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ited ? What distant climes have they explored, encom-
In pathless fields of space ?
8. Whence comest thou with thy songs
That glad the earth,
Of beauty into birth ?
9. Whence is thy strength that bows
The forests down,
The ancient, emerald crown ?
10. Whence thy tremendous power
That crests the waves,
Or marble caves ?
NORTHERN LABORERS.-C. C. NAYLOR.
Indirect Questions with their Answers. 1. But, sir, the gentleman has misconceived the spirit and tendency of northern institutions. He is ignorant of northern character. He has forgotten the history of his country. Preach insurrection to the northern láborers ! Preach insurrection to me! Who are the northern làborers? The history of your country is thèir history. The renown of your country is thèir renown. The brightness of their doings is emblazoned on its every pàge. Blot from
your annals the deeds and doings of northern laborers, and the history of your country presents but a universal blank.
2. Sir, who was he that disarmed the Thùnderer; wrested from his grasp the bolts of Jove ;* calmed the troubled ocean ; became the cerstral sun of the philosophical system of his age, shedding his brightness and effulgence on the whole civilized world; whom the great and mighty of the earth delighted to honor; who participated in the achievement of your independence; prominently assisted in molding your free institutions, and the beneficial effects of whose wisdom will be felt to the last moment of “recorded time?” Who, sir, I ask, was hè? A northern làborer, - a Yankee tallow-chandler's son,t - a printer's runaway boy!
3. And who, let me ask the honorable gentleman, who was he that, in the days of our Revolution, led forth a northern àrmy, - yes, an army of northern làborers, — and aided the chivalry of South Carolina in their defence against British aggression, drove the spoilers from their fíresides, and redeemed her fair fields from foreign invaders? Who was hè? A northern làborer, a Rhode Island blacksmith, the gallant General Greene, I who left his hammer and his forge, and went forth conquering and to conquer, in the battle for our independence! And will you preach insurrection to men like these?
4. Sir, our country is full of the achievements of northern laborers. Where is Concord, and Lexington, $ and Princeton, and Trènton, and Saratdga, and Bunker Hill, but in the North? And what, sir, has shed an imperishable renown on the never dying names of those hallowed spots, but the blood and the struggles, the high daring, and patriotism, and sublime courage, of northern laborers? The whole North is An everlasting monument of the freedom, virtue, intelligence,
• Jove, another name for Jupiter, a heathen god. See note, pago 41.
Greene, an American general in the Rovolution.
and indomitable independence of northern laborers! Go, sir, go preach insurrection to men like these !
5. The fortitude of the men of the North, under intense suffering for liberty's sake, has been almost godlike! History has so recorded it. Who comprised that gallant army, that, without food, without pay, shelterless, shoeless, penniless, and almost naked, in that dreadful winter, the midnight of our Revolution, whose wanderings could be traced by their blood-tracks in the snow; whom no arts could seduce, no appeal lead astray, no sufferings disaffect; but who, true to their country, and its holy cause, continued to fight the good fight of liberty, until it finally triumphed? Who, sir, were those men ? Why, northern laborers !-- yes, sir, northern laborers !
6. Who, sir, were Roger Sherman * and — but it is idle to enumerate. To name the northern laborers who have distinguished themselves, and illustrated the history of their country, would require days of the time of this house. Nor is it necessary. Posterity will do them justice. Their deeds have been recorded in characters of fire !
SECTION IX. RULE 9. Language of authority, denunciation, reprehension, exclamation, and terror, generally requires the falling inflection.
QCESTION. What is the rule for language of authority, reprehension, etc.?
Roger Sherman, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence
3. Rise, fathers, rise! 't is Rome demands your aid
Rise and avènge your slaughtered citizens !
Th' avenging sword unshèathe ;
Denunciation and Reprehension. 1. Wde unto you, ye blind guides! Ye fools, and blind ! 2. Woe unto thee, Chorazin! wòe unto thee, Bethsaida!
3. O fools ! and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have written concerning me!
4. Hence! hòme, you idle creatures, get you hòme; you blocks, you stones! you worse than senseless things !
Exclamation. 1. O cruel king ! hard-hearted Pbàraoh ! that every male, of Hebrew mother born, must die !
2. O how weak is mortal màn! How trifling ! how confined his scope of vision !
3. Amazing chànge! A shròud ! a coffin ! a narrow cabin ! This is all that remains of Hamilton !
Terror. What's that? 't is he himself! Mercy on me! he has locked the door! What is to become of me!
EXCEPTION. When exclamatory sentences become questions, or are expressive of tender emotions, they usually require the rising slide.
QUESTI03. What is the exception to this rule? Give an example.
Tender Emotion. 1. () that I knew where I might find him! that I might come even to his sèat !
2. O that my head were wáters! and mine eyes a fountain of téars, that I might weep, day and night, for the sláin of the daughter of my people!
NOTE 1. When the direct address is attended with strong emphasis and emotion, the falling inflection is used; but when a speaker deliberately arises, and addresses the chairman or president of a meeting and the audience, the former takes the rising, and the latter, the falling inflection.
1. Mr. Président, Ladies and Gentlemen. 2. Mr. Chairman and Fellow-Citizens. 8. May it please your Honor and Gentlemen of the Jury. NOTE 2. The language of surprise, wonder, astonishment, admiration, amazement, alarm, fear, horror, remorse, despair, anger, revenge, and strong, dignified expressions of scorn and contempt, also, usually require a falling inflection, proportioned in intensity to the degree of emotion.
Authority. 1. Sláve, do thy office. Strike, as I struck the foe!
Strike, as would have struck the týrants !
Strike deep as my cùrse! Strike, and but once! 2.
Come on! Come on!
Is in an àrm! Strike till you 're free or fall! 3. Òn, on to Rome we come! The gladiators come! Let opulence trèmble in all his palaces! Let oppression
QUESTIONS. What is the note in regard to the direct address? What other kinda of language usually require the falling inflection ?