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5. Table of Combinations of the Substitutes. NOTE. In this table, the different substitutes are variously combined in words, which the teacher may first require the pupil to pronounce, and then to point out the substitutes, and give the elements for which they stand.

1. Veil, feint, weight, deign; they, prey, survey, obey; oft, for, nor, cord; cough, trough, bought, ought; marine, machine, police, fatigue; any, many; said, again.

2. Bury, buried, burial; spy, fly, type, tyrant; hymn, hysteric, hypocrite; English, Englishman, England; been ; women; busy, busily, business ; sew, shew, shewn.

3. Beau, bateau, bureau ; hautboy, hauteur, hautgout; what, wad, squad, squander; mew, pew, dew ; view, purview, interview ; nation, passion, religion.

4. Luncheon, pigeon, surgeon; myrtle, myrmidon, myrrh ; her herd, perch; sir, stir, fir, bird ; son, won, love ; blood, flood; wolf, wolfish, wolverine.

5. Wool, wood, stood ; how, owl, bower; suasion, suavity, suaviter; one, once; onion, valiant, collier; union, figure, stature; phrase, cipher, graphic.

6. Laugh, tough, enough ; soldier, soldierlike; gem, ginger, gypsum; cat, scope, arc; chord, scholar, monarch; hough, lough, shough ; quart, quirk, quibble.

7. Cent, dice, facile; of; Stephen ; suffice, sacrifice, sice, discern ; his, prism, usurper; Xanthus, xiphoid, xanthid ; wax, aris, expense.

8. Choir, choir-service; sink, anger, languid ; ocean, social, specious; sure, sugar, pension; chaise, chamois, machine;

QUESTIONS. What does the table of substitutes embrace? How is it to be used ? What are the substitutes for long a? What are the substitutes for broad a, etc. ? What is the design of exercise second ? How is the table to be studied ? Pronounce the first eight words in the first example. What are the substitutes in these worde? What element do they represent ? Pronounce the next eight words, etc.

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nation, partial, patient; bastion, question ; osier, crosier, usual; exact, example, exist.





ARTICULATION. RULE 1. Avoid suppressing letters in pronunciation; as, Pr-mote for pro-mote; an for and; beas for beasts ; sud-dn for sud-den; mod-l for mod-el, etc.

PRONOUNCE THE FOLLOWING. — Prevent, propose, proceed, predict; stand, bands, hindmost ; posts, texts, cents; mitten, mountain, satin; travel, gospel, level.

RULE 2. Avoid substituting the sound of one letter for that of another; as, Reg-e-lar for reg-u-lar; gin-er-al for gen-e-ral, etc.

PRONOUNCE THE FOLLOWING. — Populous, educate, stimulate, calculate, occupy, diligence, elegance, particular, difficult, system, opposite, gentleman, yesterday, agony, omnipotent, advocate.

RULE 3. Avoid suppressing syllables in pronunciation; as, His-try for his-to-ry; rith-me-tic for a-rithme-tic, etc.

PRONOUNCE THE FOLLOWING. — Reference, sufferance, interest, every, slavery, literature, temperance, geography, foliage, utterance, library, memory, vigorous, misery, believe, ivory.

RULE 4. Avoid pronouncing ow like er; as, Feler for fel-low, etc.

PRONOUNCE THE FOLLOWING. — Billow, mellow, willow, pil low, follow, swallow, yellow, harrow, sparrow, window, shadow, shallow, hollow, narrow, arrow, furrow.

QUESTIONS. What is the first special rule in articulation? Give the examples. Pronounce the words under it. What is rule second, etc.?

RULE 5. Avoid pronouncing ing like in; as, Learn-in for learn-ing, etc.

PRONOUNCE THE FOLLOWING. Singing, talking, walkiny: calling, hunting, blooming, whipping, jumping, playing, trying, binding, changing, turning, twisting, drawing, burning.

RULE 6. Avoid pronouncing ment like munt; as, Judg-munt for judg-ment, etc.

PRONOUNCE THE FOLLOWING. Casement, basement, fragment, moment, shipment, lodgment, treatment, department, interment, abatement, indictment, preferment, presentment, detachment, retrenchment.

RULE 7. Avoid pronouncing ness and less like niss and liss; as, Kind-niss for kind-ness; harm-liss for harm-less, etc.

PRONOUNCE THE FOLLOWING. Coolness, harshness, coarseness, fierceness, sharpness, rudeness, rashness, boldness, helpless, i omeless, sleepless, faithless, groundless, cashless, tearless, aoughtless.

RULE 8. An imperfect utterance of the sub-vocals and aspirates, or joining the last letter of a word with the one following, frequently changes or perverts the meaning of a sentence, and should be carefully avoided.

The correct reading is given in the first line of each of the following examples; and the incorrect reading or error is marked in the second.



{ .

They were content in either place.


QUESTIONS. What is rule eighth, or the rule for the imperfect utterance of the sub-vocals oto. What is the error in the first example ?

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$ The magistrates ought to arrest the man.
The magistrate sought to arrest the man.

This is John's stove, not Jonathan's stove. 4.

This is John Stove not Jonathan Stove.


The hidden ocean showed itself anew.
The hidden notion showed itself anew.


{ Have you built arnice house?

NOTE 1. The immediate succession of similar sounds, and the collision * of open vocals, occasion difficult utterance.


1. The biggest beams bend beneath their burden.
2. The lame, lazy lad limps on languidly.
3. They shot sharply into the ship's shrouds.
4. The wind whistles through the thistles.
5. Loud echoes rolled round the hills' tops.
6. The men moved moderately to the mown meads.
7. A loud roar rang round the riven rocks.
8. Deep toned notes rolled over the wide waters.
9. Diverse divers dive deep for precious pearls.
10. Many men make much money wrongfully.
11. Peter Pringle picks prickly pears prettily.
12. We wistfully watch the wrathful waters play.
13. The roaring lion leaves his lonely lair.
14. When Ajax strives some rock's vast weight to throw.
15. And in soft silence shed the kindly shower.

16. The man of talents hates stupidity, and struggles throug! difficulties severe.

QUESTIONS. What is the error in the second example, etc.? What is noto first, or the note for the immediate succession of similar sounds, etc.? What sounds are similar in the first example? In the second, etc.?

• In the Greek and French languages, a sub-vocal or aspirate is frequently in serted to prevent the meeting of two vocals.

17. And where the finest streams through tangled forests stray, E'en there the wildest beasts steal forth


prey. 18. Amidst the mists he thrusts his fists against the posts, and still insists he sees the ghosts.

19. The ragged rascal ran round and round the rough and rugged rocks that rear their hoary heads high in the air.

20. Tho' oft the ear the open vowels tire.

NOTE 2. The remoteness of accent sometimes occasions difficulty in giving the correct pronunciation of polysyllables.

EXAMPLES. In-con-sid'-er-a-ble-ness. In-hos-pi-ta-ble-ness. Dis-in'-ter-ested-ly. Dis-in'-te-gra-ble. Dis-ap-pro-ba-to-ry. Com-men'-su-rable-ness. In-im'-i-ta-bly. Ad-min'-is-tra-tive. Per-me-a-bly. Per-fo-ra-tive. Ex'e-cra-to-ry. Per-i-to-ne'-um.



[In this practical exercise on the preceding tables, especially the first and fourth, the class may be required to give the elementary sounds of the letters printed in italics, as they occur in the different words, and also the names of the different elements which they represent.]

1. There is implanted in the human bosom a desire for reputation, - a love of fame; but, of all reputations, that of the scholar and good author is the most permanent and satisfactory. The scholar alone is in the possession of a substan

QUESTIONS. What is note second? Pronounce the examples. How may the general exercise be studied? What is the letter a in the word implanted in the first line? What sound has it? Give its element. What is b in the word bosom? Give its element. What is s in the word desire ? What element does it represent, etc.?

The reading lessons in Part First, are introduced for the purpose of making a practical application of the rules and principles of elocution, and also to suggest the manh« of teaching Part Second. A part of each lesson is marked, to show the application of the rule under which it occurs, and a part is left unmarked, for the purpose of exercising the judgment of the pupils in making the application for themselves

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