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Note 1. The radical stress is employed in giving utterance to the language of confidence, and of all the violent and startling emotions; as of anger, fear, impetuous conrage, impassioned command, exultation, and the like; and usually in all language, requiring a rapid movement. It may occur either on immutable, mutable, or indefinite syllables.
1. Hold there, the other quick replies,
”T is green, I saw it with these eyes.
green, 't is GREEN, sir, I assure ye,
Be the combat our own!
2. When the vowel sound of the accented syllable commences with slight force, and gradually swells to a full volume, and closes with an abrupt suspension of the voice, which may occur on syllables of either long or short quantity, it is called the Final Stress, and may be illustrated thus :
NOTE 2. The final stress is employed in the utterance of language expressive of ill-humor; as of fretful impatience, peevishness, complaint, obstinacy, and the like; and also in earnest and hasty interrogation. It may occur either on immutable, mutable, or indefinite syllables.
1. This is intolerable! I could tear the scalp from my old brainless skull ! I'm cheated every way! I can't trust a farthing with the best friend I have on earth! I'll go this moment to an attorney, and get a warrant; I'll put the villain into jail before an hour is at an end.
QUESTIONS. What language requires the radical stress! Give an example. What is the final stress ? Give an example. What language requires the final stress? Give an example.
2. Am I Rome's slave? What penny hath Rome borne ?
What men provided ? What munition sent,
To underprop this action ? 3. When the vowel sound of the accented syllable com. mences with slight force, and gradually swells to a full volume in the middle, and then gradually subsides, which can only occur on syllables of long quantity, it is called the MEDIAN STRESS, and may be illustrated thus :
NOTE 3. The median stress is employed in the utterance of language or' gentle emotions, and of a lofty, sublime, and dignified character; and also in calm and reverential veneration and prayer. It occurs on indefinite syllables only.
1. Columbia, Columbia, to glory arise,
The queen of the world and the child of the skies;
While ages on ages thy splendors unfold. 2. O spare me, that I may recover strength, before I go hence, and be no more.
4. When a forcible stress of voice is given to the first and last parts of the vowel sound in the accented syllable, with but slight stress on the intermediate portion, which usually occurs on syllables of long quantity, it is called the ComPOUND STRESS, and may be illustrated thus :
NOTE 4. The compound stress is employed in the utterance of language of surprise; and frequently in impassioned interrogation. It occurs only on indefinite syllables.
QUESTIONS. What is the median stress ? Give an example. What language roquires the median stress ? Give an example. What is the compound stress 1 Give an example. What language requires the compound stress ?
1. Deeds! What! my deeds given up to your son
So good, so noble, and so true a master ?
5. When the vowel sound of the accented syllable is uniform during its prolongation, which may sometimes occur, it is called the THOROUGH Stress, and may be illustrated thus:
Note. 5. The through stress is employed in uttering the language of authoritative command; as when an officer of the army delivers his orders to his soldiers; and also in a loud shout attended with strong emotion. It may occur on mutable syllables; but it usually occurs on the indefinite.
The patriot sword unsheathe;
On liberty or death.
6. When the vowel sound of the accented syllable is uttered with a tremulous movement, which usually occurs in the expression of all those deep and exciting emotions which enfeeble the voice, as in fear, sorrow, grief, and sometimes in extreme joy, it is called the TREMOR, or INTERMITTENT STRESS.
1. Pity the sorrows of a poor old man.
QUESTIONS. Give an example of such language. What is the thorough stress ? Give an example. What language requires the thorough stress? Give an er. emple. What is the tremor or intermittent stress, and what emotions require it? Give an example.
RULE. Each syllable on which accent falls must be marked by its proper and distinctive stress.
If it is doubtful, in the mind of the pupil, which syllable of a word should have the greatest stress or force of utterance upon it,
reference must be made to the dictionary, in which the accented syllables are all marked.
NOTE. The meaning of a word is sometimes changed by changing the place of the accent.
(Let the student point out, or name each word in the following er. ercise, having the accent on the first syllable; as in Socʻra-tes, vi'o-lent, etc.)
1. Leander, the eldest son of Socrates,* fell into a violent passion with his mother. Socrates was witness to this shameful misbehavior, and attempted the correction of it, in the following gentle and rational manner:
2. “ Come hither, son,” said he ; “have you never heard of men who are called ungrateful?" "Yes, frequently," answered the youth. “ And what is ingratitude ? ” de
QUESTIONS. What is the general rule for accent? What is said in the note ? Give examples.
* Socʻra-tes, a celebrated heathen philosopher, born at Alopece, a village near Athens, 470 B.C., and who was put to death by the Athenians, on a false charge of atheism, 400 B.C.
manded Socrates. “ It is to receive a kindness,” said Le ander, “ without making a proper return, when there is a favorable opportunity.” “Ingratitude is, therefore, a species of injustice," said Socrates.
3. “I should think so," answered Leander. “ If, then," pursued Socrates, "ingratitude be injustice, does it not follow, that the degree of it must be proportionate to the magnitude of the favors which have been received ? ” Leander admitted the inference; and Socrates thus pursued his interrogations. “Can there subsist higher obligations than those which children owe to their parents, from whom life is derived and supported, and by whose good offices it is rendered honorable, useful, and happy ?”
4. “I acknowledge the truth of what you say," replied Leander, “but who could suffer, without resentment, the illhumors of such a mother as I have?” “What strange thing has she done to you?” said Socrates. “ She has a tongue," replied Leander, “ that no mortal can bear.” " How much more,” said Socrates, “ has she endured from your wrangling, fretfulness, and incessant cries, in the period of infancy! What anxieties has she suffered from the levities, capriciousness, and follies, of your childhood and youth! What afflic. tion has she felt, what toil and watching has she sustained, in your
illness! 5. “ These, and various other powerful motives to filial duty and gratitude, have been recognized by the legislators of our republic. For if any one be disrespectful to his parents, he is not permitted to enjoy any post of trust or honor. It is believed, that a sacrifice, offered by an impious hand, can neither be acceptable to heaven, nor profitable to the state; and that an undutiful son cannot be capable of performing any great action, or of executing justice with impartiality. Therefore, my son, if you be wise, you will pray to Heaven to pardon the offenses committed against your mother.