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in the organization, especially the recommends public schools support. want of encouragement for the masa ed by beneficent societies. He justic ters, and the deficiency of fixed ele- observes, that before parocbial mentary books.

schools were spread through the The population of the Prench Highlands of Scotland, there were empire being at this moment about frequent disturbauces and rebellions, thirty-four millions, there must be which bave ceased since the country three millions of children under the became more enlightened. He price age of twelve; and supposing that poses that the tax opon bachelon the sixth part of the parents can should be alloited to the public inafford to pay liberally for the edu. Struction ; and that, of fifty thoecation, and that there be sixty scho- sand places of clerks, employed in lars for each country school, more the different offices under gorers than forty-seven thousand teachers ment, one quarter should be 16 of both sexes will be required. The served for schoolmasters wbo bave cominencement ought of course to performed that office during te be to teach the teachers, by institu. years. But the chief object would ting a grand foundation for needy seem to be, that, by a moderate tas and deserving young men, in order on land and houses, each paris to qualify them for ibis office, wbich should support its own sciou. should be accompanied with a sa. master, lary for life, only to be lost by This practical writer also observa notorious and scandalous misconduct that there was too violent a transIf, during the rage of innovation, tio'n between the primary and the the voice of reason could have been central schools, where the box at heard, the funds, revenues, and had only been taught to read and buildings of the ancient universities, write, and the four first ruirs would have been admirably adapted arithmetic, was suddenly introduced to this purpose; and the useless to the ancient languages. This se fellowships, and other sinecures, fect was chiefly owing to the basis might have been supplanted by a not having been taught gramma most uselul body of men, the future and orthography. Before the leto schoolmasters, who, after a residence lution there were three gradatiss of two years might have made room the little schools, the colleges, tie for others. .

universities; the instruction of the A moderate salary to the masters first being necessary to all rapks; of the primary schools ought to be that of the second for liberal pro secured by a tax upon land and sessions; while the universities gat houses; but it is supposed that one lified men to become masters theshalf of the salary might be paid by selves. That the utility of the such parents as are in tolerable cir- secondary schools may become me cumstances, while the poorer class apparent, he computes that in the ought to pay noubing. "This land. French empire there are sixty abottax might be called the tax of in- sand officers in the land and ses struction ; and ought to be rendered service; fifty thousand agents : perpetual as far as human foresight clerks in the administration aze can penetrate into futurily. . finances ; soine thousand judges 25

But I forget Champagne, who professors; while there ougbt to be

at least twenty thousand masters of ing. The professors of grammar primary schouls, not to speak of are chiefly for instruction in the me of business, merchants, and French language, interspersed wich artists, who ought to receive a elements of Latin and of geography. libural education. Of ihese a great Herighcly recommends that grammar part must necessarily belong to poor be taught from the native tongue; fanilies, for the son of a rich man and regards it as absurd. to place will not employ his time for such abruptly the rudiments of Latin in moderate salaries. It therefore the hands of children, to whom the becomes necessary that the colleges words adverb, pronouă, verb, mood, be encouraged by the government, number and case, are as unintelligible and the three hundred and twenty as the Latin itself, and the child is colleges, formerly existingin France, taught the unknown by the unknown; were ill supplanted by one hundred a great cause that so many educations and four central schools, one for totally fail : nay, perhaps, the more each department. These schools understanding a child has, the more were also objectionable, as each was he appears a dunce, because dulness to contain nine masters and a libra. may learn by perseverance, where rian; a number often ridiculously intelligence is totally confounded by disproportioned to the little villages, seeing the palpable darkness. This which have become the chief places observation may explain why so of the departments.

many men of distinguished talents Champagne proposes that the have appeared dunces in common central schools, or universities, schools. should be restricted to the twenty After some observations upon the nine cities where there are tribunals hours of labour employed by each of appeal; and that there be founded professor, he recommends that a one hundred and fifty small colleges, person skilled in natural history each with five professors, in towns should accompany the boys in their of the second order. This idea walks, to give them some rudiments seems to have been in part adopted of botany and mineralogy, which by the government, the secondary might be useful to them on many schools, or colleges, having been re- occasions. His remarks on the established; while the lycées supply central schools are also just and the place of the central schools or practical, but do not fall into my universities.

present design. The professorship He afterwards proceeds to consider of legislation is a truly singular title the plan of education, supposing for a teacher of the laws of nations, that the boys leave the primary and of the French laws. The schools at the age of ten years, and academy of legislation existing at remain at the secondary till the age Paris, is liable to the same objection, of thirteen or fourteen. He proposes, and should be styled the academy as already mentioned, that there of jurisprudence. There ought, as should be five professors in each he observes, to be four professors, secondary school, two for grammar, of natural laws, of ancient laws, of one for elements of history and the arts civil and French law : and he adds of composition; one for arithmetic that there might even be a professor and simple geometry, one for draw of the forms of procedure, which

might tend to prevent the avidity and or six years purchase of the rent, cunning of some professional men. should be disposed of to administraYet, amongst the ancients and tors, on condition of paying tbe the moderns, the wisest laws have price at the end of six years, wbe not been able to prevent this evil, the departments might be excited. which re-appears under a thousand by the certainty of the pledge, to shapes. If the knowledge of the contribute by gifts or loans to de forms of procedure were generally fray the expence, spread ; if all the tricks and turns He coucludes with remarks upec of chicane were well known, and the rewards to be offered, in orde ceased to be the useful secret of to excite emutation; and recue. knaves; no one would dare to use mends that, after soleinn examin. them; and, perhaps by means tions, the most meritorious of the of this course, the gradual destruc- poor scholars should have an allo. tion might be operated of that arce of certain sums, in order to chicane, wbich is the most dangerous prosecute their studies, or be placed malady of justice.” Though there at the public offices, where intrigue be schools for the education of and interest have too long supplants lawyers and physicians, it is believed merit, and states sometimes peris: there are none especially dedicated by the ignorance of subalterns. He to that of the clergy; and with the justly and somewhat boldly reprouniversities all degrees have expired. bates the military education grees He justly praises the liberality of the by the ancient Greeks and Romass, ancient government, which, at the " Where what was called a republic college of Louis the Great, educated was a handful of men, who kept the six hundred boys, free of all expence, rest of the people in oppression and and founded the excellent military slavery." schools, wbich formed so many great If ihis important subject of ramen. The various universities alsotional education have diffused itse enjoyed very numerous free scholar. to more. lengih than was intende. ships. He justly regrets the sale of it must be considered in a polos tbe funds destined for these laudable that some degree of minuteness > purposes, and quotes, with deserved essential to its illustration : aod :: applause, the example of Washing- was thought that the practical apo ton, who bequeathed a great part of nions of an experienced master, is a his wealth for the public instruction country where an unprecedented of his country. He proposes, revolution had authorized every extherefore; 1. That such donations periment and innovation, deserved be authorized by law. 2. That to be weighed with particular attei. small contributions be paid by those tion. who have received their education in these seminaries. 3. That the government, actually in possession Luxury of Paris. From the same of eight millions of acres of woods,

Vol. II. sold for a very trifling profit, should allot the whole, or a part, for this An Englishman who has not 16 purpose. 4. That a part of tbe sited Paris, will scarcely believe national lands, generally sold at five that the luxury of London can

exceedes

xceeded. But in fact the luxuries rance of our customs. The best od opportunities at Paris are als veal is that of Pontoise, not far from wed, by all candid judge's, infi- Paris ; but as they are strangers to itely to surpass those of the Eng. our mode of nourishing the animals, sh capital, in the variety, and the this food is regarded as of difficult heap rates at which they may be or irregular digestion, nor can it rocured. The superior dryness ever be compared with English veal. f the air also exhilarates the spi. Our anthor says, that the French its, and gives a keener relish to calves are fed with cream and bis. iany enjoyments.

cuits, which may account for this The well known work, called quality. The lamb is also so young, : The Almanach des Guurmands," so insipid, so vapid, that it bears no y Grimod de la Reyniere, may resemblance to the delicate juices erve in some measure as a text book and flavour of the English. The i treating of the luxuries of Paris. mutton is from the Ardennes, but But it is in so many hands, that a it is as rare as Welch mutton in ew extracts, or rather remarks, London. , In general the mutton uggested by its perusal, may suf- cannot be praised ; and while the ice. That work, indeed, only em French import the Spanish breed on Traces one branch of luxury, but a account of the wool, they ought vranch particularly cultivated by the also to import some other for the lew rich; whose cellars and lar- mrat Vor does their pork seem lers are far better replenished than equal to the English. heir libraries. This taste has be. The game is, in general, superior some so general, that many bookto that of England; and the red ellers have become traiters, and partridge forms an elegant' re, ind the corporeal food far more gale. The pheasant has become ex. rofitable than the mental

trenely rare, the pheasantries hav. The old new year, the first of ing been destroyed with the other January, is still the season of little marks of rank. The quails in the ifts, chiefly eatables and sweet. neighbourhood of Paris are excelneats, for which last the Rue des lent. Lombards is deservedly famous. Young turkies of the size of a The best beef at Paris is that of large fowl, are very common, though Auvergne and Cotentin, and the somewhat higher in price; and loya, which seems to be the inner poultry in general is about one jart of our sirloin, is regarded as third cheaper than in London, if he most chosen morsel ; but the bought in the large markets.

rench custom of sticking such Among the vegetables, spinach is vieces with little morsels of lard, is particularly well cooked, and not o an English palate truly nauseous, diluted with water as in London, Ind irreconcileable with any just As the leaves take up much space, srinciples of cookery, as it dimi. it is always sold at the green-shops ishes the juice, and injures the simply boiled, and is afterwards lavour of the meat. When M. cooked according to the fancy of Grimod supposes that beef-steaks the purchaser. The vinegar put orm the chief dish of an English into the sauce for cauliflower dee linner, he shews a ridiculous igno- stroys its flavour; and in general a | Vol. XLVIII.

3 T

mixture

mixture of the English and French Mentz, though harder, are more modes of cookery would be the best. savoury. The milk and eggs of Boiled endive, rare with us, is a Paris are superior to those of Loncommon and healthy dish at Paris, don. Of artichokes and strawb-i. being mucilaginous, and agreeable ries the season is prolonged by the to weak stomachs. But another art of the gardener, and both zur usual dish, a partridge boiled with be had at the end of September. bacon and cabbage, seems an ab. M. Grimod has wittily observed, surdity, the flavour being 'lost, and that thirteen form an unlucky nue. the whole nauseous to the English ber at table, when there is only palate. Carrots are regarded as food for twelve; and that the tal. stomachic, and a bason of vermi. ing of the salt-seller is very unlucky, celli soup, with grated carrot, is a when it spoils a good dish. Yo famous breakfast. The French he recommends as sacred another pastry is much celebrated, but many prejudice, that of paying a risit persons seem deservedly to prefer the house where you are treated the English. Some have an aversion some days after the dinner; ai to the pigeons of Paris, because they the business of a forenoon could are fed from mouth to mouth. The be neglected for such an idle cere. goose is left to the populace, being mony. His parallel, vol. i. p. 225, in general meagre and ansavoury ; between the pleasures of the table but the ducks are often excellent. and those of love, gave some of

In the winter there is a sufficient fence to the Parisian belles, and be supply of excellent fish, and turbot was obliged to soften it in a second is sold by the pound. A rich farmer edition. general, about to give a solemn Le déjeuner à la fourchette, « dinner, sent his maitre d'hotel for fork-breakfast, is so called, because fish, who reported that there was in eating meat you have occasion only a large turbot, for which a for a fork. Since the lateness of counsellor had paid iwo louis d'or. the dinner hour, and the disconti " Here," said the farmer-general, nuance of supper, this repast ha throwing four louis on the table, become very common. It gesc66 go and buy me the turbot and the rally consists of cold meats; bist counsellor." During the summer broiled fowls, kidneys, and sausags, the fish is scarce and bad, and a are admitted with petit-patès. Darlarge fortune might be made by ing the winter, oysters from the bringing this article to Paris in ice. rock of Cencale, a public-house se Fish-women carry about live carp in called, and much celebrated for the leathern vessels, suspended at their article, form the usual introduction girdles : these are dangerous to en. The master and mistress of the counter, as any derangement of her house continue to carve, while it i fish-pond occasions a torrent of to be regretted that the Geron abuse; and sometimes a live carp fashion is not introduced, of having serves as an instrument of manual the dishes carved by a servant at a exercise. A dish of gudgeons is a side-table. The plateau which de favourite food of a petite maitresse. corates the middle of the table, s The hams of Bayonne are excellent, often strewed with fine sand, of ra. and extremely mild; but those of rious colours, in compartments, and

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