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tial good in his well-disciplined intellect, which can never be wrested from him in time, and is proof against the fluctuations and changes which characterize all other temporal means of happiness.
2. In whose praise is the historian most eloquent and fervid? The name of Erasmus,* the scholar, has come down to us, through the lapse of many years, laden with honor ; and Milton † and Shakspeare will live, aye, live forever ! while the sovereigns whose courts they adorned, will be remembered only as their patrons.
3. The life of the student, however, is not one of ease; and he who expects the paths to science to be smooth and beautiful, and adorned solely with bright flowers which continually spread their fragrant forms before him, must not enter it; for though there may be many roses, still there are harassing thorns ; and though gorgeous prospects shine in the distance, rocks must be scaled before they can be reached. Thus, it was a happy conceit of some old master, in representing the temple of science imbosomed among lofty cliffs and precipices, to indicate the difficulty of access. There is, however, attendant upon the acquisition of knowledge, and in its possession, the most refined pleasures.
4. Tully,$ in his eloquent defense of the poet Archias,|| makes mention of his pleasures in letters, and says, “ They give strength in youth, and joy in old age; adorn prosperity, and are the support and consolation of adver
* E-ras’mus, a distinguished scholar of the fifteenth century. He was born at Rotterdam, Holland, in 1467, and died in 1536, aged sixty-nine.
† Mil'ton, one of the greatest of the English poets, born in 1608, and died in 1674, aged sixty-six.
1 Shaks'peare, the greatest dramatic poet, not only of England, but of the world. He was born at Stratford, England, in 1564, and died on the anniversary of his birth, 1616, aged fifty-two.
Tully, (Tullius Cicero,) the most distinguished of the Roman orators, born 106, B. C.
| Archi-as, a Grecian poet, born at Antioch in Syria about 120, B. C.
sity; at home they are delightful, and abroad they are easy; and in our rural retirement they do not forsake us.”
5. These pleasures are continually increasing as the sensi. bility becomes refined, and the fields of investigation widen before the student. A man of good reading, whose mind is well-disciplined, is never in want of occupation, though he may be in a bustling city, or a sterile desert.
6. It is related of Mungo Park,* that, having traveled over the parched sands of Africa for several successive days, without food to nourish his body, or water to cool his burning thirst — wearied and faint, without sufficient energy to endure his oppressive journey - he fell on the ground exhausted, expecting death as a relief. At this moment, a small cluster of rare and beautiful flowers attracted his attention. The pleasure of this discovery gave him new strength ; and, busied in a botanical analysis of the plants, he forgot his sickness and fatigue, and much refreshed, he bent his steps to the diamond spring, of the existence of which the flowers were indicative.
7. Sir Walter Raleigh,f one of the brightest ornaments of Queen Elizabeth's † court, experienced the consolations of study, when, through the machinations of his enemies, he was imprisoned. This chivalric knight, scholar, and patron of the arts and sciences, wasted twelve years of his life in a dungeon! During that time he gave himself to literary pursuits.
8. He wrote a volume of his history of the world, a work of much erudition. He studied the writings extant on the subject of chemistry and natural history, and composed
Mun'go Park, an enterprising traveler, who fell a victim to his repeated attempts to explore the interior of Africa.
† Sir Wal’ter Raleigh, a distinguished warrior, statesman, and writer of Eng. land, in the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and James I.
Queen E-liza-beth, one of England's most celebrated sovereigns. She reigned forty-four years, or from 1558 to 1602. She was the daughter of Henry VIII. and Anu: Bolen.
several treatises on navigation. At times, also, he gave himself to the delights of poesy and polite literature. Thus, though his body was confined, his spirit was free; and, though the iron pierced his physical frame, it wounded not his soul.
9. You, then, who are deluded from the paths of science and literature, by the glory and advantages of the world, remember, that his fame is noblest “whose works, like the precious life-blood of some master-spirit, are embalmed and treasured up for a life beyond life.”
ACCENT is a forcible utterance of some one syllable in a word, so as to distinguish it from others. It is marked thus ('); as in mer'chant.
The beauty and harmony of pronunciation depend very much upon accent; hence, however perfect the articulation may be, if the accent is misplaced, an unpleasant harshness is produced which detracts from the beauty of expression.
In the correct application of accent, the sense requires a greater or less degree of force, and a greater or less prolongation of sound, on the accented syllable.
The following explanations, under the head of Quantity, are introduced, in order to present these characteristic modifications of accentuation more fully.
QUESTIONS. What is accent? How is it marked? What depend very much upon it?
What does the sense require in the correct application of accent!
QUANTITY. QUANTITY, as applied to syllables, denotes both the relative time, and the relative force or stress in pronouncing them.
1. Quantity, with reference to the relative prolongation of sound in the utterance of successive syllables, is either long or short; as in the word hy-põ-thět'-ic-ăl-lý. This is commonly denominated syllabic quantity.
2. A syllable is said to be long, when the accent falls on a vowel whose sound does not readily flow into the following letter; as in hate'ful, cham'ber, solely.
3. A syllable is said to be short, when the accent falls on a consonant, and the vowel sound at once coalesces with the succeeding letter; as in better, lav'ish, supʻper.
1. Quantity in relation to Time. Syllables, when considered in relation to their time of utterance, are called Immutable, Mutable, and Indefinite.
1. An immutable syllable is one in which a short vowel is followed by the aspirate, k, p, ort, under accent, and cannot be protracted in utterance without violating good taste, and all acknowledged authority on pronunciation; as in aksron, ep'ic, ot'ter.
2. A mutable syllable is one ending with a sub-vocal, or some other aspirate besides k, p, or t, and may be more or less protracted in pronunciation; as in ab'sence, rash'ness.
Note. An immutable syllable usually becomes mutable, when the vowel is preceded by a sub-vocal; as in gratitude.
QUESTIONS. What does quantity denote as applied to syllables ? What is said of quantity with reference to the relative prolongation of successive syllables ? Give an example. What is this commonly called ? When is a syllable said to be long? When short? What are syllables called when considered in relation to time? What is an immutable syllable? What is a mutable syllable? When does an im mutable syllable usually become mutable ?
3. An indefinite syllable is one which ends with a long vowel, or a long vowel followed by a sub-vocal, and may be protracted or not, in its pronunciation, as will best secure the effect which the speaker designs to produce; as in shameful, dan'ger.
2. Quantity in relation to Stress. Quantity in relation to stress, denotes the location of the greatest force of voice on the vowel sound of accented syllables; and regards it as more intense at the beginning, middle, or end, or at more than one of these points.
The following examples, illustrating the different kinds of stress, are not only of great value in training the voice, but are highly practical; since there is scarcely an accented syllable in any sentence, which, if forcibly pronounced, does not exemplify some one of these forms so indispensable to good reading and speaking. It is, therefore, of the utmost importance, that every pupil should become familiar with the peculiar characteristics and significance of each, and its skillful execution. These characteristics are appropriately represented to the eye, by the accompanying drawings, which indicate the movement of the voice on the vowel sound of the accented syllable in the example, exemplifying each kind respectively. The utterance of the vocal elements, in the same manner, both singly and in combination with the sub-vocals and aspirates, will afford an excellent exercise for the voice, and should be often repeated, until the application of stress, in all its forms, becomes easy and familiar.
1. When the vowel sound of the accented syllable commences with a full or abrupt stress of voice, and gradually diminishes in force, which may occur on syllables of either long or short quantity, it is called the RADICAL STREss, and may be represented to the eye and illustrated thus :
QUESTIONS. What is an indefinite syllable? What is meant by force, or stress of voice? Is it important to understand and apply it judiciously? What is recommended as an excellent exercise ? What is the radical stress? Give an exam.