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five thousand pipes. The greatest doing, of a gentleman who has been quantity exported in any one year thirty years on the island, that so appears to have been fifteen thou. large a quantity of wine should sand pipes, in the following man- annually be sent to India, and cos. ner:

sumed there, (for of this not 300 To the East Indies - Pipes 5500 pipes a year are returned to EnTo England . . . . . 4500 rope,) and so little imported into To the West Indies . - 3000 England. The latter would appear To America, and taken away to be of less difficult explanation by Americans

2000 than the former ; for although it is - supposed that the quantity consum15000 ed in Great Britain, under the name

of Madeira, is, on the least calcula. The value of which, with a little tion, equal to the whole quantity fruit and other articles exported, that is exported from the island, or may be estimated at 500,000l., of more than three times what is actu. which more than 400,0001. is taken ally imported, yet it is well known by Great Britain aud its colonies, that a variety of mixtures pass for in exchange for various manufac. Madeira, some of which are com, tures and provisions, amounting in pounded of wines that never grew value to, about 300,000l., making on the island, as those of Teneriffe, thus a balance against us of 100,0001. Lisbon and Xeres. And with reAmerica supplies the island with gard to India it may be observed, lumber, staves, salt provisions, and that although the number of English grain, to the amount of 80,0001. there is very limited, and few of any annually, which is more than is im- other nation drink Madeira wine, ported into the island by Portugal yet this and claret are the only from Europe, Brazil, and the wines in general consumption at Azores ; and the whole amount both the presidencies and in the of produce taken by the mothers army, the former of which is freely country from Madeira does not ex. used during dinner. ceed 10,0001. The total revenues This wine is known to possess of the island, consisting of one- many extraordinary qualities. I tenth of the produce and duties ou have heard it asserted, that if pure import and export, are said to genuine Madeira be exposed to frost amount to about 100,0001., out of until it is congealed into a solid mass which, after paying the expences of ice, and again thawed by the fire ; of the civil, military, and ecelesias- if heated to the boiling point, and tical establishments, the crown is then left to cool; if exposed to the supposed to receive about 30,0001., sun for weeks together in open although the old governor assured casks, or placed in damp. cellars; it lord Macartney that the net sum will not suffer the least injury by received by the crown of Portugal such great and violent changes. seldom exceeded eight or ten thou- That part, however, which is con. sand pounds.

sumed on the island is a raw meagre It will appear extraordinary, and beverage, which, if compared with I should not have ventured to men. London particular, is as bad as small tion it bad I not the authority for so beer to fine ale.

The

The usual mode of training the appeared to be of a grave and seri. vines is by basket-work fixed to ous disposition, seldom speaking to espaliers, about five feet high ; but each other, and indicating an arer. in some vineyards they are led up sion to communicate with strangers. trees, or high poles ; and in others, They had long black hair, and the cut down to the height of two or beard was visible only on the upper three feet, as at the cape of Good lip and under the chin. Those who Hope. In some places, the hills engage in this service are said to be are terraced, in order to retain the so much delested by their country. soil, by stone walls. The process men, as to prevent them from ever of making the wine is very simple. returning to the horde, apprehensive The grapes are picked from the that if once in their possession they stalk, thrown into a vat, pressed would certainly be put to death. first with the feet and afterwards by When the Portuguese were suffia weighted wooden lever. The pro. ciently convinced of the inefficacy prietor of the land and the collector of the attempt to reduce the Brazi. of the taxes for the crown, both lians to slavery, or to compel them attend at the press; the latter takes to submit to the labours of agri. out of the tub his tenth of the whole culture, their next recourse was to must, after which the remainder is the settlements they had already acequally divided between the land. quired on the coast of Africa for owner and the tenant. Each takes a supply of negroes. Whole cargoes with him a sufficient number of of these ill-fated people were annoporters to carry away their respec. ally transported from their native tive shares, sometimes in barrels, and country and their connections, cut sometimes in goat-skin bourachas, off from every hope of returning to the cellars in Funchal. The and doomed to toil for the remainEnglish merchants usually supply der of their days in the foreign fields the farmers beforehand with money, of South America. The number to enable them to make a more ex. which at present is said to be annutensive tillage.

ally imported amounts, on an ave. rage, to twenty thousand ; and as

this demand is constant, whilst the General Observations on the Brazils. quantity of produce is supposed to From the same.

be little, if at all increased, for seve

ral years past, there are strong · The antipathy of the Brazilians grounds to suspect that at least an to the Portuguese is so great that equal number to those imported the viceroy is not able, without must be destroyed erery year. Yet some difficulty, to keep up an esta. these people make a boast of treat. blishment of twelve rowers of the ing their slaves better than any other state-barge. These were the only nation. The French and the Dutch real patives we had an opportunity do the same; and they all unite in of seeing during our stay of three asserting that the English are the weeks. Their features were not most cruel to their slaves. People, much different from those of the however, are apt to differ in their Malays, Tartars, and Chinese. potions of humanity, as well as on Their stature was short. They less important points; and, where

the

following yćar, however, he was field vacated his seat for Cambridge returned for thc borough of Apple- by accepting the office of solicitor. by, by the interest of sir James general, and his return for the Lowther. On taking his seat in university was unsuccessfully op. the house of commons, he enlisted posed by Mr. Pitt, who was treated himself on the side of the party with contempt by many of the which had constantly opposed the heads and members of the college. minister, lord North, and the Ame. One of them almost threw the door ricap war, and which regarded him in his face, and wondered at the with a degree of veneration; reco. impudence of the young man, goising in his person the genius of thus to come down and disturb the his illustrious father, revived and peace of the university! From such acting, as it were, in him. His first 'a scene he retired in a few days in speech was in favour of col. Barré's disgust; and afterwards went motion for substituting a set of abroad for some time, visiting other gentlemen, than what the France, Italy, and several of the minister (lord North) had ap. German courts. pointed, as commissioners for au. A few months, however, changed diting the public accompts, at the the scene; the British dominions in head of whom was John Elwes, India having long been in an alarm., esq.; and one of the first acts, in ing situation, it was generally ad. which he took the lead in that nitted that an immediate remedy housc, was extremely well calcu. was indispensably necessary to prc. lated to increase his popularity; serve them. On this occasion, Mr. this was his motion for a committee, Fox, then secretary of state, formed, to consult upon the most effectual digested, and brought forward his means to accomplish a more equal famous India bill, which he carried representation of the people in par. through its several stages in the liament,

lower house with a high hand; but On the death of the marquis of it being rejected by the lords, the Rockingham, the old whig party coalition ministry was thrown out, fell into a state of disunion, nearly and lord North with his new allies bordering upon dissolution. A new were accordingly dismissed, and arrangement took place soon after, that too in a very unusual manner; and lord Shelburne became the first and Mr. Pitt, the new premier, lord of the treasury, assisted by who had in the interim re-appeared Mr. Pitt, who astonished the coua. on the great theatre of politics, try, and, indeed, all Europe, by the was assisted by lord Thurlow, as phenomenon of a chancellor of keeper of the great seals---arrangethe exchequer at the age of twenty. ments, which, at that time, were, Three!

however, only considered as tem. This administration, however, of porary. which he was one of the most dis- He now astonished the commer. tinguished members, was short-lived. cial and political world, by his own On its dissolution, and the coalition India bill! He had, however, the ministry being formed, Mr. Mans- mortification to find the majority of

the and not immediately pressed, the sheet anchors of our commercial juice begins to ferment, and is fit prosperity. only to be converted by distillation The ruin of the West India into rum. At these seasons, there- islands, it is to be feared, would fore, and particularly in the latter, equally affect the tranquillity of every hand that can work, however those colonies on the continent of feebly, is of importance to the South America, in the possession of planter; and the urgent demand for the English and the Dutch, whick labour sometimes makes him wholly would tend in a very material degree insensible to acts of inhumanity, to enhance the value of the poster which, perhaps, at other times, might sions of Spain and Portugal on the appear to him in their true light, and same continent. But the restrictions, as odious and atrocious in the ex. the exactions, and the monopolies, treme. This is not the case in the under which the settlements of these Brazils. The season of planting, two powers are oppressed, and the on account of the longer continu - total want of energy in the inhabit. ance of rain, is at least two months ants, which necessarily results from longer here than in the West Indies; such a system, are so many in vincible and the gradual ripening of the barriers against any improvement plants protracted in the same pro. which favourable circumstancesmight portion. It is not therefore found otherwise suggest. Few countries af. to be necessary herc, as is the case ford so great a number or so great a in our colonies, to drive the slaves variety of valuable productions as to work with the crack or the lash the Brazils. Beside the articles de of the whip, or to regulate the scribed in eight ancient paintings stroke of the bill or the hoe by the which are noticed in a former chapter measure of a forced song.

of the original work, the country proIf it should unfortunately happen duces an inexhaustible supply of the that our colonies in the West Indies finest timber, suitable for all the may ultimately be involved in the purposes of civil and naval architecfate of St. Domingo, a considerable ture; but the cutting and disposing mass of property will no doubt be of it is a monopoly of the crown lost to this country; but, at the The first object of every man whs same time, it cannot well be denied obtains a grant of woodland, is to that this loss would be productive destroy the best trees as fast as bu of a most important saving to the can: because he is not only forbid. state, by the number of British sub. den to send them to market, bit jects who, in their removal to a may have the additional mortifica. better climate, would escape a pre. tion of being obliged to entertais mature death. The most valuable the king's surveyor, whenever be productions of the West India thinks fit to pay him a visit, with a islands were originally transplanted numerous retiue, for the purpose from the East, where the labour of of felling the timber, which he, a slaves is not required, nor any ex. owner of the estate, has not the traordinary waste of Europeans oc. power to prevent. Yet, notwithcasioned. To this source we may standing this discouraging monopoly, again recur, and India and China together with the difficulty of transmay eventually prove the great port, on account of the badness e

the roads, and the scarcity of ship- evening preceding we observed an wrights, very fine vessels, equal in unusual bustle about the place, an size to an English 74 gun-ship, have increased number of troops in and been constructed at Bahia or St. about the town, besides several huge Salvador, and sent afloat, at the ex elephants of war. We therefore, on pence of about fifteen or sixteen our part, took the precaution of pounds a ton, which in England sending the two armed brigs up the would have cost from twenty-four river opposite to the town, to make to thirty-four pounds a.ton. a retreat, if necessary, the more

Wheat, barley, Guinea corn, mil. secure. The day, however, passed let and all the European and tropical over in harmony and conviviality. grains are produced in the greatest We were conducted from the place abundance ; and all species of pro. of landing to a temporary building, visions and supplies for victualling on a larger scale than that which we and storing ships, and fitting them had hitherto occasionally occupied. out for actual service at sea, are The two pitches of its roof were, procurable at moderate rates in supported by a row of bamboo poles almost all the ports of the Brazils. which, running down the middle, At Rio de Janeiro alone a pary divided the building into two parts. might be built, equipped, and fitted The sides and the roof were covered with every necessary for a sea voy- with thick double matts, and lined age, sufficient to command the navi. within with coarse Manchester cot. gation of the southern Atlantic ; tons, of various patterns. These and the fisheries, by proper encou- prints appeared to be new, but ragement, would create a never- damaged, and were probably the failing supply of seamen. Both the refuse of the China market, carried black whale and the spermaceti are thither by the Portuguese trader. plentiful on every part of the coast. In the first compartment of the

building was a long table covered

with linen, and laid out with plates, Account of a Theatrical Entertain. knives and forks, in the manger and ment at Cochinchina. From the style of Europe. Our Portuguese Same.

friend, it seemed, by way of making

some atonement for the injury he The ambassador had not as yet had nearly, though perhaps not landed at the town of Turon; and maliciously, done us, had prevailed as the principal officers of that place on the Cochinchinese to allow him were extremely desirous of testifying to be master of the ceremonies their respect by a public entertain. for the day, concluding in his own ment to be given on the occasion, mind that, as the eating and drinkhis lordship fixed on the 4th of ing would be considered by us as the June for celebrating, with the Co. best part of the entertainment, he chinchincse on shore, the anniver would be able to suit our taste in sary of his majesty's birth-day. these respects better than the Coa Whether through accident, or in chinchinese.; and under this impres. consequence of former suspicions, sion, to do him justice, he had or to give eclat to the entertain. spared neither trouble nor expence ment, did not appear, but on the in making his dianer as complete as

Vol. XLVIII.

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