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was a kind of chapel, in which their joss or idol was placed. At the end of every voyage, the idol is brought on shore and deposited in one of their temples, and a new one is taken into the ship. They never, at any place, begin to land any part of the cargo, until the image of this idol, which is made of gold, and is about four inches high, has been sent on shore out of
From the coast of Malabar, the Ouwerkerk returned to Batavia, and was again sent to Surat. In the latter part of the year 1777, she was appointed to return to Europe ; and the author sailed homewards, in company with several other ships. As a proof of the opinion which they entertained of the sailing instructions given by the Company, we find that, though their orders were that, from the island Ascension, the course steered shall be N. W.; yet, on a consultation among the commanders, it was agreed to steer a N. W. by N. course, but that the course should be noted down in the ship's jour. nals N.W.-On the 13th of July 1778, the author arrived at Flushing
The foregoing account will convince the reader that, besides the entertainment which the perusal of this work affords, it is replete with useful knowlege collected from authentic documents. The author appears to have been a man of veracity, and of diligent observation; and the notes of the translator, which add greatly to the value of the work, are evidently the result of much study and information on the subject. Several particulars in the manners of various people, however, are related by the author with a grossness which the translator should not have contented himself with softening :-they might have been wholly omitted.
In an Appendix, are contained many particulars of regulations respecting the Company's servants; accounts of ships employed, dividends on India stock, returns, and many other statements relative to the Company's affairs, from the establishment of it in 1602 to the year 1780 :—with an abstract of the Herbarius Vivus, or Herbal of Henry Bernard Oldelard, superintendant of the Company's garden at the Cape of Good Hope, in the year 1695 ; and a sketch of the life of Reinier de Klerk, late Governor General for the Dutch Company in India, from Huyser's life of that officer, published in Amsterdam, 1788
Art. III. A Vocabulory of such Words in the English Language os are of dubious or unsettled Accentuation ; in which the Pronunciation of Sheridan, Walker, and other Orthoepists, is compared. 8vo.
45. Boards. Rivingtons, &c. 1797W!
THEN general practice has established any given manner of
writing or uttering a word, this usage, even if inconsiste ent with analogy or internal etymology, ought perhaps to be considered as the binding law, and as ascertaining the orthography or orthoepy of such word; because uniformity in language is of more value than propriety :-but, when the practice of distinguished writers and speakers, of popular and of learned authorities, is at variance, it becomes of importance for grammarians to discuss on theoretical principles the best mode of speaking and spelling a word, in order that future usage may favour improvement, and may ultimately station every equivocal term in the ranks of regular phraseology. Our vocabularies are crowded enough with an undisciplined rabble of anomalies and solecisms.
Pronunciation is much more fluctuating than spelling. In proportion as the taste for reading gains ground, literature dictates to conversation, and utterance approximates more and more to the written forms of our language: thus we now pronounce almond, not amond, although the / ought never to have intruded itself among the component letters. In proportion as the knowlege of foreign languages gains ground, a more distinct vowel enunciation is cultivated, and we no longer articulate as rhimes, heard-herd, beard-bird, absurd-gourd. Formerly, all our accentuation was accomplished by emphasis alone : now we are gradually admitting differences of quantity. A habit of producing the sound of those accented vowels which terminate syllables, and of attracting by prolongation that preference of attention which has hitherto been secured by stress, has travelled from the theatre to the church, and begins to be expected in solemn recitation. An actor, a preacher, a barrister, a demagogue, of popularity, is speedily aped by the lip of fashion; and his example suffices to naturalize a colony of new modulations.
In these circumstances, it is more important to indicate those general rules of analogy which ought to subject progressively the refractory words, (as has becn done by Mr. Nares,) than to chronicle those casual aberrations from them of which the vocabularly now before us offers a catalogue. We have no hesitation in preferring acceptable, commendable, consistory, convénticle, dissyʻllable, éxcavate, &c. to the cacophonous and heteroclite practice here recommended. In polysyllables, our L 3
language tends very strongly to the antepenult accent. In like manner we prefer sounding the 1 in alms, calm, palm, qualm, to the inarticulate vulgarity, the calf's blate of those speakers, who drawl out their aám, caam, paâm, quaâm, as if denied the power of sounding well the most mellifluent of the liquid letters. Environs, if already naturalized, as we conceive it to be, should have the accent on the first syllable ; if yet an alien, it should be expressed in our author's literal nota. tion by ong-vs-rõngz: the same remark holds good respecting envelope. In short, we observe every where more of caprice than of system in our author's decision. The cases by him col. lected are avowedly all pending and unsettled: he ought, then, to have direcied us towards analogy, derivation, or euphony; or towards an imitation of the orthography, instead of authorising the provincialism sometimes of a Cockney, sometimes of a Scot, and sometimes of an Irishman, without stating any adequate motive of choice. The letter K will afford a sufficient specimen. · Hát; hite; håll. Bét; bear; beěr. Fit; fight; field. Not;
něte; noðse. Bút; búsh ; blue. Love-li; lýe. Thin; this. • T. KEELHALE, kél-hal. V. A. [keel and hale.] To pu. nish in the seaman's way, by dragging the criminal under water on one side of the ship and up again on the other.
• I have marked this word like Mr. Sheridan ; Mr. Walker, though he marks it kéėl'-hảle, observes afterward, “ This word is more generally, and more properly, pronounced Keel bawl.” The latter is the same as Mr. Sheridan, and undoubtedly the best usage. See To Hale.
• KEY, ké. [coeg, Sax.] An instrument formed with cavities correspondent to the wards of a lock; an instrument by which something is screwed or turned ; an explanation of any thing difficult; the parts of a musical instrument which are struck with ihe fingers ; in musick, is a certain tone whereto every composition, whether long or short, ought to be fixed. II. A bank raised perpendicular for the case of lading and unlading ships.
“ Now turn’d adrift, with humbler face,
But prouder heart, his vacant place
No cntrance now without a fee.” CHURCHILL. • Mr. Walker pronounces this word as I have marked it above, whether it signifies the latter or the former sense. Mr. Sheridan sounds it the same when it means the former; but when the latter he marks it ká; and this I take to be the best usage.
• KNOWLEDGE, n'l-lidzh. S. [from cnapan, Saxon.] Certain perception ; learning, illumination of the mind; skill in any thing; acquaintance with any fact or person ; cognizance, notice; information, power of knowing.
“ If rudeness be the effect of knowledge,
My son shall never see a college.” Swift. • I have sounded this word like Mr. Sheridan, who is supported by Dr. Kenrick, Mr. Nares, and Mr. Scott. Mr. Walker marks it nol-ledge, or no-ledje, and observes, that scarcely any word has occasioned more altercation among
verbal critics than this. He seems, however, to favour the pronunciation of Mr. Sheridan, as does also Mr. Perry, who gives both ways of sounding it likewise. Mr. W. Johnson, and Mr. Buchanan pronounce it no-lédje.'
Of these three articles, the first would authorise a vicious spelling, hale for hawl; which last is most convenient; as well on account of the sound, as in order to distinguish it from hale, healthy. The second erroneously supposes Churchill to use key for quay, a wharf; which word is now sounded as in French. The third encourages a defective and negligent pronunciation of the short e as if it were a short i.
Right pronunciation is in our opinion a work of reason, not of instinct : to be decided in questionable cases by argument, not by the ear even of an orator. Cicero, however, is of a contrary sentiment; and, for our author's consolation, we shall transcribe his opinion. Et tamen omnium longitudinum ac brevitatum in sonis sicut acutarum graviumque vocum judicium ipsa natura in auribus nostris collocavit.-Aures enim, vel animus aurium nuntio naturalem quandam in se continet vocum omnium menșionem. Orator. 5. 51–53.
Art. IV. Don Carlos, Prince Royal of Spain : an Historical Drama,
from the German of Frederick Schiller. By the Translators of Fiesco *. 8vo. Pp. 327.
8vo. Pp. 327. 58. Boards. Miller. 1798. Art. V. Don Carlos ; a Tragedy. Translated from the German
of Frederick Schiller. 8vo. Pp. 320. 55. Boards. Richardson,
&c. 1798. At length the English public possesses all the tragedics of
Schiller, which he has thought it proper to complete. In the Robberst, his force; in Fiescot, his discrimination and range of character; in Cabal and Lovell, his feeling ; and in Don Carlos, his dramatic art ; are excellently displayed. Two translations of the latter into English now demand our attention.
Otway has written a tragedy in thime on the story of Don Carlos. With him the love of the Prince for his step-mother
* The Preface is subscribed by G. H. Noehden and J. Stoddart, # M. Rev. vol. ix. N. S. P.
† xxii. p. 204. I. 4
i xxiv. p. 150.
is made the point of interest. Philip's jealousy of his son, irritated by the Princess Eboli, from motives of feminine pique, induces him to order poison to be administered to the Queen, and the veins of the Prince to be opened. Their innocence is discovered after their doom is become irrevocable. This whole piece is in the worst style of Spanish tragedy, full of the chivalrous and extravagant in sentiment and incident, and worthier of Corneille than Ot way. The soliloquy which opens the fifth act is perhaps the best speech in the play.
Schiller has chosen to concentrate our attention, an interests of a higher order than the fortunes of a sentimental passion, or the relentings of an unkind father. By connecting with the existence of Don Carlos the eventual freedom of opinion in a vast empire, and the liberties of the Netherlands, he has given an importance to the action of bis drama which had hitherto seldom been attained even in the epopea. all his characters have a colossal dignity, proportioned to the grandeur of the interests which they involve. It is truly an heroic drama, an assemblage of no common men. Other dramatic writers, in treating the corspiracy of Venice, or the death of Charles I. had been content to seek in family distress and individual suffering for the inore prominent touches of pathos, which were to affect their auditors : but with Schiller the sacrifice of a long imbosomed love, and the hazard of an exalted friendship, heart-probing as they are, were to form but secondary and subordinate sources of interest; and to be ornaments only of the majestic march of an event, of which the catastrophe makes every friend to mankind shudder.
Of the characters in this play, the newest, the most peculiar, and the most heroic, is that of the Marquis Posa : the boast if not the glory of the author. It is a fihe attempt to delineate the enthusiast of human emancipation, the patriot of the world, the disinterested friend of mankind. Conscious of the talent and the will to bless, this great man is described as pursuing with undeviating resolution the sacred end of improving the condition of his countrymen, by removing every barrier to freedom of sentiment, and by favouring every institution that may be beneficent to the pecple. In his very boyhood, the inherent ascendancy of his worth had attracted the friendship of Don Carlos : but his philanthropy, more powerful than any individual affection, never forgets in his young companion the future sovereign, but studiously engraves on the mind of the Prince his own pure idea of the liglest practicable happiness of a nation. Conscious, from the beginning, of his natural
* See Briefe über Don Carlos.