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men before lie could be dislodged, stimulated the governor to the desperate effort which prevailed.
Mr. L. avows from the first, that he should deem it utterly superfluous to attempt another description of the majestic antiquities of Egypt, after what has been done by Denorr, Hamilton, and, above all, in the magnificent Description de VEgypte *. Accordingly, he has inserted but very slight passing notices of those grand objects. The rapid narration of the voyage to the cataracts, is meant far little more than to introduce the reader to the less frequented region, beyond Essouan.
Alexandria, it should seem, is not ill calculated for a characteristic entrance to a scene of ruins and desolation.
'The present walls of Alexandria, which were raised in the thirteenth century by the Saracens, are in some places forty feet high, and are flanked by one hundred towers; they inclose a circuit of nearly five miles, now for the most part a deserted space, covered with heaps of rubbish, and strewed over with the fragments of ancient buildings. Immediately around, the country is a desert, and produces absolutely nothing.'
A similar account to that of other travellers, it given of the dreadful surf on the bars of the Nile, at both the Rpsetta and Damietta outlets. Of the seven mouths by which the river formerly discharged itself into the Mediterranean, these are the only ones that are now navigable. 'The others, from neglect, *• or the gradual accumulation of detritus annually deposited in * the Delta, having been gradually filled up, are with difficulty 'to be traced.' The colour of this deified stream, at no time quite clear, is described as *a dirty red during the inundation, 1 which begins to take place about the end of June, continuing 4 to rise till the latter end of September, from which period to the 'following solstice it is gradually falling.'
During the voyage to Cairo, the travellers were most forcibly struck with the contrast between the prodigious fertility, of the country and the wretched appearance of the inhabitants. The great mass of the population of Egypt is stated to consist of, Arabs, with whom are intermingled Copts, and Albanian #oldiers.
At the time of their arrival at Cairo, Egypt was in a state of greater tranquillity than it had enjoyed for many years, owing to the vigorous administration of Mahomed Ali, the present Pasha, whose talents and enterprise, sustained by the ferocious
* Of which scarcely two thirds are as yet published. The whole work will cost, (even the common paper copies,) in London, very considerably more than two hundred pounds. The plates vrill be between eight and.nine hundred.
Valour of the Albanian troops, have rendered him in effect the sovereign of Egypt. All the Mamelukes he has driven away far beyond Essouan; while he has been a signal benefactor to the Grand Turk, and the Prophet, by expelling the Wahabees from the ' holy land' of the Moslems, the eastern coast of the Red Sea. We do not know whether he took any additional selfestimation for talent, in consequence of having made and executed with certain servants of the British government, a large contract for corn, on such terms and tinder such circumstances, that, says our Author, ' certainly no contract could have been 'made more disadvantageous to the British government.' He is laudably minute in stating the particulars of this affair, of some of the disgraceful circumstances of which he was an indignant witness,—disgraceful, we do not mean to the knowing and punctual Mahomedan.
The Pasha's permission and firman were obtained for the passage up the Nile, in which the Englishmen were accompanied by Mr. Barthow, an American, whose long residence in the country qualified him to act as interpreter.—The portico, which alone remains, of the temple of Hermopolis, was, after the Pyramids and Sphinx, the first grand monument which they inspected of the most ancient Egypt. In describing this most picturesque group of columns, Mr. L. takes occasion to qualify his just praise of the celebrated artist Denon, by the notice of a circumstance which is proper to be mentioned as an instance of that temerity which, we'understand, is too characteristic of the French draughtsmen in general.
* The views given by Denon of Egyptian monuments are, in general, highly creditable to the talents and zeal of that traveller; but his delineation of Hermopolis bespeaks the haste with which he travelled, and the rapid glimpse with which he was sometimes obliged to content himself: for the winged globe he has represented on the frieze, does not exist in the original.' p. 36.
And as if it were not enough to hazard, in perfect ignorance, the introduction of the emblem at all, it is introduced double. Major Hayes's sketch, being actually and faithfully drawn on the spot, shews no such emblem; it exhibits, besides, a mueh more irregular and abraded surface of the columns.
At Menshieh, a little to the north of Thebes, occurred the only outrage which the travellers have to revenge on the land of Egypt. While they were smoking their pipes, on the outside of their cangia, an Albanian soldier who was passing up the river, directed his musket towards the boat, and fired with aii aim so accurate, that the ball passed close to Mr. Legh's head, went through the dragoman's hat, and touched Mr. Smelt's arm. An application to a Turkish commandant obtained no redress: he was very likely tempted to wonder and to murmur at that malice of fate by which the infidels had been preserved.
At Essouan, they admired the wild and magnificent aspect of the grand chasm of the Nile through the rocky mountain ridge which forms the barrier between Egypt and Nubia. And here they had to deliberate whether they should venture any further, since the Pasha's firman not only could not protect them beyond this acknowledged limit of his dominion, but expressly forbade them to exceed it. Besides, the reports collected by the French, respecting the people on these upper regions of the Nile, were to the effect of representing them as most jealously unfriendly to strangers. Nevertheless, their repeated inquisitive conversations with the dirty Arab Shekh of Essouan, etermined them to the adventure, in which he promised that his son should accompany them; and after a few days spent chiefly in admiring the beauty of the island of Elephantine, and the crowded magnificence of the temples on that of Philae, of which the inhabitants appeared much more savage than any Arabs they had yet met with, they resumed their navigation toward the south, in a smaller boat, leaving their Swiss servant in charge of their baggage, at what are called the Cataracts, by which imposing denomination they are in danger of being made somewhat ridiculous.
'We were at the Cataracts,' says Mr. L. 'at the tiaie of year, when the fall is the greatest, and certainly witnessed nothing which warrants the glowing colours in which they have been so often described. Perhaps a tolerably correct idea will be formed of the real appearance of these falls, by the mention of the fact, that the boys of the neighbouring huts would at any time, for the reward of a para, dive into the most rapid cascade, when, after disappearing for a few Seconds, their heads were again seen above the water, at the distance of forty or fifty yards below. They were in the constant habit of diving also for the purpose of catching fish.' p. 53.
Though veryconsiderableanxiety necessarily attended the enterprise, the travellers had sufficiently ascertained that some of the chief causes which had in former times rendered such a progress up the Nile into Nubia difficult and hazardous, and sometimes quite impracticable, (as in the case of Mr. Browne,) had been removed. The country was no longer in a disturbed state, the Mamelukes had retired far to the south, and the Barabras, (the people of Nubia,) though they did not acknowledge any subjection to the Pasha, were at peace with the government of Egypt. The desire to be at peace with so vigorous a neighbour, had its due effect in favour of the adventurers, on their reaching, at the distance of about twenty miles above Essouan, the first camp of Nubians, consisting of about four hundred persons. When they were sure that the Cachefl* or chief could not read Turkish, they produced their firman, written in that language, and persuaded him, says our Author, 'that it contained a permission 'from the Pasha of Egypt to penetrate as far as we pleased 'above the Cataracts' Independently, however, of the effect of this deception, the chief and his people manifested a disposition with which the Englishmen had great reason to be pleased. And the inhabitants generally, were soon found to have a manner strongly contrasted with that suspiciousness of mischief, which had been found universal among the inhabitants of Upper Egypt, a consequence of ill-treatment experienced from the Turks.
Passing a succession of villages and ruins,the strangers reachDehr, which, though a somewhat populous district rather than a town, may be regarded as the capital of Nubia. It is the residence of Hassan Cachetf, a person the most related to the fraternity of monarch* of any man in Nubia. They arrived at the time of the festivities in honour of an addition made, by what was called a marriage, to the harem of this personage. The populace, who had never seen Europeans before, were full of wonder and curiosity, but quite pacific, though many of them in that state which is extremely apt to endanger the king's peace in other countries. But on the Head of the State himself, the same cause had produced such effect, that when, after a number of hours, he came, accompanied with some of his officers, to see the foreigners, those foreigners were put in some doubt of the trutli of the maxim, that the highest rank necessarily ensures the most liberal qualities He interrogated them boisterously, and flatly refused them the permission they asked of proceeding forward to Ibrim.
'We began even to repent,' says our Author, * of our rashness in having put ourselves in the power of a man whom we found surrounded by more than 300 armed negro slaves, ready to execute any order of capricious cruelty which he might give in his present state of intoxication.'
Next day, however, between sobriety on the one side and forthcoming presents on the other, times mended very. much. His Highness declined an ottered watch, as not understanding its use; but signified so unequivocally his liking for one of the fine swords worn by his vijjtants, that the proper policy became perfectly obvious, and our Author's valuable' Damascus 'blade' was slung over Hassan's shoulders: the permission to advance to lbrim instantly followed, withan offer of all the means and facilities for the journey. But apprehensive, perhaps, lest the strangers should not yethave a sufficiently imposingimpression of the value of civilities from so great a man, he afterwards conveyed a request, which could not in politeness be refused, to have the watch in addition. One of his civilities was a present of a negro boy, about ten years old, who was brought to England, and is now in the family of far. Smelt. The Cacheff's troops, to the number of three thousand, are all literally his property, bought from Dongola, Sennaar, and other parts of Soudan. The greater number of them are scattered about the country, employed in levying contributions, while a portion are the constant guard of his harem. No guess is ventured at the number of what may be called his subjects. Their habits and accommodation of life are rude and barbarous; but they were universally civil to the travellers, and according to their manner and means hospitable.
« With respect to the persons of the Barabras, the features of the men are lively, their skin is sleek and fine, and their teeth are beautifully white. Their colour, though dark, is full of life and blood. They are remarkably thin, which is perhaps to be attributed to their scanty means of subsistence and the heat of the climate.'—' The women are in general very ugly, and never have the appearance of youth, but seem to pass immediately from childhood into a state of decrepitude.'
Norden's progress into Nubia had been stopped at Dehr, wbere he suffered much ill treatment. The present travellers were enabled to reach the ruined deserted town of Ibriui, five hours' journey further to the south. They had hoped to pursue their course to the second Cataract, that of Genadil, three days' journey, as they were informed, further on. But provisions began to be very scarce, ' the prospect of further dis'coveries was doubtful, and '(says our Author) it was difficult 'to ascertain how far we might with safety proceed without 1 falling into the hands of the Mamelukes.' Dongola, now the capital of these fierce barbarians, ' is about twelve or fourteen 'daysvjourney from the second Cataract'
When the whole undertaking was mainly of the nature of an excursion of pleasure, and when the gentlemen did really venture so very considerably, it would be hardly fair to hint that an adventurer of the genuine Bruce species, would in this case have exhibited a little additional daring.—But more than the temerity here requisite, has subsequently been displayed by a fictitious Arab, under the denomination of Shekh Ibrahim, whom our Author fell in with in Egypt, and again in Nubia. He was travelling under the auspices of the ' African Society,' chiefly for tie'purpose of investigating the various tribes of Arabs.' His extraordinary Qualifications are described in very strong
terms; and Mr. L. says, in a note,
«It is. erdy since my return to England, that I have learnt the real name arid character of this traveller, from whose exertions the world has reason to expect soon to receive much valuable information.'
And, knowing the name, why should not our Author let all