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could not bring themselves to be- empire could be brought into con. lieve, that he was in earnest in his tact with that of England; what threats. Such reasoners alledged, expectations could he reasonably taat of all men, who had risen from entertain,. of transporting to her 23 obscure situation to a throne, shores an army of sufficient Bonaparte was the most prudent and force to subdue the country ; and, warv; that his caution and circum. if he landed with an army of infe. spection in forming his plans, were rior, and therefore inadequate as remarkable as his boldness and strength, what chance had he, de. activity in carrying them into exe. prived of the assistance of a fleet, cation; that no man had ever of maintaining his communications trusted so little to fortone, or used with the continent. But, while the so many precautions to ensure invasion of England was difficult success in all his enterprises; and unpromising of success, the that though no one had ever consequences of failing in so great displayed greater presence of mind, an enterprize, deserved the most or manifested greater resources in sérious consideration. Besides the danger, no man had ever shewn him. disgrace that necessarily attends ser more averse to engage unneces. miscarriage in affairs of such magni. sarily in hazardous undertakings, tude; the injurious effects of the or more disposed to distrust his loss of reputation to a military chief, fortune in the hour of success, His whose popularity was founded on moderation in victory, which he af- his uninterrupted successes; the fected to call magnanimity, they at. probability of discontent and mutributed to his prudence; and the tiny in his army, at the sight of yo offers and professions of peace, many thousands of their comrades which he was continually addressing sacrificed to an experiment, which, to his enemics, they regarded, not if it failed, every one was sure to 3 mere traps for popularity, but as condemn ; was it not clear, that indications of a frame of mind, the continental powers, whom which, though actuated by the most France had recently humbled and Totless ambition, and the sport at defeated, would be roused by her times of the most ungovernable tem. misfortune, to try once more with per, was nevertheless too thorough her the chance of war. Was the jy inpressed with the instability of disaster of Aboukir already forgothaman affairs, not to seek every ten, or the formidable coalition to opportunity of guarding against the which it gave rise ? Was Russia suncertainty of fortune. But, with less hostile to France than in the sach an opinion of Bonaparte's cha time of Paul, or Austria bciter re. racter, it was difficult to believe him conciled to the loss of so many of sincere in his threats of invasion her ancient provinces ? But, while against England. For, though the there were so many reasons against numbers and discipline of his army, attempting the invasion of England, the excellence of his officers, the Bonaparte had no urgent cause for genius and experience of his gene. stirring at all, and the prospect of rals, might inspire bim with the many advantages by remaining per. most confident hopes of success, fectly quiet. The presence of his provided the military force of his army at Boulogne was suficient



without invasion, to give occupation rials, which accident had lat to a great part of the English army, brought together, but which ti and to keep England in a state of had not cementod. Russia, recen constant preparation and alarm. in the closest connection w The expences of the war were France, had been disgusted w exhausting the resources of Eng- her ally, on account of an atroci gland, while the evils attending that and unprovoked act of violen state of things in France were com- committed by order of the Frer paratively small. The interruption goverument within the territory of her foreign trade had produced the German empire, the indepe little inconvenience, except in some ence of which Russia as well particular districts, after the first France was bound by treaty six months of the war. ller agri- protect. The resentment culture was flourishing. Her domes- Russia for this offence had been tic manufactures were encouraged creased by the bad faith of by the difficulty of procuring ma- French gorernment towards h Dufactured articles from abroad. self, in some private transactio Her capital was invested in occu. between them, not very reputa pations, which the hostility of Eng- to either party; and the petul land could not materially disturb. and insolent tone, with which There was nothing to precipitate complaints and claims of rear Bonaparte's measures, except the were answered by France, had r impaticnce of his army, which was voked her to recal her mini: pining in inaction at Boulogne. from Paris, and to break off all But it was not difficult to foresee, tercourse with the French gove that, if the discontents of his troops ment. In this moment of disg should ever com pel him to take the and ill humour, she was unfor field, he would contrive to carve pately prevailed upon by the s ont for himself some easier work citations of England, to come f on the continent, than the perilous ward as the chainpion and protec expedition against England. of the liberties of Europe, whi

But, whatever opinions might only two years before she had I have been held with respect to the her aid to oppress and subv probability or improbability of in Austria, who still owed her a gru vasion, antecedent to the period of for her conduct on that occasi which we treat, the issue of the late was, next, most unwillingly and vofortunate campaign upon the luctantly dragged into the confe continent had, at this time, mate- racy. Prussia, without whose rially altered the grounds, on operation, hostilities against Fra which the question might formerly should never have been resol liave been argued. It belongs not upon, was unaccountably neglet to us, as historians of 1806, to enter or overlooked in the formation at length into the history, or to the alliance : and so little were expatiate on the crrors of the ill- sentiments with regard to it kno concerted and worse conducted co- that, even when the allies had ta alition of 1805. Without any de- the field, it was doubtful whe finite or attainable object in view, she would not throw her we it was formed of discordant mates into the opposite scale, and dec


agaiast them.* To recapitulate the fear of a continental confederacy, mistakes and oversights of the dis. she had only to decide what was astroas campaign that followed, the most expedient and practicable would be a task as useless as it mode of conducting it. If it apwould be painful. Suffice it to say, peared possible to convert the Boythat the armies of Austria were logne Rotilla to any useful purpose, rained without a battle ; her capital and employ it in the service for was taken without resistance; and which it was prepared, Bonaparte scarcely had the miserable remains of might now risk a part of his army her army joined the Russians, in such an expedition, without fear. who were coming up to their as. ing a mutiny of his troops, or resistance, when they were compelled bellion of his people, in case it to hazard an engagement, which failed. If transports and ships of decided the fate of Europe, and war were thought necessary for completed the triumph of France carrying over his army, he had over the continent. In this too (besides the ports of France) Flushmemorable action it is true that a ing and Ferrol, and Lisbon (when sball part only of the Russian army he chose), to receive and give shel. was engaged. But, as the French ter to the naval forces which he justly boasted, the secret of the destined for the enterprize. If Russians was discovered, and the England had nothing to apprehend inferiority of their blind, though from any number of troops, which steady courage, when tried against he could land upon her shores, the discipliaed valour and scientific there were other parts of the Bri. tactics of their opponents, was but tish empire, not equally invulnera. too clearly and fully ascertained, ble to his attacks. Ireland was exRassia, indeed, was still unconscious posed by her grievances to the se.. and unapprehensive of this truth. duction of his emissaries, and easily Further and more severe lessons accessible by her situation to the from experience, were necessary to invasion of his army. Rebellion convince her, that the power of an had in that country been put down, empire is not to be measured by its but discontent still existed in the extent, and that Serfs and wander- minds of the people. The fire, ing Barbarians are removed by an which had lately blazed with such immense interval from an equality fury, was smothered, but not extin. with the civilized nations of the guished. The late rejection of the west of Europe.

Catholic petition by parliament After the peace of Presburgh, bad not tended to conciliate that France was at liberty to direct her body: and, though the more modewhole force and energies to the rate of the Catholics were ready to subjagation of England. No lon- postpone the discussion of their ger deterred from invasion by the claims, till the only obstacle to the

• “The arrival of the second Russian army was delayed more than a month by the first armaments which the court of Berlin threatened to oppose to those of Russia." Extract from a memoir on the situation of affairs, communicated by Count Stabrembere. Sup. Papers, P. 52.



full redress of their grievances was they had the weakness to believe, removed ; and the prudent and con. in preference to the official dis.. siderate. were disinclined to those patches, of which he was the bearviolent counsels, from which they er. This miserable fabrication was had already suffered so much ; it eagerly circulated by the ministers was not to be supposed that all the then in town, and for some days it Irish Roman Catholics were mode. met with universal credit among rate and prudent, but, that many their adherents; but when the his of them would join themselves to a tory, as well as the falsehood of French army, as soon as it made their intelligence was known, it its appearance in their country. covered thein with shame and ridi.

At this noment of danger and cule, and exposed them to the deri. dismay, when the surrender of Ulm sion even of those who had been and battle of Austerlitz were still the dupes of their story. recent events, when the extent of In this posture of affairs, parliathe late calamities was still un. ment, after repeated prorogations, known, and the immediate cousc. was at length suffered to meet, on quences were apprehended to be Tuesday, Jan. 21, and, as the state more fatal than they have yet of his majesty's eyes did not permit proved, there was no efficient go. him to open that assembly in pervernment in England. Mr. Pitt, son, it was done by commission, in whose wisdom and patriotism the the commissioners being the lord great majority of the people had, for chancellor, the archbishop of Can. many years reposed their confidence, terbury, lord Ellenborough lord was sick at Bath., Ilis colleagues chief justice, the earl of Dartmouth were men of very inferior parts, lord chamberlain, and lord llawkesand at that time they had credit for bury principal secretary of state still less ability than they possessed. for the home department. After By giving effect to a system of ex. the usual formalities, the commis. clusion, in the formation of his mi. sion was read by the clerk at the nistry, he had suffered his country table, and the lord chancellor to be deprived, at the late critical then read the speech from the period, of the services of her ablest throne. statesmen, and he had now the mor- The principal topics of the tification to behold his schemes on speech were congratulations on the the continent baffled by the enemy, splendour of our late naval sucand his government at home desti- coses, mixed with suitable exprestute of any effective support but his sions of regret for the limented own. If any thing could have les. loss of lord Nelson, and a reconsened the public opinion of his coi- mendation tu parliament to bestow leagues, it would have been the some mark of national munilicence publication, at this time, of their on his family. His majesty next demi-official bulletins, in which they informed parliament that he had diannounced a great victory of the rected the treaties to be laid before allies over the French, after the them, which he had concluded with battle of Austerlitz,, on no better foreign powers; and while he laauthority than the report of a pra. mended the late disastrous events ting messenger, whose idle hearsays on the continent, he congratulated . .. . 3 .


them on the assurances which he the interests and security of his continued to receive from the en. own dominions, as well as to the peror of Russia, of that monarch’s general safety of the continent.” determination to adhere to his alli. But where, and in what manner, it ance with Great Britain. He then might be asked, had his majesty's signified to the house of commons, government sustained the efforts of that he had directed the sum of one his allies? was it by landing an ar. million, accruing to the crown my in the north of Germany after frosn the droits of admiralty, to be the capitulation of Ulm; or, by applied to the public service of the disembarking troops in Naples, af. year; and concluded by recom. ter the French had evacuated that meading vigilance and exertion kingdom? or, by sending an expeagainst the enemy, as by such means dition to a distant part of the globe, alone the present contest could be under sir David Baird and sir Home brought to a conclusion consistent Pophaz, instead of cmploying the with the safety and independence whole disposable force of the em. of the country, and with its rank pire in some effective diversion in among the nations of the world.* favour of Austria ? Had proposals

The address, which, as usual, of peace, of any sort, been made to was an echo of the speech, was France by the allies, antecedent to moved, in the house of lords, by the recommencement of hostilities? the earl of Essex, and seconded by as from repeated declarations of lord Carleton, and in the house of his majesty's government, and more commods, it was moved by lord particularly from the tenor of lord Francis Spencer, and seconded by Mulgrave's letter to Talleyrand, Mr. Ainslie.

(14th Jan. 1805) the public had The speech, as was stated by lord 'been led to expect. Whatever Ilawkesbury in the house of lords, might have been the principles on had been intentionally couched in which the late coalition was form. sach language, as, it was supposed, cd, could it be denied, that the would create no difference of opi. consequences to which it had led, Dion, as to the terms of the address; were so disastrous as to call for the and, accordingly, the only part of enquiry of parliament? Could any it, which could lead to any discus. acquiescence, however slight, in sion or debate, was a passage, in the late measures of administration,

hicb his majesty, in allusion to be expected from those, who, at the late war and coalition on the the conclusion of the preceding ses. continent, had been advised to sion of parliament, taking it for " express his confidence, that his granted that some terms of peace parliament would be of opinion, would be offered to the enemy, that he had left nothing undone, had entreated ministers that they on his part, to sustain the efforts might be reasonable, and such as of his allies, and that he had acted lis majesty's government, if in the ia strict conformity to the princi- place of the French government, ples declared by bim, and recog. would not think it unreasonable to sized by parliament as essential to accept? who had expressed an opi.

* For the speech itself, see State Papers, page'634,

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