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Shivaji ran four mines under the walls, but they were all counter-inined, with a heavy loss of men to him. He then threw up an earthen wall only 12 feet from the fort and his soldiers lay sheltered behind it. The Portuguese, fearing that if Shiva took Phonda their own Goa would be as good as lost, Secretly sent ten boatloads on provisions and some men in aid of the besieged (middle of April) but they were intercepted by Shivaji and the Viceroy of Goa disavowed the act.

The siege was pressed with vigour. By the beginning of May Shivaji had taken possession of two outworks, filled the dit<b, and made 500 ladders and 300 gold bracelets, each bracelet weighing half a seer, for presentation to the forlorn hope who would attempt the escalade.

Bahlol Khan, who was at Miraj with 15,000 troops, wanted to come down and relieve Phonda, but Shiva had filled up the passages with trees cut down and lined the stockades with his men, and Bhalol, being certain of heavy loss and even an utter repulse if he tried to force them, returned to his base. His inactivity during the siege was imputed to bribery by Shiva. At length the fort fell about the 6th of May. All who were found in it were put to the sword, with the exception of Muhammad Khan, who saved his own life and those of four or five others by promising to put into Shiva's hands all the adjoining parts belonging to Bijapur. In fear of death the Khan wrote to the qilailars of these forts to yield them to the Marathas, but they at first declined. So the Khan was kept in chains. Inayat Khan, the faujder of Ankola, seized the country and forts lately held by Muhammad Khan and placed his own men in them, but he could make no stand against Shivaji whose forces were now set free by the fall of Phonda. He therefore compounded and gave up the forts for money. In a few days Ankola, Shiveshwar (which had been besieged by 3,000 Maratha horse and some foot soldiers since 24th April), Karwar, Kadra (which alone bad made a short stand), all capitulated to Shivaji, and by the 25th of May the country as far south as the Ganga rati river had passed out of Bijapuri possession into his hands.

XIII. On 26th April one of Shiva’s generals had visited Karwar and "burnt the town effectually, leaving not a house standing" in punishment of the fort of Karwar still holding out. The English factory was not molested. This general, however, went back in a few days. But next month, after the fall of Phonda, the fort of Karwar surrendered to the Marathas,

The rainy season now put an end to the campaign. Bahlol Khan went back to Bijapur, leaving his army at Miraj. Shiva at first thought of cantoning for the rains in a fort on the frontier of Sunda, but soon changed his mind and returned to Raigarh, passing Rajapur on 11th June.

A Maratha force was detached into the Sunda Rajah’s conntry at the end of May." They finding no great opposition seized upon Supa and Whurwa (? Ulvi) belonging to the Rajah.” But Khizr Khan Pani and the desais in concert attacked the Maratha garrisons there, killed 3300 of the men and recovered both the places. A party of Marathas that was posted at Burbulle [Varbulli, seven miles south of Ankola] to take custom duty on all goods passing that way, was now forced to withdraw. (August 1675.) (ibid, Rajapur to Surat, 27th August 1675.)

The dowager Rani of Bedpur bad quarrelled with her colleague Timmaya, but had been compelled to make peace with him (August), she being a mere cypher, while he held the real power of the State. The Rani then appealed to Shivaji for protection, agreed to pay him an annual tribute, and admitted a Maratha resident at her Court. (Ibid and Chit. 70.)

The dalvi, or lieutenant of the desai who had been the local Bijapuri Governor of North Kanara, had aided Shivaji in the conquest of that district. But now (1675), disgusted with him, the daloi was moving about the country with a force, saying that he would restore his former master. He attacked Shivaji's guards in Karwar town and forced them to retire to the (astle. The people were in extreme misery in Shivaji's new conquests : he squeezed the desais, who in their turu squeezed

the ryots. (Bombay Gazetteer, XV. pt. 1, 128). But Bijapur was now in the grip of a civil war, the Adil Shahi State was hastening to a dissolution, and Shivaji's possession of South Konkan and North Kanara remained unchallenged till after his death.

VII.-Birth and Funeral Ceremonies

among the Hos.

By Girindra Nath Sarkar, B.A.

(I)---Birth CUSTOMS. Like all other people a Ho has a great desire for a child specially a male one to keep his memory alive after his death and to give him food, drink, and comfort in his old age.

Barren women are despised and supposed to be cursed by Sing-bonga (the Sun-god). Barrenne:s is generally attributed to bad morals or sime sin committed by the womın in her previous life. But measures are taken to make a burren womin fruitful. The woman is made to drink a lecoction of the root of the käed creeper and if she conceives she ties the root round her waist as a charm against all evils that mig'it befall the child in the womb.

The llos believe that children are born by the will of Singbongā (The Sun-rol). They say Sing bongā emetānā (God gives it), but they are all aware of the fact that a woman cannot conceive without intercourse with a man. The Hos also believe that the souls of the dead never die, but are reborn in infants. The deal are recoznized in th: ne v-born children by the semblance which they bear to the former. Thus when a child resembles his gran lfather the father says that his father is born again to grace his family. A IIo woman tıkes pregnancy as a matter of course and does

not take any particular care as to her diet or Pregnancy.

behaviour during the first few months. Unlike the Hindus no cere nonies are observed a nong the Hos, at the seventh or other month of pregnancy. But when the time for delivery draws near she is stri.ily forbidden to frequent the places supposed to be presided ovər by the bongis (spirits), holds herself aloof fron vonen hare suspe:tel of sorsery and witchcraft and avoids coming out after dark.

Each family generally has one hut with a single room where The lying. it keeps everything that is necessary for daily in-room.

life. This is the bed-room as well as the storeroom. They cook their meals and sit ordinarily on the verandah which is a raised floor about three feet wide. The master and the mistress of the house sleep in the hut with all their children. When the time for delivery arrives the room is reserved for the expectant mother and her husband. The huts of the Hos are windowless and therefore entirely safe from any cold blast. The would-be mother and the father enter the lying-in-room and its door is shut against all other persons. Delay in delivery is believed to be caused by the eye of some evil spirit or the fact that before marriage the mother had intercourse with some young man other than her lawfully married husband who cursed her for having been taken away from him and united with another man. In the latter case she confesses her misconduct and gives out the name of the lover who is asked to reveal the truth and he does so at once. Now a propitiatory sacrifice, generally a fowl, is offered to Sing-bongã. Thus the labour pains are lessened and the delivery becomes easy. Sometimes it is also believed that midwives through their magic power protract the delivery so that they may be called to facilitate it. When the would-be mother is conscious that baby is about to be

born she sits down in a kneeling down posture The Birth.

stretching her thighs wide. Her husband súpports her from behind leaning against the wall. As soon as the child comes down on the floor the mother picks it up in her hands. The father cuts the umbilical cord with the skin of the maize plant (gängāi singi) which has a sharp edge. Hos do not use a knife for this purpose lest the nayel-string might take septic poison. The cutting of the umbilical cord over the mother wipes the babe's body if found covered with membranes with a piece

and after handing over the child to her husband proceeds to remove the after-birth and to clean the floor. The father now gives the child back to its mother and prepares hot water with which the mother bathes herself and her child. The mother

of rag

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