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other parts of the country, and had in fact parties in the House, Mr. Ingersoll playsacrificed their interests; and it was, in an fully remarked :especial manner, objected to by the legislature of Pennsylvania, from which body a “ Such is the social communion of Whigs protest came up to Congress, declaring,

and Democrats. They harmonize in every before the passage of the bill

, that they thing but political sentiment. No co the third never would consider themselves bound by sion, if not in proud distrust. It maintains a

party, which stands aloof, in voluntary seclusuch an arrangement of the politicans at

position like that which in architecture is said Washington.

to enhance the magnificence of a Grecian temMr. Ingersoll argued in the course of his ple, when placed, as it ought to be, on elevated speech :

ground, and gaining, by distance, an unob

structed prospect, at once grandeur and dis• What was the true cause of the expedient

tinctness for the view, it stands unmated and

alone. arrangement, of which we are trying to combat the never-ending eudurance ? One might feel

“Iu casting my eye around this diversified some hesitation in making the inquiry and

assembly, I am led to compare its human pro

portions and intellectual varieties with the giving the reply, were not the way already opened, and the example set by the representa

natural phenomena described by travellers as tives of the South. That was the region of the Pacific Ocean in South America, which

exhibited by the vast chain of mountains near excitement, and it required relief. We are

rise in successive plateaux, like so many huge told of the disturbed and distracted condition which had been reached. It was, says the gen- of the largest size and the most luxuriant fo

natural terraces, far above the clouds. Trees tleman from Georgia, a crisis of a fearful character. So it was. The bonds of society were

liage grow and flourish upon some of those rent asunder. Civil war impended. Not only

proud eminences of the Andes, and form, as it the political Union, the bright inheritance left

were, the basis of still loftier regions piled

upon them. These are emblematic of the to the care of a posterity unmindful of the richness of the blessing, was in danger, but the best riotism, and rooted in the immovable basis of

Whig party, always fresh in vigor, rich in patattachments of social life and affectionate rela- the Constitution. Among them one appears tionship were forgotten. While all was tranquil in the North except the anxious throbbings maturity and venerable in the dignity of age.

crowned with years and honors, green in the of patriotic bosoms at the dread of anticipated Higher up the mountain trees become more legislation, the elements of discord were elsewhere in fervid motion, and brother was pre

numerous, but less firmly attached to the soil ; pared to take up arms against brother. In one

not deeply planted, or standing in stern defiance southern city, it is said, two parties met in

of the fury of the elements, but moved and

These are threatening and frowning defiance, each head agitated by the passing breeze.

emblems of a dominant majority, which yields ed by men of worth, well known then by their former, as they are now by their later services.

conservative principle to its rivals, and profesOne blow struck, and the sun might have gone

ses and acts upon a different rule. Still higher down on fraternal discord, a reluctant and re

up, above the level of perpetual snow, where tiring witness to the shedding of human blood. the habitation, and almost beyond the curious

no other animated being is found, far above Bat his morning beams would have shone again gaze of the most enterprising traveller, dwells upon a happy union; the firmament would not, in the course of nature, have been the darker poised in mid-air between the moon and earth,

that mightiest of winged animals, the condor, for the absence of a single star.”

fixing its eye upon that cold planet of the night,

which astronomers assures us has no atmoIn the session of 1845-6, a discussion sphere, or none common to the rest of the systook place on the naturalization laws, tem-flapping in interminable seclusion its growing out of certain resolutions of the ponderous and solitary wing." Legislature of Massachusetts, which would

In the debate on the Oregon question, protect the ballot-box and the elective the following extracts from a speech defranchise from abuses and frauds. It had livered by him, will serve to show the been contended that Congress could not act upon these resolutions, the subject soll:

course of argument pursued by Mr. Ingerbeing exclusively within the control of State legislation. In the course of the dis

“That treaty has been well designated in cussion the origin of the Native American

former times, just as it is now, a treaty of joint party was frequently alluded to. In allu- for it that character. Give up that, and your

occupation. I should be sorry to relinquish sion to its position and that of the other | antagonist stands on vantage ground. If his

numerous posts—some of them strong and ex “Our question is not whether Great Britain tensive—are not harmless by consent, as estab- ought to acquiesce in this high-handed course, lishments contemplated by the treaty, they are but whether, in the fair estimate of probabilisettlements of defiance and opposition, which ties, she will. Remember, you have already may have derived strength from time and inde- offered her one-half, and she has refused it pendent existence. They may create new ele- with disdain. Do you seriously believe that ments of trouble, which the provisions of joint she will content herself with none? Will her occupancy are calculated effectually to prevent. desires, which even six belts of latitude cannot Mr. Gallatin uniformly thus denominated it; satisfy, be satiated with less than the measure so does Mr. Buchanan. It was offered, proto- of a grave? The leaves of the sybil acquired colled, accepted, acted on, and has always been new value in the eye of the possessor, as they treated as such. Its language admits of no were reduced in number. You have by your other interpretation. Good faith would forbid own act persuaded England to believe that she a departure now from its long-understood na- ought to indulge some hopes—that she has ture and name, even if policy suggested (as it more than the shadow of a shade. You have clearly does not) a change. Notice of the ter- repeatedly, in times past and present, proposed mination of this agreement is urged--uncom to give her barely less than she was willing to promising one-sided notice--with no consulta- receive. By what scale of reason or philosotion of the convenience of the other party, phy is her expected satisfaction in the future with no deference for the ordinary rules of to be measured ? She asked you for bread; courtesy, merely because the treaty provides you offered to share with her your loaf, and she for it as a dernier resort, in the possible failure has cast it in an angry spirit away. She again of other means, as furnishing in any event a asks you for bread; you give her a stone, and reserved right, to a certain extent, in either you believe she will receive it, if not with graparty, if other opportunities should be fore- titude, at least without a frown! It is gravely closed. Between individuals, what is the argued on this floor that your notice shall be course of conduct on occasions of strict analo- given, and that, at the expiration of the term gy? The law gives a right to distrain when assigned by it, forcible possession shall be taken rent is in arrear: does a landlord, therefore, of every inch of the disputed ground; and yet seize at once the household goods of a thriving there will be no war! A powerful nation, tenant? Does the lender of a sum of money, armed to the teeth, her banners fanned for ages for an indefinite period, to a friend, send the by conquest's crimson wing, not distinguished sheriff to arrest him within four and twenty for the patience of her temper or her tender hours of the time of loan? These are rights love for these United States, will stand tamely perfect rights; but they would not be exercised by and patiently behold her cherished settlein a community that is fit to live in. Notice is ments assailed and scattered; her time-honored of the same character. No principle of law is charters violated and trampled in the dust ; her better established than this: “Summum jus subjects dragged before foreign magistrates and summı injuria.'

condemned by foreign laws; their property con“What is the purport of the present bill ? fiscated, their persons imprisoned, their lives It extends Iowa jurisdiction over the whole ter- perhaps sacrificed! If, in the wide-reaching ritory which is in dispute, and it reserves to and sagacious policy of that deep-seated throne, the subjects of Great Britain the rights and there be one circumstance to which it clings privileges secured by the third article of the with more tenacity than all the rest, it is the treaty of 1818 and that of 1827, only • until tender, ardent zeal, the maternal affection, with said treaty stipulation shall cease, by virtue of which it watches over, protects, and cherishes the notice provided for in the second article, the children of the realm in every corner and and no longer. It thus assumes Oregon for quarter of the globe. This never-ceasing care our own; enforces at once, by threat of arms, is the incentive to patriotism and the reward and after a brief period of a few short months, of loyalty. Time cannot enfeeble it, or disin rigorous exercise, at the point of the bayo- tance diminish its freshness or its fervor, or cir. net, the laws of the Republic over every inch cumstances rob it of a particle of its reciprocal of land and every living soul; proposes grants, attractiveness and charms. It warms the liege with unsparing spirit, by hundreds of fair acres, bosom in the frozen regions of Labrador, and it as temptations to settlers; assumes absolute gives new vigor to the sinews under the burncontrol over trade and intercourse with all the ing sun of either India, as well as in the giant Indian tribes; organizes and equips a military metropolis of the insular domain. 'I am a force; and lays down a mail route from St. Roman citizen !' was a cry, the neglect of Joseph's, Missouri, to the mouth of the Colum- which brought on the ruin of a powerful Sicibia river. It extirpates from the face of the lian prætor, and drove him into perpetual exile. Oregon earth the British race and name, and it I am a Roman citizen !' was an exclamation plants the standard of liberty and the Union, in which ascended with the loftiest flights of the proud and uncompromising supremacy, on eloquence of Cicero. A similar appeal from every rocky eminence.

the liegemen of England is not inaudible, if

attered at the extremity of the diameter of the “If,says the Secretary of State to the earth: it would thrill and vibrate in every pulse couptry and the world, the discovery of the and nerve of the vast body politic; it would be mouth of a river, followed up within reasonaheard and responded to, from the shores of the ble time by the first exploration both of its main Pacific, at the heart and centre of the empire; channels and its branches, and appropriated by and all that accumulated wealth which is the the first settlements on its banks, do not conwonder of the world, and all those burnished stitute a title to the territory drained by its waarms which have never failed to glitter when- ters in the nations performing these acts, then ever the pride of the nation has bidden their the principles consecrated by the practice of approach, for disaster, for victory, or for de- civilized nations ever since the discovery of the feat, in the fens of Walcheren, or on the field | New World must have lost their force. These of Waterloo, or on the banks of the Missis principles were necessary to preserve the peace sippi, or the frozen hills of India, would be put of the world.' in requisition for the rescue. The colonial “I will not repeat the facts already stated, policy of England, her vital prosperity, her ex or ask for an interpretation of reasonable istence as a nation, are involved in the issue, time,'' first exploration,' and 'first settlements, and it would be madness to suppose that these or submit to you the dilemma of draining by essential purposes would now, for the first time, Frazer's river about the same time, in seeking be overlooked or forgotten. You are leading to support what are called principles conseoff blindfold a torch-dance in the midst of com crated ever since the discovery of the New bustibles, and trusting to the accident that they World. If there exist for particular objects, will not take fire, when you act and argue as and between particular powers, occasional treais proposed.”

ties with new clauses in them, these are volunRefuge at last is taken in the alleged dis tary acts, the influence of which begins and covery of the Columbia river by Captain Gray. ends with the high contracting parties who Admitting, for the sake of the argument, all made them. If there be such a principle-a that is claimed in point of fact for this nautical SACRED principle, necessary for the peace of exploit, its priority, nationality, and design, the nations, time-honored by the lapse of three great obstacle remains—what is its extent ? hundred and fifty-four years, according to the The answer is familiarly given. A discovery minute computation of the Secretary, why has of the mouth of a river, we are constantly and it escaped an authentic place in the records of confidently told, extends the right which that a science which had no existence until after circumstance confers to the territory drained the discovery of the New World, towards the by its waters. A principle like this might pos- close of the fifteenth century ? 'Grotius, the sibly suit some of the rivers, as they are called, father of the law of nations, wrote and died in of the fine estuary which receives the waters of the seventeenth centur;. Puffendorf was born the Susquehanna. They are broad inlets, half in the year 1631. Barbeyrac lived and died in a dozen miles in length, and are merely bor- the eighteenth century, and Vattel's first edirowed from the bay. Possibly you might have tion was published within less than ninety found an inclination towards such a principle years from the present day, and the last in the in some Dutch legend or Italian romance, year 1844. His work is deservedly held in the where a greater prolongation is given by nature highest esteem. It exhibits, however, no trace to the lazy Scheld or wandering Po. But to of the doctrine assumed by you. On the conascribe to a momentary looker-on of the inhos-trary, such a pretension, by which a nation pitable debouche of the Mississippi, or even the would engross, as I maintain, a wilderness, or, capacious gulf which distinguishes the entrance as Vattel says, a much greater extent of terriof the Amazon, such extensive results would tory than it is able to people or cultivate, would be near akin to positive absurdity. It would be an absolute infringement of the natural only fall short of that papal bull which “de nos- rights of men, and repugnant to the views of tra mera libertale,' drew a line from pole to Nature.' Remember how extensive are the pole in favor of their most Catholic Majesties. fields over which your aspiring claims would Where would such indefinite extension end ? The bull's hide which was made to cover From the main river you would ascend all its the circumference of Carthage would be a tributary streams, thence gaze with gloating pigmy illustration. A difficult and dangerous appetite upon every mountain rill; and if, entrance, almost imperceptible to the


and through the bases of the Stony Mountains, almost inaccessible to the boldest keel, gives, it some dark cavern sheds a modest drop from its is said, initiate rights to a “region,' · territory,' obscure and benighted bed on the eastern side an entire region -in other words, to a counof the girdle of the Great West, which finds its try and a world. Will not such extravagant way to Oregon, this will embrace, by the same attempts expose us to just complaints for an vague bypothesis, the land of the Missouri, overweening ambition, and tend to give supthe Mississippi, and all the rivers of the conti- | port to charges which have been already nent. Lawyer after lawyer has built his argu- | brought against us ?” ment upon this bold assumption.”



The British ministry has brought forward a a butcher's shop. Several arrests and convicmeasure for the repeal of the Navigation Laws. tions, under the Arms and Drilling Act, have The effect of the proposal would be to throw taken place. O'Brien and Meagher were open to all countries the carrying trade with brought to trial on the information against Great Britain and the colonies, excepting the them for sedition, but escaped conviction, one coasting trade and the fisheries; the Queen in juryman in each case being for an acquittal. council having power to impose countervailing It is said they will again be brought to trial. duties on any foreign nation, which should Mitchell has been arrested, tried and convicted treat English shipping with injustice, or not for felony, under the late act. His trial took meet the concession on equal terms. It is place on the 30th May, and on the following proposed that each colony shall have the power day he was sentenced to fourteen years' transof throwing open its coasting trade, if it shall portation at Bermuda, and in the afternoon was think fit. The measure met with considerable conveyed from the prison to a government vesresistance on its introduction to the House of sel bound for Cork, to be placed on board the Coinnions. The bill for the removal of the ship which is to convey him to his destination. Jewish disabilities has been rejected by the Several of the Dublin clubs had announced House of Lords. By printed returns, it appears their determination to rescue him, in case of that in the year ending 5th Jan. last 1,955,023 lbs. his conviction, but no attempt was made, al-of silicated soap were made in Great Britain; though a considerable crowd collected to witness 160,065,641 lbs. of other hard soap, and his embarkation. Under the sequestration 14,279,425 lbs. of soft soap. In the same of his property, consequent on his convicperiod there was imported into Great Britain, tion, the effects of " The United Irishman" from Ireland, 170,249 lbs. of hard, and 2,560 newspaper have been seized, and its publication lbs. of soft soap. The amount of duty was is at an end. But Messrs. Reilly & Martin £1,128 9s. 2d. There were licenses granted have issued a prospectus of a succession to be to soapmakers—147 in England, 19 in Scotland, called “ The Irish Felon." and 150 in Ireland. Alexander Baring, Lord The returns of the Paris election for memAshburton, died on the 12th of May, in his bers of the French National Assembly, show 74th year. He was born 27th Oct., 1774, and Lamartine at the head of the list : Dupont, (de on the 23d August, 1798, married Anne Louisa, l'Eure,) Arago, Garnier, Pagès, Marrast, Marie, eldest daughter of William Bingham, Esq., of and Cremieux, members of the Provisional Philadelphia, a Senator of the United States. Government, follow. Albert (ouvrier) stands He entered political life as member for Taunton, No. 21, Ledru Rollin, 24 ; Ferdinand Flocon, in 1806. In 1834, he was President of the 26 ; and Louis Blanc, 27; the total number Board of Trade, under Sir Robert Peel, and in being 34. The Assembly met on on the 4th of the following year was raised to the peerage, May. M. Buchez was elected President. The when he assumed the title formerly borne by members of the late government gave in their his first cousin, įthe celebrated lawyer, John statements. Garnier Pagès, the Minister of Dunning. The last occasion in which he was Finance, stated the receipts for 1848 at 1,546,engaged in the service of the crown, was the 000,000, and the expenses 1,500,000,000 francs. embassy to the United States in 1842, which Arago, Minister of War, stated the Departresulted in a settlement of the long vexed ques ment had issued in two months 446,000 mus. tion of the north-eastern boundary. He was kets to arm the National Guards of France; the eldest son of Sir Francis Baring, Bart., and 150,000 of which were distributed in Paris long at the head of the mercantile house of alone. In the event of war, France would be Baring, Brothers & Co.

able to bring into the field 500,000 infantry, On the 30th of April, a soirée was given at and 85,000 horses. On the 9th of May, after Limerick to Messrs. Smith O'Brien, Meagher, a stormy discussion, the Assembly decided that and Mitchell. In consequence of the disre- for the present the Executive Department spectful allusions towards Daniel O'Connell, should be intrusted to a committee of five, and which these gentlemen had indulged in, a large the following are the numbers of votes by mob, collected round the building, burnt Mr. | which they were elected : Mitchell in effigy, and made an attack on the


725 party; and this assemblage, met for the pur

Garnier Pagès,

715 pose of advocating physical force, was indebted


702 for its safety to the police and military. Some


643 fighting occurred, in which Smith O'Brien got

Ledru Rollin,

638 severely treated; and at the breaking up of the soirée, Mr. Mitchell had to be secreted in The position of Lamartine in this list, was

owing to the strenuous efforts be made to in- | the ruffians and their leaders, then left the sure the appointment of Rollin, and the conse chamber and proceeded to the Hotel de Ville, quent suspicion of the moderate party. His where several members of the clubs named as popularity has, from this conduct, considerably a Provisional Government, Louis Blanc, Barbès, declined, as he is believed to fear the influence Albert, Blanqui, Raspail, Huber, Sobrier, of that turbulent demagogue, or to have too Proudhon, Pierre Leroux, and Cabet. About much sympathy with his principles.

five o'clock, Gen. Courtais, Barbès, Blanqui The affairs of Poland were made by the and others were arrested, and the riot supaltra democrats of Paris, a pretence for an pressed, but the guard remained under arms all attack on the Assembly, which for some time night. Several of the clubs have since been threatened the destruction of the Government. entirely suppressed, and upwards of 200 arrests While the Assembly was engaged in discussing have been made. Leave has been asked of the the affairs of Italy, an immense body of men chamber to permit the prosecution of Louis in blouses, headed by Barbès, Blanqui, and Blanc. No further disturbances have occurred, others, approached the hall to demand in the but the Assembly has since been protected duname of the people, immediate interference in ring its sittings by an immense military force; behalf of Poland. This demonstration was not 40,000 troops of the line have been recalled to unexpected by the Government, but from treach- Paris, and the command of the National Guard ery in that body, as is suspected, the orders transferred to Col. Clement Thomas. Considgiven to meet the exigency were not put in erable quantities of warlike stores have been force. Bodies of the National Guard and seized, and the Prefect of Police, M. CausiGuard Mobile, placed to stop the procession, dière, was so much implicated that he found it allowed it to pass unopposed, and hardly any necessary to resign. opposition was offered outside the hall, which The grand national fête went off withwas speedily taken possession of by the mob, out disturbance. The 45 per cent. added and the members of the Assembly compelled to by the Provisional Government to the direct retire. The scene was worthy of the old taxes, produced 34,558,974 francs to the 10th Jacobins. The hall was literally stormed; May. A million of francs was voted on the flags were waving, and cries of Vive la Pó- 22d May for the national workshops, from logne! Vire Louis Blanc! A bas les Aristo- which 115,000 (in Paris) are receiving pay, crats! were shouted and distinctly heard above and performing little, if any, labor: the Assemthe uproar. Barbès, and a crowd of others, bly have declared their intention of breaking up rushed to the Tribune and attempted to make these establishments. Should the present nathemselves heard. Up to this time all the tional expenditure continue for twelve months, members had retained their seats except Barbès, it will leave a deficit of about 185 millions of Louis Blanc, and a few others, who mixed dollars. The receipts for the first four months freely with the crowd. Ledru Rollin attempted of 1848, as compared with the same period of to speak, but without success. At length 1847, show a diminution of 33,333,000 fr., of Barbès obtained a hearing, and moved the As which 16,310,000 is for the first three months, sembly should declare that the people of Paris and 17,023,000 for April alone. The import had deserved well of their country. Blanqui duties for the like period in 1848 produced followed. After this scene had lasted about 26,786,968 francs, against 43,720,267 in two bours, Barbès again spoke and demanded 1847. In April, 1847, they amounted to that a tax of one milliard, about two hundred | 10,750,672, and in the same month in 1848, millions of dollars, should be levied on the rich, only 3,764,590 fr. The Committee on the and that whoever should order the rappel to be Constitution have adopted two resolutions, viz., beaten for the National Guard, should be de- that there shall be a single President and a clared a traitor, which was carried by acclama- single Chamber, elected by universal suffrage. tion. He concluded his proposals for extrica- | The report of the Committee is not expected ting the nation from embarrassment by ex- till the end of June. A serious difficulty beclaiming, “We must re-establish the guillo- tween the Assembly and the Executive Comtine!" Louis Blanc, placed on a table, was mittee arose, which caused Lamartine and paraded round the room. Shortly afterwards, Ledru Rollin to threaten to retire. The Comfrom the end of a pole, a paper was exhibited, mittee claimed to have entire control of the with the words, “ The Chamber is dissolved,” measures for the protection of the Assembly, which was echoed from all sides. A delegate and to an exemption from attendance at its of one of the clubs mounted the tribune, and sittings. The difficulty, which appeared sedeclared the National Assembly dissolved, rious, was compromised by the exemption being Whereupon the President was driven from his allowed except at the call of 40 members for chair, over which a red flag surmounted by a explanations or statements, and by leaving the cap of liberty was raised, and the deputies protectionary arrangements with the Commitwere driven from their seats, which were tee, with a controlling power in the President speedily filled by the mob.

of the Assembly Fearing an attack from the National Guard,

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