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however, from an intermixture with that are amply endowed, whose the Malays of Malacca and the buildings are extensive and enclosed Hindoos of the upper and eastern with walls for their better security, regions of Hindostan, the traces of The houses in general near Turonthe Chinese character are in many bay consisted only of four mud respects nearly obliterated. The walls, covered with thatch ; and such Cochinchinese of Turon, notwith. as are situated on low grounds, in standing the loose manners of the the neighbourhood of rivers, are women which I shall presently have usually raised upon four posts of occasion to notice, and the tendency wood, or pillars of stone, to keep which all revolutions in governments out vermin as well as inundatious. have to change, in a greater or less The dress of the Cochinchinese degree, the character of the people, bas undergone not only an altera. have preserved in most respects a tion, but a very considerable close resemblance to their original, abridgment. They wear Deither though in some points they differ thick shoes, nor quilted stockings, from it very widely. They per- por clumsy sattin boots, nor petti. fectly agree, for instance, in the coats stuffed with wadding; bet etiquette observed in marriage and always go barelegged and generally funeral processions and ceremonies, barefooted. Their long black hair. in the greater part of religious super- like that of the Malays, is usually stitions, in the offerings usually pre. twisted into a knot, and fixed on the sented to idols, in the consultation crown of the head. This, indeed, of oracles, and in the universal pro. is the ancient mode in which the pensity of inquiring into futurity by Chinese wore their hair, until the the casting of lots; in charming Tartars, on the conquest of the away diseases; in the articles of country, compelled them to submit diet and the mode of preparing to the ignominy of sharing the whole them ; in the nature of most of their head except a little lock of hair public entertainments and amuse. behind. ments ; in the construction and on the precepts of Confucius is devices of fire-works; in instru. grounded the moral system for the ments of music, games of chance, regulation of the conduct in this cock-fighting and quail-fighting. country as well as in China. Here, The spoken language of Cochin, however, to the exterior forms of china, though on the same principle, morality very little regard seems to is so much changed from the original be paid. In China these precepts as to be nearly, if not wholly, unin. are gaudily displayed in golden chatelligible to a Chinese; but the racters in every house, in the streets written character is precisely the and public places; but here they same. All the temples which fell are seldom seen and never heard. under our observation were very Were they, indeed, repeated in their humble buildings; and we saw no original language, (and they will specimens either of the heavy curved scarcely bear a translation, they roofs, or of the towering pagodas, would not be understood. Their so frequently met with in China; conduct, in general, seems to be but it seems there are, in many as little influenced by the solemn parts of the country, monasteries precepts of religion as by those of
morality. The Cochinchinese are, occupied in the transplanting of like the French, always gay and for rice. In fact, all the labours of ever talking; the Chinese always tillage, aud the various employments grave, and affect to be thinking: the connected with agriculture, seem to former are open and familiar, the fall to the share of the female pea. latter close and reserved. A Chi. santry; whilst those in Turon, to nese would consider it as disgraceful the management of domestic con. to commit any affair of importance cerns, and the superintendance of to a woman. Women, in the esti. all the details of commerce. They mation of the Cochinchinese, are even assist in constructing and keep. best suited for, and are accordingly ing in repair their mud-built cot. entrusted with, the chief concerns tages; they conduct the manufacture of the family. The Chinese code of of coarse earthen ware vessels ; politeness forbids a woman to talk they manage the boats on rivers and unless by way of reply, to laugh in harbours; they bear their articles beyond a smile, to sing unless desire of produce to market ; they draw ed, and, as to dancing, she labours the cotton wool from the pod, free under a physical restriction which it from the seeds, spin it into makes this kind of movement impos. thread, weave it into cloth, dye it sible. Io Cochinchina the women of its proper colour, and make it are quite as gay and unrestrained up into dresses for themselves and as the men. And as a tolerably ac. their families. Almost all the curate conclusion may be drawn of younger part of the males are com. the state of their society, from the pelled to enrol themselves in the condition in which the female part army; and such as are exempt from of it is placed, and the consideration military service employ themselves in which the female character is occasionally in fishing, in collecting held among them, I shall be more swallow's nests and the biches de particular in describing the situation mer among the neighbouring islands, here assigned to them, in so far at as luxuries for the use of their own least as our limited means afforded great men, but more particularly as us the opportunity of observing, articles of export for the China than on other points.
market; in felling timber ; building In some of the provinces of China and repairing ships and boats, and women are condemned to the de. a few other occupations which, how. grading and laborious task of drag, ever, they take care shall not engross ging the plough, and otherwise cm- their whole time, but contrive to ployed in various kinds of heavy leave a considerable portion of it drudgery. In Cochinchina it would unemployed, or employed only in appear likewise to be the fate of the the pursuit of some favourite amuse. weaker sex to be doomed to those ment: for they are not by any means occupations which require, if not of an idle disposition. But the the greatest exertions of bodily activity and the industry of the strength, at least the most persever. women are so upabating, their pur. ing industry.. We observed them, suits so varied, and the fatigue they day after day, and from morning undergo so harassing, that the Cotill night, standing in the midst of chinchinese apply to then the same pools of water, up to the knees, proverbial cxpression which we
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confer fishing, and travelling, were here stands the theatre, which is seldm moved together in one compact opened, and on the other the bos. body, so as to render it indifferent pital, Funchal, like other towu to them, whether they should return and cities of Roman Catholic cous. to the home from whence they came, tries, has no scarcity of churchev or take up a new abode in any and conrents ; but we met with other part of the forest,
little in any of them that could be considered as deserving of particules
notice. The beams and the roof of On the Island of Madeira. From the cathedral are pointed out to Barrow's royage to Cochinchina. strangers as being of cedar, a spe.
cies of tree with which it is said the The few good dwelling-houses island was at its discovery Dearly that are found in the town (of Fun- covered. Another curiosity which chal) are those which are occupied is shewn in the town is a chamber is by the British merchants, who onc of the wings of the Franciscan hare established themselves here in convent, the walls and ceiling the wine trade. These houses are in which are completely covered with general sufficiently spacious, but rows of human skulls and humus neither commodious nor comfort. thigh bones, so arranged that in the able. These and a few others ex. obtuse angle made by every pait cepted, all the rest have rather a of the latter, crossing each other mean appearance. Their roofs are obliquely, is placed a skull. The chiefly covered with tiles, on which only vacant space that appears is in Jarge loose stones are laid to pre. the centre of the side opposite to vent their being carried away by the door, on which there is an es: the blasts of wind that occasionally traordinary painting abore a kind blow with great violence from the of altar, but what the subject is in mountains behind the town. The tended to represent I am really at a extent of Funchal may be nearly a loss to decide. A figure in the pic mile in a line parallel with the ture, intended probably for S. beach, and rather more than half a Francis, the patron saint, seems to mile in depth. It is said to contain bc intent on trying in a balance the two thousand houses, occupied by comparative weight of a sioner and abont twelve thousand inhabitants. a saint. But a very accurate There are besides six other small drawing, from which a print a towns or villages on the island, the taken for Mr. Barrow's work, whole population of which, includ. by Mr. Daniell, will perhaps best ing Funchal, is estimated to amount explain the subject. to about ninety thousand persons. A dirty lamp suspended from
At a little distance behind the the ceiling, and just glimmering in government-house, which stands the socket, served dimly to light up within the fort Lorenço, and over- this dismal den of skulls. The old looks the bay, is the Passao Publico, monk who attended as shewman the public mall, a short but very was very careful to impress us with pretty walk, well shaded with the idea that they were all relics of orange or lime trees, willows and holy men who had died on the poplars. On one side of the entrance island ; but I suspect they must of
prevails at one of the most frequent. ings and shoes they are wholly un. ed of its sea-port towns. The şio. acquainted; but the upper ranks gular indulgence, granted by the wear a kind of sandals or loose sliplaws of Solon, of permitting young pers. As a holiday dress, on parti. women to dispose of personal fa- cular occasions, a lady puts on three vours, for the purpose of enabling or four frocks at once, of different them to procure articles of the first colours and lengths; the shortest necessity for themselves or their fa- being uppermost. Their long black milies, is sanctioned by the Cochin hair is sometimes twisted into a knot chinese without any limitation as to and fixed on the crown of the head, age, condition, or object. Neither and sometimes hangs in flowing the husband nor the father seem to tresses down the back, reaching fre. have any scruples in abandoning quently to the very ground. Short the wife or the daughter to her hair is not only considered as a gallant.
mark of vulgarity, but an indication There was little prepossessing in of degeneracy. The dress of the the general appearance and charac- men has little, if any thing, to ter of the Cochinchinese. The wo- distinguish it from that of the other men had but slender pretensions to sex, being chiefly confined to a beauty; yet the want of personal jacket and a pair of trowsers. Some charms was in some degree compen- wear handkerchiefs tied round the sated by a lively and cheerful tem. head in the shape of a turban ; per, totally unlike the dull, the others have hats or caps of various morose, and secluded Chinese. An forms and materials, but most of expressive countenance, being as them calculated for protecting the much the result of education and face against the rays of the sun ; sentiment as a delicate set of fea- for which purpose they also tures and a fine complexion are of make use of umbrellas of strong health, case, exemption from drud. China paper, or skreens of the gery and exposure to the vicissitudes leaves of the borassus or fan-palm of the weather, could hardly be ex. and other kinds of the palm-tribe, pected in Cochinchina. In point of or fans made of feathers. Con. fact, both sexes are coarse featured, sonant with the appearance of their and their colour nearly as deep as mean and scanty cloathing, as frethat of the Malay; and, like these quently thrown loosely over their people, the universal custom of shoulders as fitted to the body, were chewing areca and betel, by redden. their lowly cabins of bamboo. In ing the lips and blackening the short, nothing met the eye that teeti, gives them an appearance still could impress the mind of a stranger more unseemly than nature intend. with high notions of the happy coned. The dress of the women was dition of this people. by no means fascinating. A loose cotton frock, of a brown or blue colour, reaching down to the middle On the State of the Arts, &c. From of the thigh, and a pair of black
the same. nankin trowsers made very wide, constitute in general their common That particular branch of the arts cloathing. With the use of stock. in which the Cochinchinese may be
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said to excel at the present day is of matting, under which a whole naval architecture, for which, how. family constantly resides; and ever, they are not a little indebted others, resembling the common to the size and quality of the timber proas of the Malays, both as to employed for that purpose. Their their hulls and rigging. Their fo. row-gallies for pleasure are remark. reign traders are built on the same ably fine vessels. These boats, plan as the Chinese juoks, the form from fifty to eighty feet in length, and construction of which are cer. are sometimes composed of five sin. tainly not to be held out as perfect gle planks, each extending from one models of naval architecture; yet, extremity to the other, the edges as they have subsisted some thou. morticed, kept tight by wooden sands of years unaltered, they are at pins, and bound form by twisted least entitled to a little respect from fibres of bamboo, without either the antiquity of the invention. As ribs or any kind of timbers. At these vessels never were intended the stem and stern they are raised to for ships of war, extraordinary a considerable height, and are curi. swiftness for pursuit or escape was ously carved into monstrous figures not an essential quality : security of dragons and serpents, ornamented rather than speed was the object of with gilding and painting. A num. the owner. And as no great capi. ber of poles and spears bearing flags tals were individually employed in and streamers, pikes ornamented trade, and the merchant was both with tufts of cows' tails painted owner and navigator, a limited too. red, lanterns and umbrellas, and page was sufficient for his own mer. other insignia denoting the rank of chandize ; the vessel was therefore the passenger, are erected at each divided, in order to obviate this in. end of the boat. And as these peo. convenience, into distinct compart. ple, like the Chinese, differ in most ments, so that one ship might sepa. of their notions from the greater rately accommodate mapy merportion of mankind, the company chants. The bulk heads by which always sit in the fore part of the these divisions were formed consist. boat; but as it would be a breached of planks of two inches thick, so of good manners for the rowers to well caulked and secured as to be turn their backs on the passengers, completely water-tight. they stand with their faces towards Whatever objections may be the bow of the boat, pushing the started against the dividing of ships' oars from them instead of pulling holds, and the interference in the towards them, as is usually done in stowage seems to be the most matethe western world. The servants rial one, it cannot be denied that it and the baggage occupy the stern of gives to large vessels many importhe boat. The vessels that are em. tant advantages. A ship, thus forploved in the coasting trade, the tified with cross bulk heads, may fishing craft, and those which collect strike on a rock and yet sustain (no the trepan and swallow's nests serious injury; a leak springing in among the cluster of islands called one division of the hold will not be the Paracels, are of various descrip. attended with any damage to the tions ; many of them, like the Chi. articles placed in another : and by nese Sampaos, covered with sheds the ship being thus so well bound