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the law; that great tribunal, which the wisdom of our an-
cestors raised in this country for the support of the people's
rìghts ; that tribùnal, which has made the làw; that tribunal,
which has given me you to look at; that tribunal, which is
surrounded with a hedge, as it were, set about it; that tri-
bunal, which, from age to age, has been fighting for the lil-
*erties of the people.

A thousand monitors
Både thee return, and walk in wisdom's ways.
The seasons, as they rolled, både thee return;
The glorious sun, in his diurnal round,
Beheld thy wandering, and bade thee return;
The night, an emblem of the night of death,
Bade thee return; the rising mounds,
Which told the traveler where the dead repose
In tenements of clay, bade thee return;
And, at thy father's grave, the filial tear,
Which dear remembrance gave, bade thee return,
And dwell in Virtue's tents, on Zion's hill!


RULE 13. Whenever the sense is complete, whether at the close, or any other part of the sentence, the falling inflection should be employed.

EXAMPLES. 1. May no sorrow distress thy dàys; may no strife disturb thy nights; may the pillow of peace kiss thy cheeks, and the pleasures of imagination attend thy dreams.


What is the rule when the sense is complete?

2. Spare the father of my children; save my hùsband. Innocence is seated on his brów, and the milk of human kindness flows round his heart.

3. Peace will be estàblished; confidence will come with peace; capital will follow confidence; employment will increase with càpital; education will be desired; knowledge will be diffúsed, and virtue will grow with knowledge.

4. Knowledge does not comprise all that is contained in the larger term of educàtion. The feelings are to be disciplined; the passions are to be restrained; true and worthy motives are to be inspired; a profound religious feeling is to be instilled, and pure morality inculcated under all circumstances. All this is comprised in education; and it is mainly received from a mother's plastic hànd.

In reading the preceding 3d and 4th paragraphs, and others of like construction, some would prefer the upward suspensive slide. The falling inflection, however, gives more force and power to the expression.

EXCEPTION. When strong emphasis with the falling inflection, comes near the end of the sentence, as when the introductory member of any antithesis or comparison requires the falling inflection, the close, or last member of the sentence, takes the rising inflection, or slight circumflex.


1. Covet that popularity which follows, not that which must be rún after.

2. We should estimate a man's character more by his goòdness, than by his wealth.

3. If content cannot remove the disquietudes of mankind, it will at least alléviate them.

4. But last of all he sent unto them his sòn, saying, they will reverence my són.

5. The inebriate may lose all respect for himself, but surely, he annot forget his wife and his children.

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Circumflex. THE CIRCUMFLEX is the union of the falling and rising inflections on the same syllable or word, producing a slight undulation or wave of the voice.

Some elocutionists maintain that this inflection is formed in two ways:

1. They say that the wave may commence with the rising slide of the voice, and end with the falling; and

2. That it may commence with the falling slide, and end with the rising.

The former, they call the direct wave or undulation; the latter, the inverted.

1. I said he was my friend.

2. Indeed! he is your friend, is he? If each of these examples is uttered somewhat slowly, with firm articulation and long quantity on my and your, and with such emphasis as strongly to mark the contrast, it is said, the utterance of my will be perceived to exemplify the direct wave, and of your,

the inverted. But as it is very difficult for most readers to distinguish this difference, we doubt the expediency of making such distinctions in a work like this; and hence, we shall use but one character to mark this inflection ; thus, (o).

This modification of the voice may vary in the upward and downward slides, prolongation of sound, key, and intensity of utterance; the slides being equal or unequal, according to the peculiar significance, and designed effect of what is to be uttered.

In some instances, as we have before remarked, it may be difficult to determine whether the circumflex or rising inflection should

QUESTIONS. What is the circumflex? How may it be formed according to the opinion of some elocutionists ? What is the formor called ? What is the latter! Why is but one kind used in this work ? Which is the kind used ? How may this modification of the voice vary? With what is the circumflex liable to be conPounded ?

be employed. In such cases, however, the sentiment of the piece will be the best criterion. See Note 2, page 78, and the remark under Rule 4, page 92.

RULE 14. The circumflex is used in language of irony, sarcasm, condition, contrast, and in all peculiarly significant expressions.

The circumflex is rarely used as a distinctive inflection, unless the language involves contrast or comparison of an ironical, sarcastic, or conditional character. The following examples and exercises, therefore, will exemplify its use in each particular specified in the above rule.


Irony. 1. You, forsooth, are very wise men, deeply leărned in the truth : wě, weak, contěmptible, měan persons; but you, ströng, găllant.

2. Not Ì, stay you; and as you made him, hail him; and shout, and wave your hand, and cry, “ Long live Appius Claudius !"* Rome owes you much, Icilius.t

Sarcasm. 1. You, a beardless yoŭth, pretend to teach a British gěneral. 2. He saved others, himself he cannot save. 3. No doubt yě are the people, and wisdom shall die with yoŭ.

4. But Ì have understanding as well as you ; I am not inferior to you.

Condition. If the world hate you, ye know it hated mě before it hated you. If they have persecuted mě, they will also persecute you. If they have kept mỹ saying, they will keep yours also.

QUESTIONS. How may we determine which should be employed? What is the rule for the circumflex? What is said of the use of the circumflex ?

• Ap“pi-us Clau'di-us, a cruel, arrogant, and ambitious consul of Rome 101 B.C.

+ l-cil'1-us, a Roman tribune.

Contrast. They follow an adventurer whom they fear; wě serve a monarch whom we love. Thěy boast they come to improve our state, enlarge our thoughts, and free us from the yoke of error.

Yes, thěy will give enlightened freedom to our minds, who are themsèlves the slaves of passion, avarice, and pride. They offer us their protection; yes, such protection as vultures give to lămbs, covering and devouring them.


1. Here, under leave of Brútus,* and the rest,

(For Brútus is an honorable man;
So are they ăll, ăll honorable men,)
Come I to speak at Cæsar's funeral.
He was my friend, faithful and just to me;
But Brŭtus says he was ambitious;
And Brūtus is an honorable man.
I speak not to disprove what Brŭtus spoke.

2. Really, Mr. President, I am delighted with the honorable gentleman's mode of speaking extěmpore. I like his speeches a good deal better without his notes, than with them. He has this day thrown all ăncient and modern orators into the shade. I cheerfully acknowledge my own inferiority to the honorable, learned, and surpăssingly éloquent gentleman. Had he, in the plenitude of his wisdom, compared me to the Ephraim actually named in the Scriptures, I could have borne it tolerably well; but when he compared me to ether, which, if I understand it rightly, is lighter than thin air, it was really unendărable, and I sink under it.

• Bru’tus, (Marcus Junius,) a governor of Macedonia, & country of ancient Areece, and head of the conspiracy against Cæsar. He was subsequently defeated in two battles, after which he killed himself, in the year 42 B. C.

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