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3d. a broad; as in ball, dawn, fall, gall, haw, jaw, kaw, law, mall, gnaw, pall, raw, saw, tall, vault, wall, yawl, gauze, chalk, thaw, shawl, wharf.

4th. a short; as in' bat, dash, fat, gat, hat, jam, cat, lad, mat, nap, pat, rat, sat, tan, van, wax, yam, azoth, chap, sang, thank, that, shall, whack.

5th. ē long; as in be, deep, feet, geese, he, jeer, key, lee, me, need, pete, reel, see, teem, veer, we, ye, zeal, cheer, theme, thee, she, wheel.

6th. e short; as in bet, den, fen, get, hen, jet, ken, let, met, net, pet, rest, set, ten, vex, wet, yet, zed, check, theft, then, shed, when.

7th. i long; as in bite, dine, fine, guide, hive, gibe, kite, line, mine, nine, pine, ripe, site, tine, vine, wine, size, chime, thigh, thine, shine, white.

8th. i short ; as in bit, din, fin, gimp, hit, jib, kit, lit, mix, nit, pin, rip, sit, tin, vill, wit, zinc, chin, sing, thin, with, shin, whit.

9th. Ō long; as in bolt, dome, foe, go, hole, joke, coke, lone, mote, note, pole, rope, sole, tone, rote, wove, yoke, zone, choke, thole, those, shoal.

10th. ö middle; as in boot, do, food, goom, hoot, coop, lose, move, noose, pool, roost, soup, too, woo, ooze, cartouch, tooth, booth, shoe.

11th. o short; as in bot, dot, fox, got, hot, jot, cot, lot, mop, not, pop, rot, sot, top, novel, wot, yon, zocco, chop, song, thong, pother, shot, whop.

12th. ū long; as in bugle, due, fume, gula, hue, june, cue, lute, mute, nude, pule, rule, sue, tune, yule, zumic, truth, sure.*

13th. u short; as in but, dust, fun, gun, hut, just, cull, lull, must, nut, pun, rut, sup, tun, vulgar, yug, buzz, chub, bung, thumb, thus, shut, whur.

• In the words, rule, truth. sure, Worcester sounds the u the same as o in mone.

14th. u middle; as in bush, pudding, full, sugar, could, bull, pull, puss, put, would, butcher, should.

15th. ou and ow; as in bow, down, fowl, gout, how, jounce, cow, loud, mount, noun, pout, rout, south, town, vouch, wound, chouse, mouth, thou, shout.


Combination of Elementary Sounds, - Continued. RULE 3. In pronouncing the combinations of the Bub-vocals and aspirates, great care must be taken, that their sounds may not be slurred nor suppressed.

3. Table of Combinations of Sub-Vocals and Aspirates. Note. This table embraces a great variety of the combinations of the sub-vocals and aspirates. It is recommended, that the class pronounce them individually and in concert. The italic letters denote the combinations whose elements are to be clearly and distinctly uttered.

1. Probe, probes, prob’d, prob'dst, prob'st ; bubble, bubbles, bubb'ld, bubbl'dst, bubbl'st; brine, bright; fledge, fledg'd; cradle, cradles, cradl'd, cradl'dst, cradl'st.

2. Glad, gladdn, gladdns, glad!'n'd; dream, drive; amid, amidst ; breadth, breadths ; deeds, weeds; baffle, baffles, baffl'd, baffl'dst, baffl'st.

3. Stiff, stiff”n, stiff"'ns, stiff"n'd; friend, phrensy; whiffs, puffost ; fifth, fifths ; lift, lifts, lift'st; dig, digs, digg’d, digg’dst, digg'st.

4. Glee, gleam; mingle, mingles, mingl’d, mingl'dst, mingl'st; grain, grief; clan, cliff; sparkle, sparkles, sparkld, sparkl’dst, sparklost; black, black’n, black'ns, black'nd, black’n’dst.

QUESTIONS. What is rule third, respecting the combinations of the sub-vocals and aspirates? What do the letters in italics denote? Pronounce the words in the first example. Articulate the combinations in italics. Pronounce the words In the second example, etc.

5. Crime, crick; rock, rocks, rock'st, rock'dst; act, acts, act'st ; bulb, bulbs; hold, holds, hold'st; twelfth, bilge, bilgd; milk, milks, milk'dst; whelm, whelms, whelm'd, whelm'st.

6. Help, helps, help’st, help'dst; false, fall’st; health, healths ; melt, melts, meltst; solve, solves, solv'd, solv'st; feels, wheels; seems, seem'd, seem'st, seem'dst; triumph, triumphs.

7. Thump, thumps, thump'st; prompt, prompts, prompt'st; bend, bends, bend'st; wing, wings, wing'd, wing'st; thank, thank'st, thank’dst ; range, rang'd; mince, minc'dst; Ainch, flinch'dst.

8. Month, months; wants, want'st ; man's, plans; ripple, rippl's, rippld, rippl'dst, rippl’st; deep'n, deep'ns; prince prance; hopes, hop'st, hopd; depth, depths ; curb, curbs, curb'd, curb'dst, curb'st.

9. Guard, guards, guard'st ; dwarf, dwarfs ; urge, urg'd; mark, marks, mark'd, mark'dst, mark'st ; furl, furls, furl'd, furl'st ; form, forms, form’st, form’d, form’dst ; scorn, scorns, scorn'd, scorn’dst, scorn’st.

10. Harp, harps, harp'dst; pierce, pierc'dst; burst, bursts; hurt, hurts, hurt'st; hearth, hearths ; march, march'dst; curve, curv'd, curv'st, curv'dst ; spears, spheres, shrill, skill; bask, basks, bask'st, bask'dst.

11. Nestle, nestles, nestl'st ; list'n, list'ns, list'n'd, list'n'st; spar, spleen, spray; lisp, lisps, lisp'st; stand, strand; rest, rests, rest'st ; length, lengths, length'n, length'n'd, length'n'dst ; thrive, writhe, writhes, writh'd, writh'st; rattle, rattles, rattl'd, rattlst, rattl'dst.

12. Sweet'n, sweetns, sweetn’d; watch, watch’st, watch’dst ; shouts, shout'st ; crav'd, crav'dst; rav'l, rav'ls, rav'ld; sev'n, sev'ns, sev'nth ; waves, wav'st, gaz'd; puzzle, puzzles, puzzld, puzzl'dst, puzzl'st; reas'n, reas'ns, reas'n'd, reas'n'st.



A SUBSTITUTE is a single letter, or two or more letters, used to represent an elementary sound which is peculiar to some other letter.

It will be seen, by the following table, that the number of substitutes is not so large as might at first be supposed. We believe and maintain, that in all cases where two or more letters are used as a substitute, they collectively represent an elementary sound which is not peculiar to any one of them, when taken by itself, but to some other letter. Thus, we regard ai, in said, as a substitute for short e, because they represent the element of short e, which is not peculiar to either of the letters. If the element in question is peculiar to any one of the letters used to represent it, we regard that letter alone the representative of the element, and the others as silent.

Thus, eo in people, is not a substitute for long e, because the element heard in the pronunciation, is peculiar to the letter e alone, and the o is silent.

The careless and inexperienced reader is also liable to fall into another error on this subject. It arises from his faulty articulation of some of the vowel sounds in unaccented syllables; whereby the obscure sound of such letters is so far perverted, as to lead him to mistake them for substitutes. There should be a proper discrimination here, and all errors of this kind should be carefully avoided.

RULE 4. When substitutes are used, they must have the same sounds as the elements for which they stand.

QUESTIONS. What is a substitute ? What combination of letters may be regarded as substitutes ? What combinations should not be regarded as substitutes ? What other error should be carefully avoided ? What is the rule respecting substitutes ?

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4. Table of Substitutes Note. The following is a list of letters frequently used as substitutes to represent several of the elements as given in the first table. The learner should first name the substitute, dext the element it represents, and then the example in which it is combined. Thus, ei is a substitute for a (long a), as in the word peil, etc.

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