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SECTION 1.

SERIES.

A SERIES, in elocution, denotes the members of a compound sentence; and hence, it is a succession of particulars, consisting of words, or clauses, connected by a conjunction expressed or understood.

Mr. Walker introduces and illustrates the series under the following general heads: A Simple Series, A Compound Series, and A Series of Series.

1. A SIMPLE SERIES. A simple series is a succession of particulars, consisting of two or more single words in the same construction.

EXAMPLES.

1. Time and tide wait for no man.
2. Pride and vanity are twin sisters.

3. Humanity, justice, and generosity, are noble traits of character. 4. Stage actors counterfeit love, anger, fear, and aversion.

2. A COMPOUND SERIES. A compound series consists of two or more phrases, or members of the same sentence, succeeding each other in such connection and dependence, as to render the sense of the whole complete.

EXAMPLES.

1. A good moral character, and a sound education, with habits of industry, quality men for eminent usefulness.

2. The temper, the sentiments, the morality, and, in general, the whole conduct and character of men, are influenced by the example of others.

QUESTIONS. What is a series in elocution? How many kinds of series are here llustrated, and what are they called ? What is a simple series ? Give an example A compound series ?

3. A SERIES OF SERIES. A series of series consists of two or more simple particulars, connected with two or more compound particulars, and all so united, as to form but one sentence, complete in sense.

EXAMPLES. 1. Those evil spirits, who, by long custom, have contracted in the body, habits of sensuality, malice, and revenge, and an aversion to every thing that is good, just, and laudable, are naturally seasoned and prepared for pain and misery.

2. He, who pretends to great sensibility toward men, and yet has no feeling for the high objects of religion, no heart to admire and adore the great Father of the universe, has reason to distrust the truth and delicacy of his sensibility.

The several series, as above illustrated, are, with reference to their position in a sentence, called Commencing or Concluding Series.

1. A Commencing Series. A commencing series is one which begins a sentence, but does not, of itself, render it complete in

It is shown by brackets.

sense.

EXAMPLES.

1. [George Washington, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson,] were the first three Presidents of the United States.

2. [The splendor of retinue, the sound of titles, and the appearances of high respect,] are, indeed, soothing for a short time.

2. A Concluding Series. A concluding series is one which closes a sentence, and completes the sense of the whole, as shown by the brackets.

QUESTIONS. What is a series of series? Give an example. What is a series called when reference is made to its position in a sentence? What is a commenc. ing series? Give an example. What is a concluding series?

EXAMPLES.

1. Belief in the existence of a God, is (the great incentive to duty, and the great source of consolation.]

2. His display has reflected [the highest honor on himself, luster upon letters, renown upon Parliament, and glory upon the country.]

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The general division of sentences into simple and compound, and the different kinds of series in sentential structure, have been fully illustrated on the preceding pages; at the same time, however, sentences in themselves, or their component parts, may differ from each other in the following general particulars; and hence, they are denominated Affirmative, Negative, Conditional, Interrogative, and Exclamatory.

1. AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE SENTENCES. An affirmative sentence asserts or declares what exists, and is the exact opposite of a negative one, which contains or implies a denial.

EXAMPLES.

1. Single Affirmative.
1. The Romans were a brave people.
2. Cæsar conquered Gaul.
3. Virtue is a shining ornament.
4. Titus, a Roman general, took Jerusalem.
5. An honest man is the noblest work of God.
6. The empire of our king has been invaded.

QUESTIONS. Give an example of a concluding series. In what other particulars may sentences differ from each other? What is an affirmative sentence? What is * Degative sentence? Give an example of a single affirmative sentence.

2. Single Negative.
1. Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not lie.
2. The depth of the ocean is not known.
3. It is not wise to meddle with other men's matters.
4. Wealth alone will not make men happy.
5. The stars are not opaque bodies.
6. The sun is not so far from us as the stars.

3. Single Affirmative and Negative. 1. The year has past and will not return. 2. He went to Europe and has not come back. 3. Some men claim honors which they do not merit. 4. It is a sin to be vicious, but not to be poor. 5. Bonaparte invaded Russia, but did not conquer it. 6. Death destroys the body, but cannot impair the soul.

4. Successive Affirmatives. 1. Religion, morality, and virtue, render men happy in all ages, in all countries, and in all climes.

2. The heavens are clear; the red glare of the morning sun gleams through the lower branches of the lofty trees; and the dew hangs in pearly drops on every leaf.

3. I builded me houses; I planted me vineyards; I made me gardens.

5. Successive Negatives. 1. The sun did not shine; the moon did not shed her light; the stars were not seen, nor was any portion of clear sky visible.

2. The race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favor to the men of skill.

3. The tree which does not blossom in the spring, cannot furnish fruit in autum.

6. Successive Affirmatives and Negatives. 1. The General visited Boston, and went to New York; but he did not go to Philadelphia, nor to Washington city.

QUESTIONS. Give an example of a single negative. Give an example of a single affirmative and negative. Of successive affirmatives. Of successive negatives

2. Hannibal passed through Gaul, crossed the Alps, came down into Italy, and defeated several Roman generals; but he could not conquer the country, nor take the city of Rome.

3. When the northern barbarians poured down upon the fertile plains of Italy, and desolated the country with fire and sword, the Romans had become so effeminate, they were not able to withstand their enemy, protect their capital, or even save their noble works of art from a general destruction.

7. Indiscriminate occurrence of Affirmative and Negative Clauses

The blind are deprived of numberless sources of pleasure, common to the human family, although not wholly shut out from the external world. The sun shines, but they behold it not; the stars gild the evening sky, but their beauty is not seen; the green grass spreads a soft carpet for their feet, but they perceive not its richness; the flowers unfold their delicate colors, but their eyes receive no delight; the gorgeous rainbow spans the heavens, but they are unconscious of its beautiful hues; they hear the sweet music of birds, but cannot witness their graceful sports on the wing; they behold not the golden harvest, waving before the gentle wind, nor the forest, bending before the blast; they perceive not, nor can they have an adequate conception of the grandeur of mountain scenery, nor the exquisite beauty of the broad landscape.

2. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. A conditional sentence is one involving a supposition wherein nothing is positively affirmed or denied, independently of such circumstances as are therewith connected. The condition may be confined to a single clause, or extended to two or more.

EXAMPLES.

1. A Single Condition.
1. If health permit, I shall ride out.
2. If there should be no rain, the grass would soon wither.

What is a conditional sentence ?

Give examples of a single

QUESTIONS. condition.

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