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w that the war is over, a great effort is be seven forced landings and but two failures - made both in America and Europe to find from bad weather. The best time made berk for the great fleets of air-craft. Instead tween Washington and New York has been a carrying deadly guns and bombs, they are little over eighty minutes, which is about one ng freighted with the mails, passengers, or

fourth the time made by the fastest expressrchandise, and sent on errands of peace to

trains. ny parts of the world. The United States At the end of the first year's work it was s quick to reorganize its air-craft on a peace found that the air-service had actually paid all is by sending its flying boats over sea, by expenses and made money besides. Mail-bags ssing the continent in record time, and by have also been carried out to sea and dropped ting them to scores of useful purposes. It on ocean liners outward bound, thus saving only a matter of a few years at most when several hours time in the journey between shall see the sky dotted with air-craft busy America and Europe. Within a few years we a hundred peaceful errands. We can catch shall doubtless see the mail-aëroplanes winginteresting glimpse of the future, mean ing their way from the Atlantic to the Pacific ile, by observing the latest achievements of Ocean. -craft.

The air-mails and parcel delivery will probChe mails are regularly carried by aëroplane ably soon be followed by regular passengerday in eleven different countries on thirty carrying service. One is already in successful e air-routes. The United States has two operation between London and Paris. The h air-services, those between Washington distance of about 250 miles is covered in less

than three hours. The fare of a shilling a
mile, or $62.50 for the trip, does not seem high,
considering the circumstances. The car of the
aëroplane is furnished with upholstered chairs
and is decorated with mirrors and lighted by
electricity.
: The United States will profit more by air
travel than European countries because of its
greater distances. The larger number of the

European states can each be crossed by rail in LATEST TYPE OF MAIL-CARRYING AËROPLANE

five or ten hours, and the aëroplane, by reduc

ing the time to one third or less, does not make New York, with a stop at Philadelphia, possible a vital economy. .

But in America it New York and Cleveland and Chicago. will be a tremendous advantage to reduce the me thirty more air-routes have been planned time for crossing the continent from four or

the future. The Washington-New York five days, as at present, to one or two. The te, which has been in regular operation for distance already has been flown in fifty-two re than one year, holds the world's record

hours. efficiency. The mail 'planes flew one hun There will soon be great rivalry between the d times between the cities, making only dirigible balloon and the aëroplane in compet

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PUTTING THE AIR-CRAFT TO WORK

1071

or

a

ing for passenger air-travel. The aëroplane rate system of air-ports in thirty-two cities may be faster, but its passengers are more throughout the United States. The large cities crowded than aboard an airship, and are more

will be assisted in preparing municipal landlikely to be air-sick. The dirigibles now fly over seventy-five miles an hour and can travel for ten thousand miles,

over eight days, without coming down. The largest of these airships are upward of

thousand feet in length. Regular course dinners are served on board, and the passengers enjoy all the luxuries of a Pullman car.

There are still many people who are afraid

THE AËROPLANE THAT DROPPED MAIL ON THE ADRIATIC to fly. Not many years ago some had the same fear of a sea voyage. ing-fields, so that regular air-routes may be esDuring the war many men were killed in the tablished and maintained in all directions. It air-service, but this was largely because they will soon be possible for an aviator to start on were fired upon, and not because the air-craft an air-tour of the continent and find landingthemselves were dangerous. The official re fields, with supplies, at convenient distances. ports show that the United States trained The landing-fields will be of four classes. 8600 Aiers at home. In learning, these men The smallest of these will provide runways six flew 880,000 hours, or about 66,000,000 miles. hundred yards long in every

direction. The

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PUTTING THE AIR-CRAFT TO WORK

[Oct., The first American air-port has been estab found to overlap. If the aëroplane has fallen ed at Atlantic City, New Jersey, which will into an air pocket or its altitude has varied ve as the port of entry for the great diri for any other reason so that the pictures have le balloons which will be flown from En not been made from the same height, the nd to America, and for transatlantic sea negative is reduced or enlarged to match the nes and airplanes as well. There are no others. The views may also be made with gars in the United States capable of ac stereoscopic cameras to show the elevation of mmodating the monster dirigibles, but steel hills or mountains.

The maps thus constructed show marvelous details and are full of life. Every house of a great city will be shown, while no other map can give so clear an idea of open country. They proved invaluable to generals in the war, and in peace times they serve a great variety of purposes. The Government has already arranged to prepare such maps of the forest areas. They are valuable in many kinds of engineering projects, such as the building of roads or railroads, bridges, canals, reservoirs or irrigation systems, and many other forms of construction.

The real estate man, too, finds that the aëro view shows the position of houses, roads, and bodies of water better than any map.

There are to-day 30,000,000 square miles of the earth's surface of which we know very little and 8,000,000 square miles which have not been surveyed and mapped. It would take

two hundred years at the present rate of exA PASSENGER ALIGHTING FROM AN AËROPLANE ploration to complete the work, whereas the

aëroplane makes it possible to do the work in sts will be erected to which they may be a few years with great saving of time and nered.

money and of human lives. The aëroplane promises to revolutionize The air-police fill a long-felt want. The p-making. Instead of dragging the sur great speed of the new craft gives it a tre-or's chain up hill and down dale, the aëro mendous advantage in pursuing wrong-doers. -ne accomplishes the same end, while flying From his position aloft, the aëro-patrolman a speed of a hundred miles an hour or even can spy upon his prey, while the use of the ter. The new method of making maps from wireless telephone keeps him in instant comair was developed during the latter part of munication with the earth. An interesting great war.

demonstration was made recently of the posThe first photographs taken aloft were made sibilities of this new “hurry-up” vehicle. A ch ordinary hand-cameras, but only half the man “stole” a fast automobile and was allowed posures made turned out well. To-day the several minutes start of the air police. The tures are taken with cameras six or eight alarm was given by telephoning by wireless t in length, which are often operated auto to an aëroplane, which happened to be aloft tically and can be counted on to take ex a few miles away, while a second aëroplane at lent pictures ninety per cent of the time.

once took the air. The map-making cameras are set in the floor The two 'planes at once circled about at an the aëroplane's fuselage, and point straight altitude of a mile or more, which enabled them wnward. Before starting a flight, the auto to see over many miles of the surrounding tic device is set to take a fixed number of country. The "thief” was soon sighted many tures a minute. The air-pilot then steers miles on his way, speeding at nearly a mile-a

craft back and forth, just as you would minute pace. The aëro-patrol overtook him, w a lawn, until every part of the city or at a speed of a hundred miles on hour, passed intry below has been photographed. The him, and came to earth at a town several miles ns are then developed and the prints are further on, through which he must pass. The Ltched together. Many of them will be authorities were notified, and a local constable

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secured to make the “arrest" when the "thief” drawn vehicle, the speed at which a patient arrived. The ground police might have been might be rushed to a hospital was doubled. notified by wireless had it been necessary. The aëroplane ambulance more than doubles

The example of New York in establishing a the speed of the automobile. The air-craft regular aëro-police squad will doubtless soon are especially designed for the purpose. The be followed by other cities. In patrolling har floor of the fuselage swings open, allowing a bors and the long water-fronts of such cities stretcher to be slid inside without disturbing as New York, Chicago, or San Francisco the the patient. The gentle swaying motion of the aëroplane is invaluable. A single policeman aēroplane is much less trying upon a sick or can thus do the work of a score of men in fast wounded passenger than the bumping of a patrol-boats, and do it better. In San Diego, wagon over ordinary roads. Many lives will California, they even have an aërial fire-boat. be saved by carrying an injured man to the In case of riots or disturbances, the air police, hospital in one half or one third the time reby looking down upon the crowds, can tell at quired by the ordinary ambulance. a glance where crowds are congregating or A great variety of patrol work can be better danger is threatened and telephone to the done by aëroplane than afoot, on horseback, or ground without a minute's loss of time. The by automobile. It is important, for instance, aëroplane proved invaluable during the great that thousands of miles of telegraph wires and explosion at Morgan, near New York City, high-power electric transmission lines be regumaking it possible to fly directly over territory larly inspected, and these often extend over which was too dangerous to approach on foot. rough and unsettled country, far from roads.

The first use of an aëroplane as a patrol An experienced observer, flying rather low and wagon is credited to the police of Dayton, racing along even at high speed, can readily Ohio. In February last a police inspector see a broken wire, a fallen pole, or other acciflew from Dayton to Indianapolis, and returned dent to the line. bringing a prisoner charged with embezzle This method has been put into successful ment. . The distance of upward of one hundred operation in the Canadian Northwest.

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