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shows that the two words referred to above do not refer to Pataliputra. In the first place, Vatsyāyana, in another passage of the Kamasutra, mentions Pāṭaliputra by name when he speaks of Dattaka as having written a monograph at the request of the courtesans of that city. He expressly says there Pātaliputrikā ṇāṁ and not Nāgarikānām as he might be expected to do on the analogy of the other two passages; there is no reason why he should use different words in speaking of the same place in different parts of his book.

Next we see that though Vatsyayana appears to possess more or less knowledge of all parts of India yet he is acquainted more thoroughly with Western India than with the other portions. Of the country from Rajputana to the south up to the Konkan coast he speaks of almost all the various provinces and peoples. For example, he speaks of Avanti and Malava (i.e. eastern and western Malwa), Aparanta, Lāta, Saurashtra, Vidarbha, Vanavasi, Maharashtra, etc.; he mentions twice the Vatsagulmakas, a people living in the south, 88 and the Andhras and the Abhiras are mentioned again and again; of the countries to the north-west he speaks of the Sindhns, of the people living in the regions lying between the watercourses of the six rivers including the Indus, and he even describes the customs of the Vahlika country or Bactria. The people in the south he knows only as the Dakshinatyas and their country as Dakshiṇāpatha and he once mentions the Dravidas and a Cholarāja. The people in the east he speaks of as the Prachyas, "the eastern people, " but he seems to know the Gaudas and he makes a collective mention of Vangāngakalinga in one passage. He does not

69 Jayamangala says that two princes Vatsa and Gulma lived in the Dakshiņāpatha; the country where they resided was called Vatsagulmaka f


Benares edition, page 288. The Vatsa country is mentioned by

सोदर्यो राजपुत्रौ राजपुत्रौ वस्सगुल्मौ ताभ्यामध्यासितो देशो वत्सगुल्मक इति yata: Varähamihira along with Vidarbha and Andhra शौलिक विदर्भवत्सान्वचेदिका: (Kern, Vṛhatsamhita Ch. XIV, 8). Rajasekhara in his K. yamīmāmsā (op. cit. says नास्ति विदर्भेषु वत्सगुल्म नाम नगरम्

p. 10


सिन्धुष्ठानां च नदीनामन्तरालीया Benares elition, p. 126.

even once speak of Magadha and of the entire country from Magadha to Rajputana he has very little to say. Once only he speaks of the Madhyadeśa and once each of the Saurasenas and the people of Saketa and Ahichhatra, the capital of northern Pañcālā,90 This meagre mention of the countries of the central and eastern portions of Northern India and the detailed description of the customs of Western India make it abundantly clear that Vatsyāyana had personal knowledge of the western portion alone and that his information about the eastern regions was probably derived from the works of his predecessors like that of Dattaka of Paṭaliputra. That Vatsyāyana belonged to Western India may also be guessed from the fact that he makes a large number of quotations from Apastamba's Grihyasutra as we have shown before, and it is known that the Vedic school of the Apastambins flourished in Western India specially in the land of the Andhras.91


The question next presents itself as to what may be the meaning of the words Nagarikyaḥ and Nagarakāḥ in the two passages referred to above. Jayamangala is certainly right in holding that they are proper names referring to a particular place and do not mean the women or men of a city in general as will be evident from the context in which they occur. neither of the cases is there any contrast between the town and the village. Both the words are used in connexion with other proper names, the former in the order Andhryaḥ, Māhārāshṭrikyah, Nagarikyaḥ, Draviḍyaḥ, Vānavāsikyaḥ, etc., and the latter in the order Āhichhatrikāh, Saketāh, Nāgarakāh, In the second case it is found that the names are those of wellknown towns, Ahichhatra, the capital of the North Pañcala, and Sāketa or Ayodhya, and the conclusion becomes irresistible that Nagara is also the name of a particular town, and as we have seen that Vatsyāyana is more familiar with Western India than with the other parts of it we are led to expect Nagara

90 He also refers to a Kasirāja. Benares edition, p. 287. Bühler, Apastamba Dharmasūtra, Introduction, p. xxxiii,



there. We find here "the great ancient city of Nagara" §2 the ruins of which now lie scattered over an area of nearly four square miles in extent in the territory of the Maharajah of Jeypore, 25 miles to the south-south-east of Tonk and 45 miles to the north-north-east of Bundi.93 Mr. Carlleyle, who made an archæological survey of the place, picked up here several thousands of the most ancient types of coins ever found in India, many of the punch-marked variety and many bearing the legend Jaya Malavana in Brahmi characters. The city is not very far from Malwa and we think the democratic coin legend speaking of the "Triumph of the Malava people" refers to the celebrated Malavagana who are known to have used the era now called the Samvat.95 There is another ancient city Nagri or Tamvabati Nagari (about eleven miles north of Chitore) which has been identified with the Madhyamika of Patañjali ; this city might also claim identity with Vatsyayana's Nagara, but I think the former is the more probable one as the latter was evidently called Majhamikä or Madhyamiká about the beginning of the Christian era. Panini appears to have known Nagara as the name of a particular city as it appears in the Gana or group Kattryādi referred to in one of his sūtras.98 The Kasika commentary enumerates fifteen names as

92 Mr. A. C. L. Carlleyle in Cunningham's Report of the Archæological Survey of India, Vol. VI, pp. 161, 162.

93 Ibid,
p. 162.

94 These coins are described by Mr. Carlleyle and also by Sir A. Cunningham ibid, pp. 180-183, also Cunningham, Vol. XIV, p. 150.

95 Fleet, Gupta Inscriptions, pp. 87 and 158; J.R.A.S., 1913, pp. 995-998, and 1914, p. 747; Professor D. R. Bhandarkar, Indian Antiquary, 1913, p. 161; Thomas, J.R.A.S., 1914, pp. 1012, 1013, etc.

98 Carlleyle, op. cit, pp. 200 ff; Cunningham, Vol. XIV, p. 146.

97 The coins found here bear the legend Majhamikāya Sibijanapadasa, Carlleyle, op. cit., p. 202.


* tanferit ba Panini, IV. 2-95. Professor D. R. Bhandarkar, who first

drew attention to this sūtra, says in the Indian Antiquary, 1911, p. 34, footnote 45," Nagara as the name of a town, was known to the author of Kāśikā.” He considers Nagarkot or Kängḍå as the Nagar from which the Nagar Brāhmaṇas derived their name.

belonging to this class; that the word Nagara in this Gana is older than the Kāśikā and is a proper name, appears from what the Kasika says in connexion with another sutra of Panini (IV. 2, 128); it states there that Nagara is read in the Kattryadi group as the designation of a particular city as it occurs in company with other such names there.99 From a city called Nagara also the Nagari alphabet may have derived its name. The existence of a city called Nagara 100 therefore cannot be questioned. There is, however, no justification for holding that the Nagara we have referred to was the city where Vatsyayana composed his work, it being only one of the many places that he has mentioned in illustrating his sūtras; the utmost that we can say is that from the uncompromising, straightforward manner in which he has exposed the evils practised by kings, officials and queens, he must have belonged to a Gaṇarājya or a democratic government like the city of the Malavas described above. This is also apparent from the importance he attaches to the assembly of citizens (NāgarikaSamavaya) alluded to before.

" कत्रादिषु तु संज्ञाशब्देन साहचर्यात् संज्ञानगरं पठाते तस्मिन् noTanfufa gegeıēleḤ (Käsikā on Pāņini, IV. I. 198). The last part

of this quotation would have Nagareyaka as the correct form of derivative to designate a citizen of this particular Nagara, but Vätsyāyana has apparently not followed Pāņini here, perhaps in deference to popular practice. The Kāśikā in accordance with the sutra of Panini here lays down that the form Nagaraka is deriveÎ from nagara to signify abuse or expert knowledge (कुत्सनप्रावीण्ययोः),

otherwise, it will be Nagara and the example given to illustrate this point is नागरा ब्राह्मणाः; This shows that the Nagara Brāhmaṇas were known to the


100 There is a district or bhukti called Nagara mentioned in the Deo. Baranark inscriptions of Jivitagupta (Fleet: Gupta Inscriptions, p. 216), but it is in Bihar and has no connexion with our city.

III.-A Note on the Statues of Saisunaka Emperors in the Calcutta Museum.

By R. D. Banerji, M. A

The statues which were discovered in Patna, first of all about a century ago and then in the front garden of the Asiatic Society of Bengal fifty years back, have been discovered for a third time in the well-known Bharhut gallery of the Calcutta Museum.* It must be admitted that Mr. K, P. Jayaswal, M.A., Barrister-at-law, has really discovered these two statues, which are the oldest statues in India. There cannot be any doubt about the fact that these two pieces of Indian sculpture belong to the oldest known period of Indian Plastic Art. The question of their identification had puzzled artists and antiquarians for more than half a century. There may be difference of opinion about the different parts of Mr. Jayaswal's theory but there cannot be two opinions about the readings Aco and Vața Namdi and therefore Mr. Jayaswal's identification of these two pieces of sculpture as statues as against images and as statues of two S'aisunaka Emperors, Aja-Udayin and Varta-Nandin, rests on very solid grounds. Consequently it has to be admitted that in these two specimens of Indian sculpture, Mr. Jayaswal has really discovered the oldest known Indian statues and has correctly identified them with two Emperors of the Saisunaka dynasty of Northern India.

Before the identification of these two specimens the statue of the Kushan Emperor of Kāniska I. was the oldest known statue in India. Even if we reject other evidence about the date of these two specimens the script of the short inscriptions on their backs would be sufficient to prove that the statue of Kāņişka is decidedly later in date than the Patna ones.

* Ante, p. 88.

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