Hoopes, Eugene Clark, W. D. Ball, F. A. C. Perrine, W. B. Jackson, H. B. Alverson, Peter Junkersfeld, B. J. Arnold, H. C. Wirt, S. B. Storer, and R. F. Hayward

General discussion of the relative merits and costs of metal poles and towers vs. wooden poles. Actual and estimated costs of different kinds of line construction.

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS RELATIVE TO HIGH-TENSION TRANSMISSION

Vol. xxiii-1904, pp. 571-604 Report of High-Tension Committee giving questions and answers representing the actual standard practice in high-tension transmission line construction and operation.

Discussion, pp. 605-614, by Messrs. J. H. Finney, Ralph D. Mershon, Peter Junkersfeld, B. J. Arnold, L. Schuler, S. B. Storer, F. A. C. Perrine, Eugene Clark, W. B. Jackson, N. J. Neall, James Lyman, W. G. Carlton,

Charles F. Scott, G. N. Eastman, H. B. Alverson, F. Woodmansee, and G. R. Radley.

Protection of high-tension crossings by nets, grounded rings, etc. Percentage of total investment represented by transmission circuits. mparative disturbance produced by opening high-tension air-break and oilbreak switches. Experience with static discharges.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ONTARIO POWER COMPANY P. N. Nunn

Vol. xxiv—1905, pp. 807-833 Description of the layout and construction of the generating and distribution plants, profusely illustrated with photographs and working drawings.

Discussion, pp. 834-838, by Messrs. Gano S. Dunn, W. E. Goldsborough, H. G. Stott, P. H. Thomas, C. A. Greenidge, P. N. Nunn, and Philip P. Barton.

Probable effect of taking water at Chicago upon the flow at Niagara Falls. Characteristics of ice formation in the Niagara River and cause of ice difficulties experienced by Niagara Falls Power Company.

HIGH-TENSION OUTLETS Alvin Meyers

Vol. XXV–1906, pp. 865-880 Experience with home-made outlet bushings on the Telluride Power Company's system. Complete specifications for construction and installation of 44,000-volt bushings, together with cost of material and labor.

No discussion.

TRANSMISSION LINE TOWERS AND ECONOMICAL SPANS D. R. Scholes

Vol. xxvi-1907, pp. 1221-1237 Derivation of mathematical expression for the weight of steel towers in terms of the stresses and establishment of relation between cost and width of base. Application of equations to determination of most economical span under given conditions.

Discussion, incorporated with paper by Norman Rowe on "LightningRods and Grounded Cables as a Means of Protecting Transmission Lines Against Lightning."

A NEW TYPE OF INSULATOR FOR HIGH-TENSION TRANSMISSION LINES E. M. Hewlett

Vol. XXVI-1907, pp. 1259-1262 Illustrated description of the Hewlett link insulator.

Discussion, incorporated with paper by H. W. Buck on "Some New Methods in High-Tension Line Construction.”

SOME NEW METHODS IN HIGH-TENSION LINE CONSTRUCTION B. W. Buck

Vol. xxvi-1907, pp. 1263-1269 Brief description of transmission line construction with link type insulators, followed by list of advantages.

Discussion (including that of paper by E. M. Hewlett on "A New Type of Insulator for High-Tension Transmission Lines”), pp. 1270-1271, by Messrs. J. B. Whitehead, Ralph D. Mershon, Ralph W. Pope, F. B. H. Paine, and Charles P. Steinmetz.

Brief remarks on potential distribution between successive disks.

THE TRANSMISSION PLANT OF THE NIAGARA, LOCKPORT AND ONTARIO

POWER COMPANY Ralph D. Mershon

Vol. xxvi, 1907, pp. 1273-1313 Description of the line construction and sub-station equipment. Profusely illustrated.

Discussion, pp. 1314-1317, by Messrs. E. J. Berg, Ralph D. Mershon, J. W. Fraser, and F. B. H. Paine.

Relative merits of metallic and concrete tower footings, with test results as to the holding-down power of the former.

LOCATION OF BROKEN INSULATORS AND OTHER TRANSMISSION LINE TROUBLES L. C. Nicholson

Vol. xxvi-1907, pp. 1319-1329 Description of method of test and derivation of formulas of calculating distance to fault.

Discussion, pp. 1330-1331, by Messrs. L. T. Robinson, Ralph D. Mershon, and F. B. H. Paine.

Further elaboration of the method to increase its accuracy.

SOME POWER TRANSMISSION ECONOMICS Frank G. Baum

Vol. xxvi-1907, pp. 1555-1509 Description of 60,000-volt transmission line construction used by California Gas and Electric Corporation. Designs for pole tops for spans of from 500 to 3,000 feet; home-made oil switches; outdoor switches, etc.

Discussion, pp. 1570-1572, by Messrs. Charles P. Steinmetz and F. B. H. Paine.

Difference between transmission line practice in the West and the East.

FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS GOVERNING THE DESIGN OF

TRANSMISSION-LINE STRUCTURES D. R. Scholes

Vol. xxvii—1908, pp. 931-938 Brief discussion of the mechanical forces that enter into the design of transmission towers—wind pressure, sleet, breakage of lines and mechanical resistance of footings.

Discussion, pp. 939-944, by Messrs. N. J. Neall and Ralph Bennett.

General remarks on factors of safety and design of footings. Description of a method of testing towers. Data from the Kern River transmission system.

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