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the human subject. From these experiments, and other conclusive reasons here stated, Dr. Woodville proves the error of Dr. Jenner with respect to the origin of the cow-pox in the grease of horses :- but this error is of no importance with respect to the practical advantages which are promised by other facts and observations.
At length, in January last, the cow-pox becoming epibootic (if we may be permitted to use the term) in a stable in Gray'sInn Lane, matter was procured; by means of which the disease was propagated in the Small-pox Hospital; and the consequent practice furnished the valuable statement of evidence contained in the present publication. It was thought of importance that this practice should be conducted openly, before several philosophical and professional men; and accordingly Lord Somerville, Sir Joseph Banks, Sir W. Watson, Drs. Simmons, Pearson, Willan, and others, attended at the cowhouse above-mentioned, on the 24th January, to examine the servants and the cows then affected with the variolee vaccina.
Dr. Woodyille thinks it necessary, before he details his cases, to relate the local appearances arising from inaculation of the small-pox. The most curious of these observations is, that the variolous matter first inserted, like other morbid poisons, is not capable of being immediately absorbed, but lodges in the skin, and there excites an inflammatory process, by which new matter producing the disease is generated.' In a note, it is subjoined, that the greater mildness of the inoculated than the casual small-pox depends upon this circumstance,
Dr. Woodville then next relates the cases of - 200 patients inoculated with vaccine variolous matter between the 21st January 1799, and the 13th March following. All of these from the oth of March, viz. 78, were inoculated for the small. pox (except two persons), after having gone through the cowpox, without producing any disease.'
In order to observe the progressive descent of the vaccine infection from patient to patient, as well as the maguitude of the disease which was excited by the inoculation, the account of the above 200 patients is also given in a table of 9 pages, containing 5 columns: 1. the name, 2. the years of age, 3. the months of age, 4. the number of days of illness, 5. the number of pustukes. The original matter was taken from the cow, and from the milk-maid, Sarah Rice, who contracted the disease from the cow: This table comprehends all the cases originally intended for the present publication is but, from the delays occasioned by a concurrence of circutustances, the author took the advantage of making additions? "Accordingly, another tabulated statement is given, of the same kind
as the former, in which are contained the results of above 302 additional cases.
These 500 cases give occasion to several remarks at the close of this valuable pamphlet; and we were anxious to compare the appearances with those already described by others.
First, we are not a little surprised on finding so great a pro. portion of pustular cases : ,
Indeed,' says the author, 'when first observed a pustular eruption upon Buckland, Case 3d, the occurrence being wholly woexpected, I was not without apprehension that the lancet wliichi nus enplayed in his inoculation might have liad some particles of variolous matter adhering to it. But this suspicion was soon renovei; for upon inquiry I found that all the lancets which I had used on the 21st January, were then made use of for the first time since they had been ground by the cutler. - p. 137)
2div, A suspicion are that the patients were violated (as Dr.W.calls it) by the variolous inoculation, which was performed on the 5th day after the insertion of the vaccine matter, in order to secure them against the natural small-pox to which they were exposed in the Hospital; and hence, it was supposed, a hybrid disease was produced.
But (says the Dr.) as the matter employed in the cow-pox incculations vas always taken before the constitntion could be affected by the variolous matter, and during the time that both inoeulations were merely local diseases, I apprehend its effects would be the same as if the variolous inoculation had not taken place. Nay, had this not been the case, but had several patients been ivoculated with matter taken from the cow-cox tumour on the arm of Jane Coilingridge, after both the inoculations were supposed to have affected the consti. tution for several days, 'neither facts nor analogy lead us to believe that the matter thus obtained would produce any other disease th: that of its own species, or that its specific norbid quality would be changed by entering into combination with the virus of the small por. 'The general character or the tumour formed by the inoculation of the small-pox is very different from that of the cow-pox, and thongh on the same day a person be inoculated in one arm with the matter of the cow-pox, and in the other with that of the small.pox, yet both tumous preserve their respective characteristic appearances throughout the whole course of the discase. This is certainly a strong proof that the two discares in respect to their local action coatinue separate and distinct,'
Twenty-eight patients were on the same day inoculated with a misture of cqual parts of the variolous and cow-pox matter, in order to see which discase would prevail, or whether an hybrid disease would be produced. The result was that, in most of the patients, the distase resembled the cow-pox; in the others, it more resembled the small-pox: but in none was there much indisposition, nor many pustuics.
3dly, Matter sent into the country from the arm of Ann Bumpus, who had 310 suppurated pustules, produced the disease in 162 persons, without any maturated pustules: but this exemption from suppurated pustulcs did not depend on the air of the country, becuse one out of five of the above patients in the tables had such eruptions, who livest eight miles distance from London; and, at a small village Sardiner from London, 18 persons were inoculated with similar mitcr, in all of whom it produced pustules.
4thly. A strong proof that the suppurated pustules were those of the real cow-pox is afforded by the inoculation of a cow's teat. with cow-pox matter from the human subjects A man servant caught the disease by milking this cour; tam with the matter from this cow, the patients Stretton, Smitli, and Meacoch, were inoculated. Streeton had 3to suppurated pustules, Meacock had still more, and Smith had above ion pustules.
5thly, The following nice observations, we think, showl be repeatedly made, before the conclusion be admitted.
. If a person has casually received the infection of the small.por, and be inoculated with variolous matter three or four days before tlıç eruptive symptoms supervene, the inoculated part does not tumisy, st in other cases, but becomes a simple pusonle : on the contrary, if a person has been inoculated, and the progress of the inoculation begin far.advarrces that the patient is within one day of the approach out the eruptive fever, and be then inoculatců a second time, the tumour produced from the second inoculation will become nearly as extes sive as the first, and lje in a state of suppuration a few hours after the fever commences. Hence it ajgxars, thut the process of variylation in the natural and in tbe ir.corlated small-pux is diuini.'.
6thly. The number inoculated for the vaccine disease, by the author, amounted to about 600: but they could not all be included in the tables ; because, when they were printed, the disease was not far enough advanced to give the result :but, in judging of the degree of danger and the magnitude of the disease, it will be proper to take into the account the crise of an infant at the breast, which died on the irth day after the vaccine inoculation. In this solitary fital case, the local tumour was very inconsiderable, and the eruptive symptoms took place on the 5th day; when the child was attacked with firs of the spasmodic kind, which recurred at short intervals with increased violence, and carried it oil, after on eruption of 80 or 100 rustulcs. It appears, then, that one proved fatal. out of 5.0 inoculatexl cases for the cow.pox; and the preceding tables show that in other cases the disease wns of formidable severity: while, on the other hand, a very large proportion of the patients were scarcely digordered from the inoculation, aná
had no pustules. About two-fifths had no pustules, and threefourths had no perceptible constitutional disorder :-but, says the author, 'if at an average one of 500 will die of the inocu. lated cow-pox, I confess I should not be disposed to introduce this disease in the Inoculation Hospital; because, of 5000 cases of variolous inoculation, the number of deaths has not exceeded one in 600.'.It will be obvious to men of good judgment, that the calculation of proportional mortality in the cow-pox is premature.
7thly, The disease appeared in general milder when the matter was used from those who had the disease mildly.
Sthly, The conclusion, that the cow-pox and small-pox are only varieties of the same species of disease, appears still more unwarrantable than even that of the proportional mortality. The fact which led to this conclusion, however, merits farther scrutiny, to determine whether eruptive cases of the vaccine disease, resembling the small-pox, uniformly produce similar eruptive cases. We think that the contrary appears from the cases in this volume.
9thly, We are of opinion that the conclusion, from two cases only, that the vaccine disorder can be propagated by effluvia, stands in need of confirmation.
lothly, On the important point of persons taking the small pox after the vaccine infection, the author very well ob. serves that the instances in the affirmative are defective, in not affording sufficient proof that the disease was really the cow-pox; while the instances, which go to prove that those who had undergone the genuine vaccine disease resisted the variolous infection, are decisive, and sufficiently numerous to establish the fact in a satisfactory manner. The number inoculated by Dr. W. for the small-pox, after the cow.pox, amounted to above 400.
11thly, Dr. W. observes, that we have been told that the cow-pox tumour produced erysipelatous inflammation and phagedenic ulceration; but the inoculated part has not ulcerated
of the cases which have been under my care ;' and nothing but slight infiammation ensued, which was easily subdued by equa lithargyri acetati. We confess that the representation niade of the use of caustics by Dr. Jenner, and of other means, to subdue the terrible local aflection which is said to occasionally take place, always appeared to us ehimerical; and the affection for which they were proposed seemed to have 110 existence. Dr. Woodville's extensive experience is conclusive on this point.
On the subject of the vaccine disease, we have undoubtedly received much information, as to its history, from the pam
phlet of Dr. Woodville; and various parts of the history are likely soon to be fully investigated. It already appears that several of the facts asserted, relating to the vaccine disorder, are not well founded: but we trust and hope that the principal points will be established, and that the public will ultimately derive much benefit from themir,
900g Art. XIII. Grove-Hill,' a Descriptive Poem, with an Ode to Mithra, by the Author of Indian Antiquities. 4to. pp. 76.
and many Plates. il. is. Boards. Arch. 1799. We have frequently had occasion to bear testimony to this
author's learning, poetical talents, and facility of writing both in prose and' verse; and if we have not invariably subscribed to his opinions, nor regarded his works as faultless monsters,” we have never withheld our praise when we thought it due. In particular, we have celebrated his talent for descriptive poetry; and his descriptions, indeed, are not confined to belle parole, but are enriched by knowlege and reflection. We have no local acquaintance with the villa which he now celebrates *, and are therefore unable to judge of the likeness of the portrait; but the picture is well designed and highly coloured.
By separating the several characteristic parts of the subject of this poem, apparently for the sake of the elegant wood plates with which it is embellished, it seems rather a collection of portraits, than an historical picture, or complete whole : yet, if the publication had no other merit than that of serving as a vehicle for the admirable engravings in wood with which it is embellished, executed by Anderson t, from designs by Samuel, it would have answered a very laudable purpose. Of these ornaments we cannot give our readers any specimens: but from the poetry we shall present them with an extract or two; commencing with the well merited and well drawn eulogy of the worthy and excellent Ferguson : 11:or je OBSERVATORY, or TEMPLE of the Sybils. - At length with wonder and delight I gain
ile The lofty summit of the Sybil's tane.
Sublimer' thoughts the kindling bosom fire :
Gay landscapes, waving woods, and glittering streams :
And yon bright arch and brighter orts explore
† An ingenious young artist, who already equals his predecessors in this line, and will probably excel them,