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ds, and passed the king of sirous of summing up the circum. t Britain's bankrupt servant stances of my case so, that if he had his own country, for which thought fit to grant me a compen. une action this friendly officer, sation, this statement might have chetti by name) was arrested been a justification to his successor ris, and by the count D'Aran. for the issue ; but it produced no manded back to Madrid, there compensation, though I should preke his chance for what the in. sume it proved enough to have ce of France may find occasion touched the feelings of one of the vise against him..
best tempered men living, if he Your memorialist, since his would have devoted a very few mi. 'n to England, having, after in- nutes to the perusal of it. erable attempts, gained one only 66 It is not possible for me to call ttance to your lordship's per- to mind a character in all essential for the space of more than ten, points so amiable as that of this deths, and not one answer to the parted minister, and not wish to uent and humble suit he has find some palliation for his over. e to you by letter, presumes sights; but if I were now to say
for the last time to solicit your that I acquit him of injustice to me, ideration of his case, and as he it would be affectation and hypoersuaded it is not, and cannot crisy; at the same time I must in your lordship's heart to de- think, that Mr. secretary Robinson,
and abandon to unmerited who was the vehicle of the promise, an old and faithful servant of was more immediately bound to so. crown, who has been the father licit and obtain the fulfilment of it, four sons, (one of whom has and this I am persuaded was comly died, and three are now car. pletely in his power to do: to him, g arms in the service of their therefore, I addressed such remon. 5) your memorialist humbly strances, and enforced them in such ys, that you will give order for terms as no manly spirit ought to
to be relieved in such manner, have put, up with ; but anger and o your lordship's wisdom shall high words make all things worse ; o meet.
and language, which a man has not I which is humbly submitted by courage to resena, he never will have Cour lordship's most obedient, candour to forgive." And most humble servant, Richard Cumberland.'
Some Account of the Life and . This memorial, which is, per. Writings of Lope Felir de Vega is, too long and loaded, I am Carpio, by Henry Richard Lord suaded lord North never took Holland. pains to read, for I am unwil. s to suppose, that, if he had, he We have already given an ac. uld have treated it with absolute count of Lope de Vega, extract. lect. He was upon the point of ed from this interesting work, tting office when I gave it in, and in the poetical part of the Re. I being my last effort, I was de. gister are some specimens of his
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lordship's lordship's skill as a translator of object. It has never been printer poetry. We cannot quit our task probably owing to the fastida without further noticing, that in an severity with which this excele Appendix his lordship gives the fol- author has generally viewed lowing account of a memorial to own productions. As he is, bs the Royal Academy of History, on ever, the only person who is és the games, spectacles, and public tisfied with them, copies of diversions of that country, which, treatise in MS. are not difficult at the moment we are writing, be obtained in Madrid. affords to all Europe the affecting “ After a rapid historical sket spectacle of a people breaking of the Roman exhibitions in Sp thc bonds of slavery, and rising and a short account of the en against their foreign oppressors, to siuns introduced by the nors avenge the injured honour of their barbarians and their descended monarchy, and the insulted dignity he describes the state of the Span of thcir nation. At such a time, theatre, froin its first regolar: therefore, even this fragment which pearance in Ferdinand and I illustrates the character of their late bella's time, to the compmencera government, deserves the attention of the present reign. He take of all who feel for the sufferings of view of the controversies to to a people whose honour is proverbial. it has given rise ; and thong:
condemos such scandalous abor 66 Informe dado à la Real Academia of theatrical representations as in
de Historia, sobre Juegos, Espec. occasionally prevailed in Spain, taculos, y Dirersiones Publicas. vindicates the use of that radim
diversion, from the imputation ...66 This treatise is the work of don the clergy, with his usual eloquens Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, late and success. The latter part és minister of grace and justice in work is devoted to the export Spain : a man, who, after having of plans for the revival of 22 devoted the labours, and even the exercises and diversions, and to amusemeuts, of his useful life, to suggestion of expedients for reis the improvement and happiness of the character of the drama, en his fellow countrymen, is now lan. the profession of players, and 2 guishing in the dungeons of Palma; mating the exertions of poets. En imprisoned without an accusation, it must be acknowledged that and condemned without the form of allows his zeal for letters, and a tria).
anxiety to direct them to beneko « The paper on the games, exhi. purposes, to divert him from con bitions, and public diversions of clusions to which his own prima Spain, was undertaken at the re. ples would more naturally cond: quest of the Royal Academy at Ma- him; and he somewhat incons drid, and completed in 1790, during tently expects from such regulat his retirement at Gijon ; at a time more than any interference of when the displeasure of a minister vernments or academies was did not necessarily imply the ruin, yet able to produce. His avers persecution and imprisonment of its to the bull feasts indues him 1
to under-rate their popularity, and and fine weather, on a holiday, to exaggerate the evil consequences which will leave them at liberty to produced by that barbarous but not walk, run, throw the bar, to play unmanly amusement. But even at ball, coits, or skittles, or to where his reasoning is least conclu. junket, driok, dance, and caper on sive, one is fascinated by the beau. the grass, will fill all their desires, ties of his style, which always seem and yield them complete gratifica. to arise from the discussion, and to tion and contentment. At so cheap be as much the result of the sincea rate may a whole people, how. rity of his conviction, and the bene. ever numerous, be delighted and volence of his views, as of an en- amused. lightened education, and a correct "How happens it then, that the taste in composition and language. majority of the people of Spain Such, indeed, is the character of all have no diversion at all? For every his writings, though it may possibly one who has travelled through our excite surprize, that a dissertation provinces must have made this me. on games and exhibitions should af- lancholy remark. Even on the ford any room for displaying it. greatest festivals, instead of that Jovellanos has, however, contrived, boisterous merriment and noise even on such a topic, to throw into which should bespeak the joy of the compass of a few pages, much the inhabitants, there reigns through. curious information, and sound phi- out the market-places and streets, a, losophical reflexion, without wan. slotbful inactivity, a gloomy still. dering from the subject, or betray. ness, which cannot be remarked ing any disposition to pedantry or without the mingled emotions of affectation.
surprise and pity. The few persons "To justify the above commenda- who leave their houses, seem to be tions of his work, I subjoin a pas. driven from them by listlessness, and sage, which may serve also to illus. dragged as far as the threshold, the trate a remark in the text, and to market, or the church.door. There, shew that the gloomy appearance, muffled in their cloaks, leaning a. so often objected to Spaniards, is to gainst some corner, seated on some bc ascribed to the perverse spirit of bench, or lounging backwards and their municipal laws, and not to the forwards, without object, aim, or natural disposition of that high. purpose, they pass their hours, aye, spirited and warm-hearted people. I may say their whole evenings,
66 The labouring class of society without mirth, recreation, or amuse. require diversions, but not exhibi- ment. When you add to this picture, tions; the government is not called the dreariness and filth of the vila upon to divert them, but to permit lages, the poor and slovenly dress them to divert themselves. For the of the inhabitants, the gloominess few days, the short moments, which and silence of their air, the laziness, they can devote to recreation and the want of concert and union so entertaioment, they will naturally striking every where, who but seek, and easily find amusement for would be astonished; who but themselves. · Let them merely be would be afflicted by so mournful a upmolested, and protected in the phænomenon ? This is not indeed enjoyment of them. A bright sky the place to expose the errors which
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conspire to produce it; but what forced on that account. There in ever those errors may be, one point some places where music and ringar is clear that they are all to be of bells*, others where balls u found in the laws. Without wander- marriage suppers are prohibia ing from my subject, I may be per. In one village the inhabitants 1x mitted to observe, that the chief retire to their houses at the carro mistake lies in the faulty police of in another they must not appear: our villages. Many magistrates are the streets without a light; there misled by an ill-judged zeal, to must not loiter about the corners : suppose that the perfection of muni. stop in the porches; and in all the cipal government consists in the are-subject to similar restraints as subjection of the people; they ima privations. gine that the great object of sub. 46 The rage for governing, is ordination is accomplished, if the some cases perhaps the avarice : inhabitants tremble at the voice of the magistrates has extended to a Justice, and no one ventures to most miserable hamlets, regulatser mové, or even to breathe, at the which would hardly be necessary very sound of her name. Hence all the confusion of a metropolis 21 any mob, any poise, or disturbance, the wretched husbandman who la is termed a riot or a tumult; and watered the carth with the sweats every little dispute or scuffle be. his brow, and slept on the grous comes the subject of a criminal throughout the week, cannot € proceeding, involving in its conse. Saturday night bawlat his will int" quences examinations and arrests, streets of his village, or chaunt a imprisonments and fines, with all ballad at the door of his sweether the train of legal persecutions and " Even the protince in which! vexations. Under such an oppres- five (Asturias), remarkable for the sive police, the people grow dispi- natural cheerfulness and innocent rited and disheartened, and sacri. manners of its inhabitants, is ex ficing their inclinations to their se- exempt from the hardship of simras curity, they abjure diversions, which, regulations. Indeed the disconter* though public and innocent, are which they produce, and which i replete with embarrasments, and have frequently witnessed, has set. have recourse to solitude and inac- gested many of these reflections ca tion, dull and painful indeed to the subject. The dispersion of i their feelings, but at least unmolest- population fortunately prevents that ed by law, and unattended with municipal police, which has becr. danger.
contrived for regular villages and 6. The same system has occasioned towns; the cottagers assemble for numberless regulations of police, their diversions at a sort of a wake not only injurious to the libertics, called Romerias, or Pilgrimages but prejudicial to the welfare and And there it is that the regulations prosperity of the villages, yet not of the police pursue and molest less harshly or less rigorously en. them. Sticks, which are used inose
* There is a custom in Spanish villages of parading the streets on holiday night with the bells taken from the mules and wethers. The rude kind of music the produce is called cencerrada.
on account of the inequality of the it, and the more cheerfully and wil country, than as a precaution for lingly do they contribute to its self delence, are prohibited in these maintenance and support. The wakes. Men dances are forbidden; greater their enjoyments, the more those of women must close early they have to lose; and the more in the evening; and the wakes therefore they fear any disturbance, themselves, the sole diversion of and the more they respect the au. these innocent and laborious vil. thorities intended to repress it. lagers, must break up at the bour Such a people feel more anxiety to of evening prayer. How can they enrich themselves, because they reconcile themselves with any cheer. must be conscious that the infulness to such vexatious interic. crease of their pleasures will keep rence? It may indeed be said they pace with the improvement of their bear it all.” Yes, it is true, they fortunes. In a word, they strive do bear it all; but they bear it more ardently to better their con. with an ill will; and who is blind dition, because they are certain of to the consequences of long and enjoying the fruits of their exertion reluctant submission. The state of If such then be one of the chief freedom is a state of peace and objects of a good government, why cheerfulness; a state of subjection is it so disregarded among us? Even is a state of uneasiness and discon. public prosperity, as it is called, if tent. The former then is perma. it be any thing but the aggregate of nent and durable, the latter unsta. individual happiness, depends upan ble and changeable.
the attainment of the object in ques66 All, therefore, is not accom- tion? for the power and strength of a plished when the people are quiet; state do not consist entirely in multi. they should also be contented; and tudes or riches, but in the moral cha, it is only a heart devoid of feeling, racter of its inhabitants. In point of or a head unacquainted with the act, can any nation be strong whose principles of government, that can subjects are weak, corrupt, harsh, harbour a notion of securing the unfeeling, and strangers to all sen first of these objects without obtain. timents of public spirit and patrioting the second. They who disregard ism? On the other hand, a people it, either do not see the necessary who meet often, and in security, in connexion between liberty and pros. public, for the purposes of diversion, perity; or, if they see it, they must necessarily become an united neglect it. The error in either and affectionate people; they can case is equally mischievous. For feel what a common interest is, and surely this connexion deserves the are consequently less likely to sacri. attention of every just apd mild fice it to their own personal views government. A free and cheerful and individual advantage. They people are always active and labo- have a higher spirit, because they rious; and an active and laborious are freer; a consciousness of which people are always attentive to morals, improves their notions of rectitnde, and observant of the 'laws. The and exalts their sentiments of hogreater their enjoyments, the more nour and courage. Every individual they love the government under respects his own class in such a which they live, the better they obey society, because he respects himself ;