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an example is shown in Plate XIV, 14. They may have been issued by rulers of Kalinga in the fourth or fifth century, and it is possible that they may have been struck only for use as temple offerings. All numismatists acknowledge that they exhibit a reminiscence of the characteristic Khusan type."1
Dr. Hoernle noted that Kusban coins were not Dr. Hoernle noted that as that was the first dicesion on which kushan coins had been found in the extreme East of India, the fact of their being found near Puri, the site of an ancient shrine and place of pilgrimage might account for it, and that as regards the present type of cost coins, "whether they were intended to pass as current coins in the ordinary sense may not be quite certain. They may have been meant to be used as temple-offerings by pilgrims, similar to certain imitations of yaudeya coins found in the Punjab. Possibly they may have been only intended as ornaments."
Professor Rapson also refers to the above coins."
With regard to the above remark of Dr. Hoernle, I would note that Kushan coins have been recently found at different places in the Ranchi district, where there is no reason to suppose that they might have been brought by pilgrims.
It is also improbable that they were cast for the purpose of ornaments; as they would probably, in that case, have been cast with some attachment, by which they could be worn.
Following the lines of classification adopted by Dr. Hoernle, all the coins of the present find, with the exception of the unique coin shown in fig. 2 of the Plate, come under class III" with crescent on reverse in right top of field" which class also comprised the greater number of the coins found in the Puri district.
With the exception of the two coins shown in figs. 1 and 2, the edges of all the coins are rough and, in many cases, frills of metal from the edges of the mould remain attached, as will be seen from the plate, and they do not, therefore, appear to have been in circulation. It will, therefore. appear that the site of the find was a Mint, where these coins were cast.
1 I. M. C., Vol. I, pp. 61-65.
2 Indian Coins p. 13.
As in the case of the coins previously described, the present coins are, clearly, very rude imitation of the coinage of Kanishka with the well known figure of the king with his right hand extended over a fire-altar, and holding a staff or spear in his left hand, on the observe; and the figure of the male moon-god, as indicated by the crescent, on the reverse.
There are roughly two varieties of the coins, first, as in fig. 3, where the clothing of the figure of the god on the reverse bears some resemblance to that of the Kushan coins, and, secondly, as in the other coins, now illustrated, in which the figure on the reverse is wearing a coat similar to that of the king on the obverse. In regard to the boots, also, there are two varieties, viz., with the boots shorter and turned up as in figs. 3 and 4 and with the boots shown at much greater length horizontally as in fig3. 5-12.
The coins may also be roughly arranged on the lines of classification adopted by Dr. Hoernle, according to the position of the arms of the figure on the obverse, by which classification 243 of the coins have the figure of the king on the obverse with the left arm of extended horizontally, as in figs. 3 to 6, and 33 of the coins have the arms curved more downwards, as in figs. 7-12. Any such classification, however, appears to be of no value in the case of such rude imitations, in which the variations noted would rather appear to be accidental variations in the mould.
11.M.C., Vol. I, pp: 64-53. Proc. A.S.B., 1895, p. 65.
The weights of the coins, excluding the two coins shown in fig. 1 (132.70 grs.) and fig. 2 (78·16 grs.), vary from 87-10 grs. (Fig. 6) to 39 33 grs. They are, therefore, a smaller type of coin than those found in the Puri district, the weights of which vary from 211 to 106 grs.1
The interest of the present find, apart from the single coin (fig. 2), which is of a new type, lies in the fact that it extends the area over which this class of coins has been found,
and the inscription on coin 2 furnishes material for fixing the date of the present find, and to which the coins of these type extended.
As noted by Dr. Hoernle, it may be assumed that these rude imitations would not have been made unless the Indo-Scythian coins had still been current in Northern India. There would have been no object in copying an obsolete coinage.1 Kushan coins have been found at different parts of the Ranchi district of Chota Nagpur. Although, therefore, the coins of the present find are later than the date hitherto assumed, it would seem probable, as noted by Dr. Hoernle, that this type of coin existed from the time of the currency of Kushan coins, although the present coin shown in fig. 2 shows that it continued until considerably later.
The coin shown in fig. 2 is particularly interesting, as being of a new type not hitherto found. On the reverse there is the figure of the moon-god with crescent and wearing turned up boots, as in fig. 1, but on the obverse, in place of the figure of the Kushan king, are three cones, which may possibly represent hills, and below them the word tanka.
The akshara nka is similar to that in the Allahabad Prashashti Inscription, cir. 375 A.D., figured in table IV, column I, line 11 of Bühler's Tables. The letter t, however, appears to be of a later period, the earliest example of this form given by Bühler being that in the Amsuvarman Inscription, 635 A.D. (ibid, Table IV, column XVII, line 17). This would appear to show that the present find of coins of the "Puri Kushan" type is not earlier than the seventh century.
The symbol of three cones side by side, to represent hills, is very interesting, as it would appear to be a survival of the
1 Proc. A. S. B., 1895, p. 54.
"A gold coin of the Huvishka type, at Belvadag is described in J.B.O.R.S., Vol. I, pp. 231-2, and a copper coin of Kanishka similar to that illustrated in I.M.C., Vol. I, Plate XI, fig. 11, has been recently found in the Karra thans of the same ditsrict.
symbol of one arch superimposed on two others hitherto considered to be a chaitya or stupa, found on punch-marked coins and early cast coins, and which also occurs in the form of three arches placed side by side, as in the case of the cones on the present coin; which symbol, as I have noted with regard to those coins, would appear to have been intended to represent a hill.1
Since this paper was written, this coin has also been described by Mr. R. D. Banerji in a paper which appears in the present number of this Journal.
The crescent on the reverse of the remaining coins shows that they were copied from those Kushan coins which bore the figure of the Moon-god MAO on the reverse, in which the crescent rose from his shoulders. A coin with this figure is given for the purpose of comparison at fig. 13 on the Plate. It is a gold coin of kanishka as I have not been able to obtain a cart of a copper coin of this type. In these imitations the crescent is shown detached from the figure, the left arm of the figure, and, to make room for it on the coin, has been entirely omitted. In the coins formed in Puri, there was one coin in which the crescent rose, as in the Kushan coins from the shoulders.
1 "An Examination of a Find of Punch Marked Coins in Patna City." By E. H. C. Walsh J.B.O.R.S., Volume V, p. 31.
Figure. (grains.) (inches.)
Particulars of the coins shown on the Plate.
Three acute pyramids in a horizontal row; below:"tanka".
Similar to fig. 4...
72 Figure similar to fig. 4 but with arm downwards; boots still longer horizontally.
Similar to fig. 4; boots longer horizontally.
75 Figure similar to fig. 4 but with arm downwards; boots still further exaggerated.