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5. Is character valuable? On this point, I will not insult you with argument. There are certain things, to argue which, is treason against nature. · The Author of our being did not intend to leave this point afloat at the mercy of opinion; but, with his own hand, he has kindly planted in the soul of man an instinctive love of character. This high sentiment has no affinity to pride. It is the ennobling quality of the soul; and, if we have hitherto been elevated above the ranks of surrounding creation, human nature owes its elevation to the love of character.

6. It is the love of character for which the poet has sung, the philosopher toiled, the hero bled. It is the love of character which wrought miracles in ancient Greece ;* the love of character is the eagle on which Rome † rose to empire ; and it is the love of character, animating the bosom of her sons, on which America must depend in those approaching crises that may “try men's souls.” Will a jury weaken this, our nation's hope? Will they, by their verdict, pronounce to the youth of our country, that character is scarce worth possessing? No, gentlemen, no; never, never!



NOTE. Clauses of this kind are subject to the same rules that havn been given under Antithetic Emphasis, when applied to single words.

QUESTION. How should antithetic emphatic clauses be read?

* Greece, (proper,) an ancient country, which included all of modern Greece, and a portion of the southern part of Turkey in Europe. In 332 B. O., it was the third universal empire in the world.

Rome, an ancient city, situated nearly on the site of modern Rome, in Italy The Roman empire once embraced most of the eastern world as then known.


1. The robber of character plunders that which not enriches him, but makes his neighbor poor

indeed. 2. I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me LIBERTY, or give me — DEATH.

3. Tell your sovereign, sir, I am poor and penniless; but with all the wealth of his KINGDOM, he cannot make me false to my country. I boast not of my influence over the minds of the peo ple; but I GLORY in my unshaken fidelity to the cause of independence.


1. But youth, it seems, is not my only crime. I have been accused of acting a THEATRICAL part.

2. Is it that you would fight Austria for us? No; a thousand times, No. Take away the prestige of Russian aid, and I, strong in the confidence of my people, will CRUSA it in one single battle, as I crush this



hand. 3. Be studious, and you will be learned; be industrious and frugal, and you may be rich; be sober and temperate, and you will be healthy ; be virtuous, and you will be happy.

4. We read of that philosophy, which can smile over the destruction of property; of that religion, which enables its possessor to extend the benign look of forgiveness and complacency to his murderers; but it is not in the soul of man to bear the lacerations of slander.

5. There was a time, then, my fellow-citizens, when the Lacedæmonians † were sovereign masters, both by sea and by land; while this state had not one ship – no, not one wall.

Pres'tige, illusion, fascination, charm, imposture.

Lac-e-dæ-mo'ni-an, a citizen of Sparta, or Lacedæmon, one of the most power ful of the states of ancient Greece.



AN INFLECTION is a modification of the voice in reading or speaking, commonly referring to the upward and downward slides.

There are four inflections, or modifications of the voice, besides the cadence ; namely, the Rising Inflection, Falling Inflection, Circumflex, and Monotone.

A mark inclining to the right (), denotes the rising inflection.
A mark inclining to the left (), denotes the falling inflection.
A curving mark (°), usually denotes the circumflex.
A horizontal mark ( - ), denotes the monotone.

It should be distinctly remembered, that, although each of the above marks, or characters, indicates an inflection of the voice, the same in kind, yet, in degree, intensity, and significant expressiveness, there is a great variety of shades. Any attempt, therefore, to give definite rules, touching the minor shades of modification, would rather perplex, than aid the learner. Good sense, correct taste, and a delicate ear, will ordinarily adapt the more graceful inflections to the spirit of the piece, in the best way, and in the most natural manner.

Definitions and Explanations. 1. The RISING INFLECTION is an upward turn or slide of the voice; as, Will you go to-dáy ?

2. The FALLING INFLECTION is a downward turn or slide of the voice; as, Where has he gone?

3. The CIRCUMFLEX is the union of the falling and

QUESTIONS. What is an inflection? What are the four inflections besides the cadence, which are used in reading? How is the rising inflection denoted ? How the falling? How the circumflex? the monotone ? What is said of the various minor shades of inflection? What is the rising inflection? What, the falling! What, the circumflex ?

rising inflections on the same syllable or word, producing a slight undulation or wave of the voice; as, Indeed! he is your friend, is he?

4. The MONOTONE is a protracted sameness of sound on successive syllables or words; as, High on a thrine of royal stāte.

5. A CADENCE is a fall of the voice below the key-note, or general pitch, and only occurs on the last syllable or word, at the end of a sentence; as,

Time is money,

The rising and falling inflections, the circumflex, and the cadence, together with their different degrees of intensity, which are always in proportion to the degree of emphatic stress given to the words on which they occur, may be represented to the eye by the following diagrams. The straight, horizontal lines represent the general pitch of the voice, in which a phrase or sentence is read; and the different lengths of the inclined lines and curves, represent the different degrees of intensity of the several inflections.

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From the first of the above diagrams, it will be seen that the voice, in the rising inflection, turns upward from the general pitch, and gradually rises to a height, proportioned to the required degree of emphasis ; and, in the falling, that it commences above the general pitch, at a height, proportioned to the degree of empha

QUESTIONS. What is the monotone? What, the cadence? What does the suhjoined diagrams represent? Explain them. What may be seen or learneu from the first? What, from the second !

sis required, and falls down to it, but not below, as in the cadence. These characteristics of the inflections and cadence, should be well understood by the pupil, and great care must be taken in reading and speaking, not to mistake one for another.

Note 1. The falling inflection, when attended with strong emphasis, is sometimes mistaken for the rising. If the learner is in doubt which has been employed, let him use the doubtful word in the form of a question, thus:

Did I say




NOTE 2. The circumflex, when slight, so nearly coincides with the rising inflection, that it is frequently mistaken for it; or the rising inflection, and sometimes the falling, is mistaken for the circumflex. When there is doubt which has been used, let the doubtful word be tested thus:


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NOTE 3. The cadence is sometimes mistaken for the falling inflection. The error consists in not commencing the falling inflection above the key, as required, and sliding down to it, but in commencing it on the key, and sliding below it, thus making a perfect cadence. Their correct reading may be represented thus:


All the

has gone



NOTE 4. The inflection always begins on the accented syllable of the emphatic word, and although the influence is perceptible throughout the entire clause or sentence in which it occurs, yet, for all practical purposes, it is necessary to mark those words only which are most emphatic.

QUESTIONS. When is the falling inflection sometimes mistaken for the rising ! When there is doubt which has been employed, how can the learner determine? For what is the circumflex sometimes mistaken? How may the doubtful word be tested? For what is the cadence sometimes mistaken? In what does the error •onsist? How is the correct reading illustrated? Where does an inflection begin n a sentence? How far does its influence extend? What words are usually darked?

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