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carry the art two centuries back from the date alleged for its import from Persia. The origin of the art, in my opinion, is to be sought in the art of Dravidian India which shaped the polished ouira and not in Persia.

The general vigour and realism of the statues makes one assign a pre-Mauryan period to the monuments. The decadence which marks the imperial art of Asoka does not even begin in the statues. Mr. Sen bad not to think long in declaring them emphatically" Pre-Mauryan ! Without doubt”. Yet the statues prove a previous history of the art of the Indian sculptor.

A point of importance is the attempt of the artist to Statues

show the wayes in the royal gowns or mantles, Evidence of hanging on the back, down to the heels. It Earlier Art

is done, it seems to me, on the prirciple of illusionism. This fact and the perfect familiarity of the sculptor with a conventional representation of hair which is found on the head of Aja, prove a previous history of his art extending back to some centuries. Mr. Arun Sen who drew my attention to the conventional hair laid great stress on its significance as telling a previous history of the sculptor's art in the country.

Details in the two statues show two different hands, though of the same school. On the arm of the father there is an armlet which is to be seen on sculptures of kings on Bharhut railings. On the arm of the 'son there is an ornament with mouths of alligators and with goldsmith's designs all over. The ears of Aja have earrings. On the figure there is an upper garment, mantle-like, and beneath it there is a vest intended to be of diaphanous testare, as is evident by the line at the waist and the treatment of the navel. These two garments are mentioned in Vedic literature, e. g. in Coronation ceremony. The overgarment is fastened at the waist by a girdle tied in a bow, hanging down in front in an elaborate loop and tassel endg. The over-garment has got an embroidered neck beneath which passes a cord which is tied behind, The embroidered neck has two different designs on the two statues. There is a studied

attempt to show the feet and make it bare by making the gown shorter at the front than at the back. The convention of artist and poets in describing bare feet side by side with earliest and continued references to the use of shoes, is probably explainable in view of the fact that while in court Hindu kings took off their shoes and that feet were objects of reverence by convention. The execution of the feet (they are intact only in one statue) is the most unsuccessful from the modeller's point of view. It is not in confor.nity with the rest of the work, falling far too inferior. Does the execution of the feet indicate an earlier cycle of convention and decay in art ? The artists have succeeded on the whole in producing the effect of majesty with masterly chisel.

As historic monuments they are not only the most important remains in India but have to be classed amongst the important pieces of the world.

V.-The Didarganj Image now in Patná

Museum,

By D. B. Spooner, Ph.D.

What has come to be known as the “ Didarganj" image was discovered by accident on the bank of the Ganges near Patna on the 18th October, 1917. The exact situation is described as Nasirpur Tajpur Hissa Khurd, known as Didarganj Kadam B.asul, which falls in the Malsalami Thana in the east of Patna City. It appears that owing to erosion of the river bank at this place a small portion of a square block of stone had been disclosed at a point fairly high up the face of the slope, wbich attracted the attention of Maulavi Qazi Saiyid Muhammad Azimul alias Ghulam Risul, son of Maulavi Qazi Saiyid Muhamınad Afzal alias Ghulam Mohi-ud-din. Fortunately for all concerned, the young man procee led to scrape away the earth from this projecting bit, anticipating that the stone might prove to be one suitable for domestic purposes. Instead of this it soon became apparent that the portion first uncovered was merely part of a pedestal, which, being followed up, led to the disclosing of a coinplete and fairly lar ye-sized statue, which was at first raised and set up erect near the spot where it had lain. Thence it is alleged to have been removed by unauthorized persons to a spot some few hundred yards further up the river. Here it was again set up, this time under a canopy improvised on four bamboos, which was so speedily invested with the character of an incipient shrine, that tentative worship had been instituted (under the mistaken notion that the figure was a Hindu deity) before the fact of the discovery was brought to the notice of any but the Police, who, however, reported it in due course in the proper quarter. It is to Professor Samaddar of Patna College that the general public are indebted for bringing the find to notice. Hearing of the matter from a student in the College, this enthusiastic antiquarian reported it to the Honoura ble Mr. Walsh, Member of the Board of Revenue and President of the Patna Museum Committee. Mr. Walsh proceeded without delay to inspect the find-spot and the statue itself, permitting the writer to accompany hi.n; when the importance of the treasure was at once disclosed. By good fortune it was easy to show that the figure was merely an attendant, bearing a chowry, and thus clearly no member of the Hindu pantheon, nor entitled to worship of any kind by any community ; and the characteristically energetic steps which Mr. Walsh proceeded to take towards the recovery or rescue of the image brought it in safety and triumph within the walls of the Patni Museu n before the close of the year. There let us hope that it may long remain to add lustre to an institution whose chiefest treasure it is likely to constitute for years to come.

As has already been mentioned, the image is that of a female chowri-bearer or attendant on some divine or royal figure, upon whose proper right the present statue must have stood. It is lifesize, measuring 5 ft. 21 ins. from the highest point of the head to the top of the pedestal, which itself has a height of 1 ft. 64 ins. and is as near as may be square in plan, with a measurement of 1 ft. 8 ins. a side. The pedestal is a roughly dressed and unpolished block, which presumably fitted into a socket in some huge altar or other solid basement, where it would not have met the eye in the normal course; and the angles are now slightly damaged, except the left side, back. Both it and the statue it supports are cut out of a single piece of speckled Chunar sandstone, bearing the high polish assigned, in the present state of our knowledge, exclusively to the Mauryan Period of Indian History. This mirror-like polish extended originally over the entire surface of tbe statue, but portions are now sadly encrusted with a rough deposit of darkish hue which obscures the fact to a considerable extent. .

The portions showing most sheen at present are the right side of the face, the left shoulder, the right arm and thigh, and portions of

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