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The Javanese who must perform the dangerous office of making these animals quit their cages, may not, when they have done, notwithstanding they are in great danger of being torn in pieces by the enraged beasts, leave the open space, before they have saluted thic emperor several times, and his majesty has given them a signal to depart; they then retire slowly, for they are not permitted to walk, fast, to the circle, and mix with the other Javanese.'

• The emperors sonetimes make criminals condemned to death fight with tigers. In such cases, the man is rubbed with berri, or turmeric, and has a yellow piece of cloth put, round him, a kris ist then given to him, and he is conducted to the field of combat.

· The tiger, who has, for a long time, been kept fasting, falls, upon the man with the greatest fury, and generally strikes him down at once, with his paw, but if he be fortunate enough to avoid thise, and to wound the animal, so that it quits him, the emperor then commands him to attack the tiger; and the man is then generally the victim: and even if he ultimately succeed in killing his ferocious, antagonist, he must suffer death, by the command of the emperor,

• An officer in our Company's service, who had long been stationed at the courts of the Javanese emperors, related to me, that he was once witness to a most extraordinary occurrence of this kind, namely, that: a Javanese who had been condemned to be torn in pieces by tigerss and, for that purpose, had been thrown down, from the top, iuio a: krge cage, in which several tigers were confined, fortunately fel exactly upon the largest and fiercest of them, across whose back he sat astride, without the animal doing him any harm, and even, on the contrry, appearing intimidated; while the others also, awed by the unusual posture and appearance which he made, dared not at-: tempt to destroy ķim; he could not, however, avoid the punishment of death, to which he had been condemned, for the emperor conimanded him to be shot dead in the cage.' · From Batavia, the author was ordered to Macasser and to Amboyna.-The inhabitants of Celebes are by most writers described as a very enterprising and capable people. The Captain has given an account of some of the kingdoms into which the southern part of Celches is divided ; and he has also related the manner in which his countrymen established themselves on the island : which appears to have been effected by a system of interference in the quarrels of the different chiefs, similar to that which they practised at Java. Some of the small states' in this island have been described as under a republican form of government, or rather under an aristocracy. The king of Goach, who is tributary to the Company, the author tells us, is subject to the laws of the land, and may rot perform any important regal functions, without the concurrence and approbation of the body of the nobility. Crimes are punished according to laws, &c.

The authority of the Dutch Company in Celebes, in the author's time, had considerably decided. in the disputes 17



between the kingdoms of Macasser and Boni, the former being the more powerful, the politics of the Dutch led them to assisc the people of Boni, and for a long time it was an adopted maxim that Macasser should be continually kept under. This maxim, says the Captain, was so strictly observed, that Bone has been rendered so great and powerful, that it is at present out of all question to prescribe bounds or rules to that kingdom. Wadjo, another kingdom, to the north of Boni, likewise maintains itself independent. The author characterises the people as living very peaceably among themseives ; and as being the greatest merchants of Celebes, and at present, also, the richest and most redoubted nation of the island. They pay no regard to any engagements either with the Company or with Boni, alleging that they have been cancelled by the last war.'

The principal production of Celebes is rice; of which the island yields more than a sufficiency for its inhabitants, though they are very numerous. A slave-trade is likewise carried on here, and Batavia, and many of the eastern Dutch settlements, are provided with slaves from Celebes. • They are, in general, kidnapped and sold in secret to the Europeans, who carry them away in their ships.

The scenes of cruelty and cool villainy, which are so frequently laid open in the narrative of this voyage, cannot fail to produce, in every considerate and humane mind, a sentiment of shame and indignation, at the callous and depraved conduct of our fellow-creatures. Many of the East-Indian nations (not exempting the Malays) are violent in the pursuit of their revenge, and but little restrained by principle in the pursuit of their interest. The picture here exhibited of the European represents a character less addicted to revenge, and more steadily intent on his interest: but capable of deliberately destroying others, or of inflicting on them any misery which he conceives will conduce to that interest.

In the passage from Celebes to Amboyna, the remarks and directions in a navigation so little frequented by any Europeans, except the Dutch, will be the more useful, as the common charts are supposed to be remarkably incorrect; many errors and omissions being, the author thinks, intentionally continued through the policy of the Dutch India Company. The Captain says of the island Bouton, near to which they sailed, that the • king of this island is in alliance with the Company, who pay him a yearly sum of one hundred and fifty rixdollars in new Dutch coin, upon condition that he should not only permit the extirpation by the Company of all the clove-trees in this and the neighbouring islands, but also assist them in effecting it. For this purpose, the Company annually send out a ser

jeant, jeant, who is styled the extirpator, and who goes through the woods in all the islands, and causes all the clove-trees which he meets with to be cut down.'

This system of extirpation has been carried by the Dutch to a prodigious extent. The translator has given the following note :

• A short time before the coming of the Portuguese in Amboyna, the Cerammers of Cambello secretly brought some mother-cloves in hollow bamboo3 from Machian, whence they were propagated all over Ceram, Amboyna, and the neighbouring islands, and in the space of fifty or sixty years the whole of Hoewamochil was covered with them. This was told to the Dutch when they first came to Cambello, and some of the trees first planted were shewn to them, behind the hill of Massili ; the memory of it is likewise preserved in the tradi. tionary songs of the Amboynese. The brave and enterprizing inhabitants of Cambello were rewarded for the openness with which they shewed the Dutch their treasures, by the destruction of all their clove-trees, and the deprivation of the fruits of their industry, and exertion ; the implacable enmity which they in consequence enter· tained for the Dutch, and their repeated attacks upon the forts, which their enemies established in their country, have been stigmatized by the Dutch writers, as a base and wicked spirit of disobedience, and an unjust and cruel lust of blood and warlare ; so that,” says VALENTÝN, “ it would have been better, if, instead of extirpating their trees alone, we had, at the same time, exterminated this revengeful and sanguinary nation.” T.'

At Amboyna, the growth of spices is likewise limited. On some extraordinary offence being given to the natives there, they threatened to destroy all the remaining trees, and to withdraw from their habitations to the mountains; and this threat, it is said, would have been executed, if they had not been speedily satisfied.

Particular descriptions are given in this work of the clove and nutmeg trees; with an account of the quantities of spices collected by the Dutch in different years, and of the various methods practised by them to restrain the growth : the cultivation being transferred, and, by force of arms, confined to Amboyna. When we read of three heaps of nutmegs being burnt at one time, each of which was more than an ordinary church would hold, we cannot reconcile practices so repugnant to principles of general benest, with any other than mistaken as well as most sordid ideas of selfinterest. Spices, after having been transported from such distant climes, have been burnt at Amsterdam, on each of two successive days, to the value of a million of livres. Yet, however assiduous, the translator observes, the Dutch are in the destruc. tion of the spice-trees, they never have succeeded, nor can sucRev. Janar 1799



ceed, in extirpating them. They grow in many places inaccessible to the destructive axe of the extirpator; and, notwithstanding all the care of the Dutch, they are cultivated by the natives in different islands.

Among the inhabitants of Amboyna, the author mentions the Alfoers or Alforese, whom he believes to be the most antient inhabitants of these countries. His description of these people seems worth transcribing :

• The few which I saw of this nation, appeared to me not so dark in colour, and both handsomer and more sincwy than the Amboynese.

I met with the following account of them, in the description of Amboyna composed by RUMPHIUS, which, having been prohibited by the government at Batavia, has never been printed, but of which a manuscript copy is preserved in the secretary's office at Amboyna.

“ Most of the Alforese inhabit the wild mountains and interior parts of Ceram. They are large, strong, and savage people, in general taller than the inhabitants of the sea-shores ; they go mostly naked, both men and women, and only wear a thick bandage round their waist, which is called chinaca, and is made of the milky bark of a tree, called by them sacka (being the sicamorus alba). They tie their hair upon the head over à cocoa-nut shell, and stick a comb in it;

round the neck they wear a string of beads. “ Their arms are, a sword made of bamboo, together with a bow and arrows.

“ They are sharp-sighted, and so nimble in running, that they can run down and kill a wild hog, at its utmost speed.

An ancient, but most detestable and criminal custom prevails among them, agreeable to which, no one is allowed to take a wife, before he can shew a head of an enemy which he has cut off: in order to obtain this qualification for matrimony, six, eight, or ten of them go together to a strange part, where they stay till they have an opportunity of surprising some one, which they do with great dexterity, springing upon the unwary passenger like tigers : they generally cover themselves with branches of trees and bushes, so that they are rather taken for brakes and thickets than for men ; in this posture they lic in wait for their prey, and take the first opportunity that presents itself of darting their toran or sagoe (a sort of missile lance) into the back of a passenger, or spring upon him at once, and cut off his head, with which they instantly decamp, and fly with speed from the scene of their wanton barbarity.”—

“ Among these Alforese, there is another kind of savage people, who do not dwell in any houses or huts, but upon high warinje, and other trees, which spread their branches wide round: they lead and intertwine the branches so closely together, that they form an easy resting-place; and each tree is the habitation of a whole fa. mily: they adopt this inode, because they dare not trust even those of their own nation, as they surprize each other during the night, and kill whoever they take hold of."


Various particulars respecting these islands are added by the translator, from information obtained since they came into our possession. If we retain them, it is to be hoped that a more just and generous system of management will be adopted, than that to which they have hitherto been subjected.

After the author's return to Batavia, his ship was ordered to Surat ; and he gives an account of the state of the European factories, when he visited at that place. He complains greatly of the conduct of the English towards the Dutch, not only at Surat, but at other parts of the Malabar coast; and he gives an account of the manner in which they made themselves masters of Surat, less to the credit of our countrymen than the account published by themselves. We cannot pretend to determine which relation is the most correct : but it may be naturally conjectured that the English should give the transaction as good a colouring as it would bear; and, on the contrary, chat an oshcer zealous in the service of the Dutch EastIndia Company would be little inclined to favour the English. Certain it is that the Euglish and Dutch have never been well inclined towards each other in the East Indies.

Among the curiosities described at Surat, we find several remarkable instances of the extreme solicitude of the Gentoos to avoid injuring animals, or even the smallest insect. Several wore pieces of gauze before their mouth, lest, by their breathing, any little creature might be deprived of life. An hospital was erected more than a century ago, to provide for the welfare of animals, which is maintained by contributions from the Banians and Gentoos; and it is said that, to maintain vermin with the choice diet' to which they have been used, a man is occasionally hired to lodge, during the whole night, in the cot or bed in which the vermin are put.

The author gives many particulars respecting the manner of ship-building at Surat. He mentions a vessel which was known by the appellation of the Holy Ship, the age of which was not ascertained any farther than that, in a letter written by the Dutch director at Surat in the year 1702, it was then called the Old Ship; and from that time to the year 1770, it performed an annual voyage to the Red Sea. This ship, however, while the author was in India, got on shore near Surat ; after which she was not thought capable of being repaired so as to be again made serviceable. - In another part of the voyage, the Captain has described a Chinese junk on board of which he went:-its length was 140 feet :- the interior of the hull was separated into as many different divisions as there were merchants on board; each having a distinct place for the stowage of his commodities; -and exactly in the middle of the vessel

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