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distipet, articulate utterance can be made, and required to repeat them with increased elevation of voice, till the highest note of distinct articulation is reached. It may also be useful to reverse the order, beginning on the highest key and gradually descending to the lowest.

EXAMPLES.

We have opened our doors to emigrants. | Our invitation has been accepted. Thousands have come at our bidding. I Thousands more are on the way.

4. Stress. Stress, as here used, has particular reference to the kind and degree of force employed in the utterance of words, phrases, or sentences; and it is characterized as impassioned, forcible, moderate, feeble, aspirated, or suppressed.

Stress of voice is not only employed on emphatic words and phrases to mark the sense, but it is indispensable to the appropriate and effective expression of the emotions. Hence, the reader or speaker, in uttering words, phrases, or sentences, in all the various styles of composition, should always study to pronounce them with that kind and degree of stress most in accordance with the varying demands both of sentiment and feeling.

5. Movement. Movement refers to the time or rate of uttering words and sentences.

It may be quick, moderate, or slow, according to the character of the composition to be read.

The open vowel sounds * may be more or less protracted, thus

QUESTIONS. What is stress? How is it characterized ? What is said of its influence and importance? What should govern the reader or speaker in the proper use of it? What is movement? What are its distinctions ?

What are open vowel sounds ?

• Open vowel sounds are those which are most oasily protracted ; as o in deplore

varying the time of utterance so as to correspond with the sentiment to be expressed, or the emotions of the speaker.

The movement should never be so rapid as to strain the attention of the hearers to catch every thought, as it is uttered; nor so slow, as to pain them by anticipating what is to come. The character and sentiment of the piece, good taste, and a sound judgment, will suggest that rate of utterance, which, according to circumstances, is most appropriate.

For an exercise on movement, the pupil may read the following lines as slowly as possible without a drawling tone, and then repeat them, gradually increasing the rate of utterance at each repetition, until articulation becomes indistinct

EXAMPLES. Trust not your treasures to the waves. | Throw not your compass and chart into the ocean. Do not believe its billows will waft you into port.

6. Quality of the Voice. The quality of the voice has reference to the tones; and it is commonly designated by the terms rough, smooth, harsh, soft, full, slender, musical, shrill, nasal, or guttural.

The cultivation of the qualities of the voice, so as to give it a just adaptation to all the different characters of style, sentiment, passion, and emotion, is somewhat difficult; yet much may be done by duly considering the spirit and circumstances which dictated the language to be read or spoken, and thereby so enlisting the feelings as to inspire emotions similar to those of the writer, and lead to appropriate tones of voice and manner of utterance.

Special rules, for reading the different styles of composition, will hereafter be given in connection with appropriate exercises illustrating them.

QUESTIONS. What caution is given in regard to movement? What exercise is recommended? What is meant by the quality of the voice? What terms are used to designate it? How may the qualities of the voice be improved ?

EXERCISES FOR CULTIVATING THE VOICE.

[The following exercises are introduced for the purpose of cultivating the voice. The sentences are divided by bars, into clauses of suitable length to be uttered at once; and the teacher may pronounce eaclı clause, on such key, and with such intensity, volume, and quality of voice as he chooses, and then require the class to pronounce it after hin in the same manner.]

1. A Full, Strong Whisper. But hush! hark! | step softly! | All's hushed as midnight, yet. | Make no noise. | Be.silent.

2. Low and Soft.
They are sleeping ! | Who are sleeping? |

Pause a moment — softly treail ;
Anxious friends are fondly keeping

Vigils by the sleeper's bed! |
Other hopes have all forsaken,

One remains — | that slumber deep; /
Speak not, lest the slumberer waken

From that sweet, that saving sleep.

3. Slow, Soft, and Plaintive.
Slowly and sadly we laid him down,

From the field of his fame, fresh and gory ; |
We carved not a line, / we raised not a stone, |

But we left him alone in his glory.

4. Deep Undertone. Silence how dead, and darkness how profound! | The glooms of night brood o'er a slumb'ring world.

QUESTIONS. For what are these exercises introduced ? How should they be used!

5. Subdued Monotone. Night gathers slowly around me; the long night of darkness and death. / Within mine eye the light of life is fading, as the day is slowly melting from the darkening sky.

6. Low Key, and Ful Volume.

Father, I thy hand Hath reared these venerable columns ; | thou Didst weave this verdant roof. Thou didst look down Upon the naked earth, | and, forthwithi, rose All these fair ranks of trees. / They, in thy sun, Budded, I and shook their green leaves in the breeze, 1 And shot toward heaven.

7. Middle Key, or Pitch. Pleasure is a shadow; | wealth is vanity ; , and power is a pageant: but knowledge is intrinsic enjoyment, perennial fame, / unlimited space, I and infinite duration. In the performance of its sacred office, it fears no danger, / spares no expense, omits no exertion. It scales the mountain, looks into the volcano, | dives into the ocean, , perforates the earth, / wings its flight into the skies, | encircles the globe, explores sea and land, contemplates the distant, examines the minute, / comprehends the great, I and ascends the sublime. | No place, too remote for its grasp, I no heavens, too exalted for its touch.

8. High Key, Ample Volume and Compass. 1. Fight, gentlemen of England! | Fight, bold yeomen! |

Draw, archers, | draw your arrows to the head ; |
Spur your proud horses hard, and ride in blood.
Advance our standards. Set upon our foes : 1
Upon them! | Victory sits on our helms. |

2. From Leuctra to Marathon,t every inch of ground responds to you - cries to you -- for vengeance! | liberty! | glory! | virtue! | country! These voices, which tyrants cannot stifle, | demand not words, , but steel. | ’T is here! | receive it! | Arm! | let the thirsting earth at length be refreshed with the blood of her oppressors ! | What sound more awakening to the brave than the clank of his country's fetters ? | Should the sword ever tremble in your grasp,— remember yesterday! | think of tomorrow ! | think of your sires, your wives, your sons, your country, and shout liberty! | LIBERTY!

9. High Key and Rapid Movement.
1. Speed, Malise, SPEED! | such cause of haste

Thine active sinews never braced !
2. Arm, warriors, arm for fight! Let each

His adamantine coat gird well, | and each
Fit well his helm, / gripe fast his orbed shield !

10. Shouting.
Let loud Echo from her circling hills
Sound FREEDOM, | till the undulation shake
The bounds of utmost Sweden!

11. Hurry and Haste. More rapid than eagles, his coursers they came! | And he whistled, and shouted, and called them by name! | Now, Dasher! now, Dancer! now, Prancer! now, Vixen! | On, Comet! on, Cupid ! on, Donder and Blitzen -| To the top of the porch! to the top of the wall! | Now, dash away! dash away ! dash away, all!

• Leuc'tra, (luk’tra,) a town in Greece.

+ Mar'n-thon, a town in Greece, famous for the victory of Mlltiades over the l'erriana, 490 B C.

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