Manual of Geology: Theoretical and Practical, Volume 2

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Charles Griffin and Company, 1885 - Geology
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Contents

98
62
Palĉontology of the Arenig group 63 Relation to volcanic rocks
65
1
72
CARADOC SANDSTONE BALA BEDS AND CONISTON
76
PALĈONTOLOGY OF THE CARADOC Rocks
82
Old Red Sandstone of Caithness Subdivisions
85
Unconformity between Lower
89
fauna
93
Geographical distribution
97
PAGE
98
THE WENLOCK GROUP
107
THE WENLOCK LIMESTONE
113
The Ludlow GROUP
123
Numerical value of fauna
131
First appearance of fishes
138
Devonian Rocks of North Devon Tabular View with Physical
139
Scottish and Welsh types
151
Lower Old Red Sandstone
158
Upper Old Red Sandstone in Scot
167
CORRELATION OF THE DEVONIAN Rocks
182
Devonian and Old Red Sandstone
190
European and American Equivalents of the Three Stages
196
Summary of Middle Palĉozoic life
205
UPPER PALĈOZOIC STRATA
212
Carboniferous Rocks Subdivisions
213
Extent of British and Continental
215
Geological position of coal
224
The Great Northern coalfield
230
CARBONIFEROUS STRATA OF SCOTLAND
244
Bernician and Tuedian Series Correlation
249
Irish CoalMeasures General Section
255
COALFIELDS OF THE CONTINENTS OF EUROPE
260
Devonian and Carboniferous floras Estimated quantity of available
266
Detailed palĉontology through the eighteen classes represented in the Car
269
Carboniferous Brachiopoda in the same
283
Summary of Upper Palĉozoic Carboniferous life
293
DYAS
306
Permian Rocks Types
311
British flora and fauna
318
Stratigraphical Sequence and Geographical Distribution
319
Triassic rocks range and physical Rocksalt and its accumulation
325
Keuper and Bunter Beds General Succession of for Britain
326
RHĈTIC AVICULA CONTORTA OR PENARTH BEDs
337
Penarth Beds Sequence of from the Keuper to the Lias
341
General description
348
GENERAL VIEW OF THE LIASSIC SYSTEM
358
Zone of Ammonites Egoceras
364
Fauna of the Northwest Lincolnshire Lias
374
THE MIDDLE LIAS
375
Yorkshire Staithes
385
Fauna of the Margaritatus and Spinatus Zones
391
Zone of Ammonites Amaltheus
392
Ibid through the Upper Lias
398
KELLAWAYS Rock
441
Geographical Distribution of the Jurassic Horizons through Four
445
65 Section of PassageBeds at Carr Naze
451
SupraCoralline beds
453
66 Section of the Lamb Inn Quarry
458
Fauna of the Coral
467
THE KIMMERIDGE CLAY AND PORTLAND OOLITE
471
Jurassic rocks
477
Jurassic Brachiopoda Distribution
484
Portlandian species analysis
486
Portlandian Species Analysis
487
GENERAL TABLES of the ORGANIC REMAINS of the JURASSIC STRATA 489502
489
Summary of Jurassic life
503
History
505
UPPER MESOZOIC STRATA
512
British subdivisions
515
THE WEALDEN
517
519 Foreign Equivalents of the Pun
525
Tealby series Lincolnshire 532 Correlation of Cretaceous rocks
533
Physical characters
542
Geographical range
543
France
549
Blackdown beds
553
Chalk of the south of England
559
Zones of the Chalk Marl Grey Chalk of Scotland
561
Cretaceous strata of Ireland 569 Systems of MM Hébert
569
Yorkshire Chalk Fauna
572
PAGE
598
Eocene Series Subdivisions of
602
LOWER EOCENE STRATATHANET SANDS WOOLWICH
604
MIDDLE BAGSHOT
615
Marine beds
617
OLIGOCENE STRATA
621
Oligocene Fauna through the Headon Osborne Bembridge
624
Oligocene on the Continent
632
The Crag
650
Upper or Norwich Crag Fossils Distribution through Sixteen
657
Climatic relations
661
Summary of Pliocene Life
667
Summary of the Pliocene life
668
GENERAL Tables of the ORGANIC REMAINS of the PLIOCENE
673
Groups of the Quaternary series 672 English glacial deposits
679
Scottish glacial deposits
685
Summary of Pleistocene Life
686
Lias
693
Summary of Cretaceous life
695
Distribution of Jurassic Horizons 445 Greystone or Passagebeds
697
Succession of Triassic rocks
699
391
700
Summary of Jurassic Life
702
581
706
486
707
Gexeral TABLES of the Organic Remains of the TriASSIC STRATA
710

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Page 679 - ... which, if we multiply this depth by the length and breadth of the cavern, will be found to exceed 5000 cubic feet. The whole of this mass has been again and again dug over in search of teeth and bones, which it still contains abundantly, though in broken fragments. The state of these is very different from that of the bones we find in any of the other caverns, being of a black, or, more properly speaking, dark umber colour throughout, and many of them readily crumbling under the finger into a...
Page viii - Numerous TABLES of ORGANIC REMAINS have been prepared and brought down to 1884, embracing the accumulated wealth of the labours of past and present investigators during the last thirty years. Eleven of these Tables contain every known British genus, zoologically or systematically placed, with the number of species in each, showing their broad distribution through time. The remaining 105 Tables are devoted to the analysis, relation, historical value, and distribution of specific life through each...
Page 679 - It is literally true that in this single cavern (the size and proportions of which are nearly equal to those of the interior of a large church) there are hundreds of cart-loads of black animal dust entirely covering the whole floor, to a depth which must average at least six feet, and which, if we multiply this depth by the length and breadth of the cavern, will be found to exceed 5000 cubic feet.
Page 679 - ... in broken fragments. The state of these is very different from that of the bones we find in any of the other caverns, being of a black, or more properly speaking, dark umber colour throughout, and many of them readily crumbling under the finger into a soft dark powder, resembling mummy powder, and being of the same nature with the black earth in which they are embedded. The quantity of animal matter accumulated on this floor...
Page 276 - ... circulars, to which the replies appear to have been exceedingly disproportionate, although the viva voce evidence which they obtained was sufficient. In brief, their conclusions are as follows : — The workable depth of coal mines depends upon human endurance of high temperatures and the possibility of reducing the temperature of the air in contact with heated strata. The mechanical difficulties connected with increased depth, and the cost of steam power for hoisting the deeper coal, do not...
Page 679 - ... were finally dispossessed of their hold by an irruption of water which let fall the muddy sediment now enveloping the bones. The ordinary action of water passing through the calcareous rock then covered the whole with stalagmite, and closed up the bones from the destructive agency of moisture and air. This accounts for the conservation of their gelatine. Few conclusions of this precise nature appear better supported by the facts of the case, and when we reflect on the remarkable analogy in almost...
Page 267 - In some instances a single seam of coal in these strata is sixty feet thick ; and near the middle of the valley, between the Sharp and Broad mountains no less than 65 seams have been counted. The bituminous coal-field, embracing the western part of Pennsylvania, and a part of Ohio, extends over an area of twenty-four thousand square miles ; the largest accumulation of carbonaceous matter probably in the world.
Page 240 - Caermarthen, and part of Brecon, is from 18 to 20 miles ; it becomes much narrower in Pembrokeshire, being there only from 3 to 5 miles. This area extends from Pontypool on the east to St. Bride's Bay on the west, and forms a vast basin of limestone in which all the strata of coal and ironstone are deposited. The...
Page 26 - Hunt, animal life may have afforded part of the carbonaceous material, and, perhaps, as large a part as vegetable life. The presence of graphite in large deposits occurring both in beds and veins in the Laurentian rocks, clearly determines that its origin and deposition were contemporaneous with the mass or containing rock ; the graphite, again, is associated with calcite, quartz, and orthoclase.
Page 267 - ... 65 seams have been counted. The bituminous coal-field, embracing the western part of Pennsylvania, and a part of Ohio, extends over an area of twenty-four thousand square miles ; the largest accumulation of carbonaceous matter probably in the world. In fact, the bituminous coal measures can perhaps be traced almost continuously from Pennsylvania to the Mississippi, and even into Missouri, two hundred miles west of that river. Indeed, coal exists on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains ; and...

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