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additur : in medio versu, ubi syllaba ultima est in casura, plerumque omittitur. Igitur accuratus Editor hanc legem debebat sequi constanter."
It is very certain that the genuine and antient mode of writing ought to be preserved uniformly when it is once discovered. No manuscript, however, either of Homer, or of the Tragedies and Comedies, has yet been collated, in which the N PENCUCIÓv is constantly and according to rule either inserted or neglected. The famous Codex Paullinus Lipsiensis itself, which contains from lliad A. to Iliad P. and appears to have given rise, in a great measure, io Ernesti's rule, is not perfectly consist:nt in its omissions. We are, indeed, firmly persuaded that Mr. Porson's opinion is correct, when he states that this is a point which cannot be determined by the written copies of the Poets : “MSS. eniin neque alter alteri consentiunt, neque idem 11S. sibi ipse.per omnia constat.”
Mr. Wakefield asserts that the Tragic and Epic writers are every where quoted by the Grammarians and other authors, without the insertion of the N. He produces, however, 'no instances; and if such as may be found were accurately and nicely weighed, they would not, are persuaded, tend much to the defender of this canon. Mr. Wakefield's chief reliance seems to be on the copy of Euripides edited by Aldus. He refers to this in his Silva Critica, and he cites from this in his Diatribe. It will be proper, then, carefully to examine how far it really tends to confirm or destroy Mr. W.'s opinion.
We shall present to our readers, therefore, a list of the passages in which the N is added, or omitted, collected from four of the Tragedies, in the Aldine edition.
NT omitted. 363. κερκίσιν τ' έφεστάναι. . 232. ουδ' ώλεσέ με Ζεύς.
ώλεσεν τάξεις βαλων. . 266. Kfun gaię ürédé vy.
τον δ' έσμηνευ λόγου. . 427 μαϊρί δ' ουκ έστι χαρά. 603. νους έτόξευσεν μάτην. . 494: ποσ’ ανέσθηκε δορί. . 1043. Τρωασιν τε συμμά- 5ο9.
πέμπουσι δε με. χους.
554. "Ειπε μεί είναι παρθένον 1052. αρίσλαις Τρωάσιν δίκην 574. . οι δε πληρυσι πυράν. δέμοι.
Toido y nove xaxo.. 670. ειδώσι δ' ωνέιδισας. .
* This remark of Ernesti has been recorded in the Acta Erudito. rum for July 1760, in which there is a review of his Homer.
+ The verses are numbered from Musgrave's edition. The Choral Odes are wholly omitted in this catalogue, which comprehends only examples frem sambics and Trochaics.
1763. "Έστι δε τις σων δυτος
777. ήνεγκε νεκρόν;
μέγισίον "Ελλησι φαος.
είρηκε κακώς. 1179. "Η νύν λέγων εστί τις. 12oo. γένοι? αν "Ελλησι
γένος. 12.38. τοισιν “Έλλησι τόδε. 1253.
τοις κακίοσι δίκην.
ANDROMACHE. 171, ς τον ώλεσεν πάσιν.
973. δεύρ' ενόσησε γόνος. 594. ως έν ανδράσιν λόγου. The Florentine edition cor621. μητε δαμασιν λαβειν.
responds with Aldus in this 647. "Ελλησιν πολε.
instance, and affords two 946. οις έστιν γυνή,
others, 1106 and 1272, noted 955. Δρώσιν γυναικών
in the opposite column. ακινήτοισιν τσίηκεν φόνου. 11ο6. Συν προξένοισι μανεσίν τε
Πυθικοις, where the Florentine edition, in capitalletters,
gives MA ΝΤΕΣΙ' ΊΕ. -1207. τοις παρεσίωσιν κα
κοις, where Ed. Flor. ΠΑ.
ΡΕΣΤΩΣΙ. 1275. Πάσιν γαρ ανθρώποισιν
HERCULES FURENS. 22. άλλους εξεμόχθησεν πο- 41.
έν ανδάσι λέγειν.
εχθρόισι γέλων. 78. πάς τ' ανίστησιν ποδα. 565. όμμασι δεδορκότες. 174. Συν μαρυσιν θεόις, δει
δώμασι σον ομμ’ ιδέιν. 225. ων εμίχθησεν χάριν.
φόνος σ' έκβακχευσε 241. εισκομισθώσιν πόλει. νεκρών. Ubi Musgr. taciti. 286. πολλα δώμασιν καλά. εβάκχευσεν. 304. φέυγουσιν φίλοι.
καθαιρούσι τύχαι. 545.
ήλθεν φόβος και 595.
πασ' έιδεν πόλις. 637. χρήμασιν δε διάφοροι. 85 4.
θεών ανέστησεν μόνος. 983. καπεκόμπασεν ταδε.
καλέστρωσεν βέλει. 1177.
τις ταδ' έκλεινεν τεκνα ; 1292.
έκλεινέν πολε. 1309.
αυίδισιν βάθροις To these instances of the omitted N final, in the Aldine Euripides, a few others may be added: but they must not be considered as any additional proofs that Aldus judged this letter unnecessary in order to lengthen the concluding syllable of a foot, when it was naturally short, and could admit such an adjunct. The Canons of Dawes, respecting the power
of the mutes and liquids, were not promulgated till above two centuries after the learned Aldus Manutius Romanus had closed a life of indefatigable exertions : a life to himself highly honourable, and of most essential service to succeeding ages! The following are the passages to which we allude, in the four plays from which our citations have been taken:
ANDROM. 853. Πάσι βροδισιν ή τότ’ ήλθεν ή τότε.
993. 'Αυλαις 'Αμύκλαις ήγαγε προς "Ιλιον.
απόλλυσιν καλήν . This instance, though defective, and though it has been corrected, must not be neglected. Mr. Wakefield, in his edition, indeed, adopts Canter's correction, απόλαυσιν, after Barnes and Musgrave. He has not, however, given any note on the passage.
It surely was incumbent on him to have mentioned the lection of Aldus; and to have stated that the word atónever was given in the text from a conjecture of Canter, which had been carefully re. corded by the Cambridge and Oxford editors, and inserted by them in their editions of Euripides. Among the various and important duties of an editor, there is no one which demands more exact and religious observance, than the assignment of new readings to their original authors,
Herc. FURENS 1. TIE Tór Ald's our nex/pov o'rx oldə Boliv.
53 1. Γύναι, τι καινόν ήλθε δώμασι χρέος. in these five instances, we deem the insertion of the N to be necessary for rendering the verses full and correct : lærir'Εξεβάκχευσεν-Ηγαγεν – Οιδεν-Δώμασιν--ft must not be omitted that, in this last play, Aldus has himself published, V. 456: Twod", ous navioła? pe pari a goo Sípnouar.
It is also to be remarked that Aldus, in these four plays, has omitted the N final, when the following word began with a double consonant, or with two mutes.
HrcuDA. 774. Τίνος γ' υπ' άλλου και Θρήξ νιν άλεσε ξένος.
From this examination, it appears that Aldus printed the first part of his Euripides carelessly; and did not attend with critical exactness to the insertion or omission of this final N. It never can be allowed, that, even in the opening of his edition, he deemed it a letter of no metrical influence, when placed after short vowels, which allowed its junction with them, and which were placed at the end of a foot in Iambics. It is neglected certainly in twenty-one passages of the Hecuba : but it is properly added to six others. These six assuredly would have been published equally without the N final, if he had taught himself to consider the rejection as an act of propriety. Typographical errors more frequently arise from the substitution of one letter for another, or from a letter omitted, than from the addition of a letter in a word to which it does not belong.
Aldus, however, as he proceeded in his author, began to use more caution ; and in the latter plays he has seldom failed to add the N final, when a long syllable is demanded by the laws of the metre. In the Andromache, the seventh Tragedy, the Aldine edition exhibits only one instance, V. 793. of this omitted final N, -and eight of its proper insertion.
In the Trondes, which stands the twelfth play, this N is never omitted: but in the nine passages, in which its presence is required by the laws of the lambic verse, it is inserted correctly and regularly.
In the Hércules Furens, his last play, (for he never published the Electra,) the N is, indeed, omitted in six places : but it is properly inserted in seventeen verses, to the metre of which it gives stability and correctness.
It is not necessary, we trust, to pursue this examination through more of the plays: but, in order to complete the statement, a few slight remarks must be subjoined.
The final N is in some passages ADDED improperly. In the ANDROMACHE, V. 1135. the Florentine and Aldine editions read :
'Αλλ' ουδεν ήνυεν άλλα πολλ' ομου βέλη, where Musgrave gives ñvev, ex MS. D. and Brunck žvvev, which preserves an ANAPEST in tertiâ sede. This verse will doubtless be printed without deformity in Mr. Porson's edition.
In the TroADES, V. 354. 'Eowogové.xativ ára fr’ įv— where Musgrave gives Σεσωφρονίκασιν αλλ'-preserving the termination, and destroying the verse. –V. 883. Aldus has:
Ποινας, όσοι τεθνώσιν εν Ιλίς φίλοι. where Musgrave reads tilvão v I. - and publishes :
where Aldus edited : V.084. “Ηρα τοσουσον έχεν έρωθα καλλονής και In the Herc. Fur. also, V. 3. "Eluslev ó liepoéws. -with an Anapest in secundâ sede, V. 583. ας πάροιθεν, λέξομαι, for 72209€, as it is found similarly situated in an Iambic of Hippolstus. 290. Tüv trgoule mèv abywv. and as it must stand in Andromache 877.--undè Qavá sou dówv Ilá pode Twvde.
V. 1167. Mévouci 107761- it seems as if it should rather be: Μένουσ’ ένοπλοι --- as the second syllable of ένοπλος is used long in the only lambic verse, excep: the one quoted, in which we recollect it in Euripides: Orest. 1637. Edit. Porsoni.
'Ουκ Γι', ενόπλο ποδι βοηδρομήσεις. -but this is not of great consequence.
If Aldus had imagined, as Mr. Wakefield does, that this final N should never be added when the following word begins with a consonant, he would surely have banished it on every possible occasion; and not have inserted it where it clogs the verse; as it does, in the preceding examples. Aldus was certainly inaccurate; and in his MSS, of Euripides, the Attic Metrical Canons seem sometimes to have been observed, and sometimes to have been neglected. With respect to this final N, his inconsistency, indeed, may be adduced as a proof that he did not intend its omission as an useless adjunct. To carelessness, and not to design, it must be attributed that, in these four plays, he uses equally before words beginning with the same consonants both "Ωλεσεν and "Ωλεσε, Ελιν 2nd Eσλι, Εσθηκεν and "Έσ. τηκε, "Ελλησιν and "Ελλησι, Δώμασιν and Δωμασι, 'Ανδράσιν and 'Ανδρασι.
Aldus was little disposed, it should seem, to reject on principle this N, for he preserves it generally with great care at the end of the verse : a custom which is more honoured in the