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WHIT-MONDAY, June 12th, being a regular | however, postponed insurrection until the harvest holiday among the working classes in England, shall have been gathered in. Protestant Rewas appointed by the Chartists for a grand dis- peal Associations are forming, but on the other play, and meetings were advertised to be held hand the Orangemen are dismissing Repealers at various places. In London large prepara- from their ranks, and addresses of confidence tions were made for preventing any breach of and loyalty, numerously signed, have been prethe peace, but the projected meetings were
sented to the Lord Lieutenant. A younger abandoned, and the same occurred in Bristol. brother of Mitchel has arrived at New York, In Manchester an open-air meeting was chang- and Meagher, who was some time since tried ed to an in-door assembly. In Birmingham for sedition, is said to be on his way here. An about six hundred met out of doors, and about association with a large capital, for extending twelve thousand were gathered in the West and improving the Irish Fisheries, is in proRiding of Yorkshire, and having been inform- gress. ed by the magistrates that no interruption A bill for repealing the obsolete statutes, and would be made, if the parties present dispersed other disabilities, affecting Roman Catholics, quietly, without forming processions, with ban- has been introduced into the House of ComDers, the meeting passed off without disturb- mons. Discussions have taken place in both ance. Seventeen Chartists charged with riot- Houses of Parliament, relative to the relations ing and offences against the peace on previous between Great Britain and Spain. The foroccasions, have been convicted in London, and mer country having been mainly instrumental sentenced to imprisonment with hard labor, for in suppressing the civil war in Spain, and placterms varying from two years to three months, | ing its present sovereign on the throne, under according to the nature and extent of their assurances of the adoption of a more liberal line offences.
of policy, Sir Henry Bulwer, the British MinisIn Ireland the accounts of the crops, particu- ter at Madrid, was instructed by Lord Palmerlarly the potato, are highly satisfactory. Emi- ston to advise the Spanish government against gration contioues from that country on a large the arbitrary line of policy pursued in that scale. The formation of clubs in Dublin and country. Sir Henry Bulwer was forthwith throughout the provinces is progressing rapid violently attacked in the Ministerial Newsly: in the former place, there are not less than paper at Madrid, and ordered by the governforty clubs, containing in the aggregate twelve ment to quit the country, on the grounds, proved thousand members. The“Repeal Association,” to be false, that he had promoted certain outand the “ Irish Confederation,” (the “ Young breaks the people, and that his person was Ireland” party,) are to be dissolved, the mem not safe from popular fury. A special minisbers uniting in a body, to be called the "Irish ter was sent to England, where his reception League," of which Repeal is to be the object; but was refused, and the Spanish Ambassador there the mode of its attainment, whether by physical was provided with a pasport and sent home. or moral force, is to be left to the judgment of all parties in England agree that there was each member individually. This amalgamation nothing blameable in the conduct of Sir Henry has not the approval of many moral force men. Bulwer, but no hostile measures seem at presMr. John O'Connell, to whom the leadership ent probable, and the matter is left in the hands was bequeathed by his late father, disapproves of the British government for adjustment. of the change and refuses to join the new as At present the great object of European insociation ; part of the Catholic clergy are dis- terest is centred in France, where the Socialtrustful and cautious, some declining to commit ist doctrines, introduced and fostered by the themselves to the new movement, but the vio- Provisional Government, have commenced their lent partisans and the younger members of that work, the effect of which it is not possible at profession have readily given in their adhesion present to foresee. On the 3d June, the NaThe “Irish Felon” has made its appearance as tional Assembly by a small majority refused a successor to Mitchel's paper ; its tone is ra- leave to prosecute Louis Blanc, for participabid, but lacks the point which distinguished its tion in the events of the 15th May, on which forerunner: the writers affix their signatures to subject much difference of opinion prevailed in the contributions. One of them disapproves of Paris. On the division, Crémieux, Minister of the Repeal leaders' policy, and thinks a blow Justice, voted in the majority, in consequence ought to have been struck at the time of Mit- of which M. Portalis, Attorney General of the chel's removal : the physical force men have, | Republic, and M. Landoin, Advocate General
resigned their offices. The Minister of Justice out much difficulty. On Monday, June 12th, having afterwards stated in the Assembly that the people expected him to take his seat, and he had voted not as a member of the Assembly, large crowds assembled to welcome him. but as a simple representative, the law officers During the sitting of the Chamber, intelligence positively affirmed that he had given the matter was brought that a collision had taken place his previous sanction, and had declared the pro- between the people and the troops, upon which posed prosecution ought to be adopted ; and a M. Lamartine rushed to the tribune in great question of veracity arose out of the discussion, excitement, and demanded a decree of promost unfavorable for M. Crémieux, who was scription to be passed against him on the incharged by the reporter of the Committee, to stant; the Assembly hesitated, but passed the which the question had been referred, with measure, after considerable opposition. On the having expressed himself favorably towards following day that body reversed their decision, their decision, recommending the prosecution. and voted to admit_him, “provided that he This exposure compelled M. Crémieux to re- proved himself a French citizen.” Louis sign his post. Another resignation also took Blanc voted for his admission, possibly from the place about that time. M. Clement Thomas, idea that if any serious tumult arose, he might late a clerk in a newspaper establishment, who be able to turn it to his advantage. In the had been raised to the rank of General and in- following week disturbances took place in the trusted with the command of the National departments, on account of the additional 45 Guard, having in the Assembly designated the per cent. added to the direct taxation by the decoration of the Legion of Honor, as a “gew- Provisional Government; several lives were gaw of vanity,” (hochet de la vanité) raised such lost, and martial law was declared in some a storm that, notwithstanding his attempted ex- places. planations, he was obliged to retire. The On the 19th June, the committee reported Minister of Finance produced his budget for the draft of a constitution for the approval of 1848: the credits opened to defray the ordinary the Assembly. It commences by declaring the and extraordinary expenses of the year are sta Rights of Man"-guarantees to all citizens, ted at 1,680,000,000 fr. and the resources of Liberty, Equality, Security, Instruction, Labor, the state at 1,685,000,000 fr.-about 320 mil- Property, Assistance. “The right of Labor is lions of dollars. It appears by this budget that that which every man has to live by his the expenses created by decrees of the Pro- work. Society must, by the productive and visional Government, amounted to-
general means of which it disposes, and which Foreign Affairs,
480,000 will be organized ulteriorly, furnish labor to Interior
6,823,000 able men who cannot procure it otherwise." Commerce and Agriculture, 495,000 The legislative power is delegated to a single Public Works,
6,779,000 assembly of 750 representatives, including AlWar,
113,946,119 ! geria and the colonies; having population for Public Debt,
600,000 its basis, and to be re-elected every three years. Dotations,
480,000 The President is to hold office for four years, General Service,
30,000 and be elected by universal suffrage, and must Administration,
2,860,000 have at least two millions of votes. A Vice Repayments and Restitutions, 31,077,000 President, to be nominated by the Assembly,
on the presentation of the President. The Total,
163,570,119 fr. Vice President is to preside over the Council of The Assembly voted 100,000 fr. a month to State, consisting of forty members nominated the Executive Committee -25,000 for their by the Assembly. expenses, and 75,000 for secret service. In “ The Council of State draws up the prothe recent elections to fill vacancies in the As-jects of laws that the Government proposes to sembly, the name of Louis Napoleon, son of the Assembly, as well as the projects of parliathe late King of Holland, best known by his mentary initiative, which the Assembly submits two foolish and abortive attempts at Strasbourg to its examination. It makes the regulation of and Bologne, for the latter of which he was public administration, and exerts, with respect confined in the fortress of Ham for six years, to departmental and municipal administrations, was on several electoral lists; and in some of all the powers of control and of inspection the provinces the peasants carried their ballots which are deferred to it by law. Its other atin their hats, having in large characters, “ L. tributes are to be regulated by the legislative Napoleon ! Vive L'Empereur ! A bas la Ré body. publique!” He was returned for Paris and “The President names and revokes the minother places; four Napoleon journals were es isters, according to his own will. He names tablished, and his name was heard in all the and revokes, in a council of the ministers, the assemblies of the lower classes of Paris, who diplomatic agents, the generals and military vigorously shouted, “Vive L'Empereur ! Vive commanders of land and sea forces, the preLouis Napoleon!” The military were called fects, the governors of the colonies of Algeria, out to disperse the mobs, which was done with- and of the Bank of France, the procureurs.
généraux and other functionaries of a superior listened to with attention, and he assured them class. He names and revokes the secondary the government was occupied with their wants. agents of the Government, upon the proposal On returning to their fellows the expression of of one of the ministers.
the Minister was distorted, and it was reported “ He has a right to suspend the agents of the he had termed them “ slaves.” This was more executive power elected by the citizens. The than those who had been flattered as the peoterm of this suspension cannot exceed three ple, who had made the Revolution, could submonths. He cannot revoke them without the mit to. The mob cried out, “A bas Marie !" consent of the Council of State. The law 6 A bas la Commission Exécutive!” “ A bas determines the cases in which the revoked | l'Assemblée !" They then traversed the streets, agents can be declared ineligible to the same their numbers continually increasing, and in functions. This declaration of ineligibility can the evening, they stationed themselves in varionly be pronounced by a jury.
ous open spaces, which were filled with large “ The property-tax is only imposed for one and excited masses; barricades were formed, year. The indirect taxes may be imposed for and the government ordered out an immense
military force. The following is a condensed “The essential guarantees of the rights of account of the frightful outbreak which follabor are, liberty of labor, voluntary association, lowed. equality in the relations between the employer On Friday the insurgents—for the movement and the workman; gratuitous instruction, edu- had assumed all the character of an open incation, suitable to each man's position ; estab- surrection-possessed themselves of all that lishments of prévoyance and credit; the estab- portion of the right bank of the Seine, stretchlishment of great works of public utility, and ing from the Faubourg St. Antoine to the river, the State destined to employ the men in case of whilst on the left bank they occupied all that failure of work.”
populous portion called the Cité, the Faubourgs The financial difficulties of the Government St. Marcel, St. Victor, and the lower quarter of are increasing, and a supplementary tariff of St. Jaques. Their communications between tolls was issued, to be levied on articles enter the two banks of the river were maintained by ing Paris. The feeling in favor of Louis Na the possession of the Church St. Gervais, a poleon increased among the lower classes, and part of the quarter of the Temple, the apdissatisfaction with the Republic was great proaches of Notre Dame, and the Bridge St. and openly expressed, of which the partisans Michel. They thus occupied a vast portion of of “Henry V.” and Prince de "Joinville the most defensible parts of the city, and availed themselves. On the 20th of June, actually threatened the Hôtel de Ville, which, 3,000,000 fr. was voted for the workshops ; on if they had succeeded in taking, might have the following day 100,000 fr. for the relief of po- secured the final victory on their side. On litical sufferers under Louis Philippe.
that day there were partial conflicts, but the The symptoms of reaction in the public insurgents seemed to be occupied more at mind, and the evils which arose from the a:éliers fortifying their positions than in actually nationaur, in which upwards of 100,000 men fighting ; whatever successes the Government were daily receiving pay, without one tenth | troops may have had in various quarters, where part having any employment whatever, became condicts took place, as at St. Denis and St. so excessive that the government was greatly Martin, it now appears that the enthusiastic alarmed. The military were constantly in courage of the insurgents repulsed them, and arms to disperse riotous crowds, and the As even beat them in other parts of the city. The sembly was guarded by an immense military Government forces were divided into three force. In this state of affairs, M. Marie, the divisions ; and large masses of troops were Minister of Public Works, proposed to draft brought to bear with artillery upon the posithe men from the national workshops in Paris, tions of the insurgents ; but still Friday passed in large bodies, to the departments, to be em and the insurrection had evidently gathered ployed there in public works. This measure strength. On Saturday the National Assembly excited the greatest discontent among those declared itself in permanence, and Paris was men, and 12,000 who had been ordered to the placed in a state of siege. The Executive departments, were advised by their comrades power was delegated absolutely General to resist. On Thursday, July 22d, a body of Cavaignac; and at half-past ten the members about 400 went in procession to the Luxem- of the Executive Government resigned. Rebourg, demanding to speak to the Executive ports poured in every hour to the Assembly; Committee. M. Marie consented to receive a and as the intelligence arrived of the slaughdeputation of five. One of them attempted to ter, the sensation became deep and alarming. make an address, but M. Marie refused to hear Various proclamations were issued by Gen. him, as he had been one of the insurgents of Cavaignac to induce the insurgents to lay 15th May, and said, (addressing another,) “You down their arms, but to no effect. The whole are not the slaves of that man, you can state of Saturday was employed in desperate fighting your own grievances.” Their complaints were on both sides. Except a lull during a frightful
thunder-storm in the afternoon of Friday, the wounded. But perhaps the most touching conflicts were without intermission. On Satur- death is that of the Archbishop of Paris. The day, however, the carnage and battles on the venerable prelate, on Sunday, volunteered to south of the river were horrible. During the go to the insurgents as a messenger of peace. whole of Friday night, and until three o'clock Cavaignac said that such a step was full of on Saturday, the roar of the artillery, and the danger, but this Christian pastor persisted. He noise of musketry, were incessant. In this advanced, attended by his two vicars, towards frightful state of things the Assembly betrayed the barricades, with an olive branch borne benot a little alarm. Deputations from the fore him, when he was ruthlessly shot in his Assembly were proposed to go and entreat groin, and fell mortally wounded. He was the combatants to cease this fratricidal strife ; carried to the nearest hospital, where he since but all the successive reports proved that the died. Some compute the loss on the side of insurgents were bent upon only yielding up the troops at from five to ten thousand slain. the struggle with their lives; and their valor The nuniber of prisoners captured of the insurwas only surpassed by their desperate resolu- gents exceeds ten thousand. All the prisons tion. On Saturday night, at eight o'clock, the are filled, as well as the dungeons and vaults capital was in an awful state. Fighting con of the Tuileries, the Louvre, Palais Royal, the tinued with unabated fury. Large masses of Chamber of Deputies, and the Hôtel de Ville. troops poured in from all the neighboring de- A military commission has already been appartments; but still the insurgents, having pointed to try such as were found with arms rendered their positions almost impregnable, in their hands; and they will be transported to resisted, more or less effectually, all the forces some transatlantic French colony, a decree havwhich could be brought against them. The ing been passed with that object. The savage “ red flag,” the banner of the Republique Demo- cruelty with which the insurgents waged war cratique et Sociale,was hoisted by the insurgents. almost exceeds belief. They tortured some of
On the Sunday morning the Government their prisoners, cut off their hands and feet, and forces had completely succeeded in suppress- inflicted barbarities worthy of savages. The ing the insurrection on the left bank of the women were hired to poison the wine sold to river, after a frightful sacrifice of human life; the soldiers, who drank it, and died. It seems and Gen. Cavaignac gave the insurgents, on to be believed generally, that if the insurgents the right bank, till ten o'clock to surrender. had succeeded in following up their most ad. The heaviest artillery was brought to bear mirably concerted plan of operations, and upon them, and little doubt entertained that the having advanced their line, and possessed insurrection would be put down. The hope themselves of the Hôtel de Ville, and followed thus held out of the termination of the insur up their successes along the two banks of the rection was not, however, realized. The fight-river, that the whole city would have been ing continued the whole of Sunday, with a given up to pillage ; indeed the words “ PILfearful loss of life, especially to the National LAGE AND RAPE ” are said to have been inGuards. On Monday the reinforcements Gen. scribed on one of their banners. Not less than Lamoricière had received from Gen. Cavaignac 30,000 stand of arms have been seized and enabled him to hem in the insurgents in the capiured in the faubourg St. Antoine alone. eastern part of the city ; and, although reduced The insurgents are said to have numbered to extremities, they still fought with incredible | 100,000, and the troops to have doubled that valor; and it was only after a frightful strug- amount. The loss is variously estimated at gle of about two hours more that the Govern- from 10 to 25,000. Money to a considerable ment troops everywhere prevailed; and the amount was found on the bodies of the slain, heart of the insurrection being broken, the and Armand Marrast, Mayor of Paris, in a insurgents were either shot, taken prisoners, proclamation, declared the insurrection to have or fled into the country, in the direction towards been the result of foreign intrigue, and other Vincennes. The eastern quarters, comprising members of the Assembly have reiterated the the faubourgs St. Antoine, du Temple, Menil. cry: doubtless, however, the traitors are to be montant, and Pepincourt were the last subdued. found in Paris alone, and it is not improbable The last band took refuge in the celebrated that some members of the Assembly have cemetery of Père la Chaise, but the Garde Mo- raised this report, to direct attention from the bile hunted them even from this sanctuary, and real instigators, and to screen their own delin. they were scattered in the neighboring fields. quency, even at the hazard of foreign war. On On Tuesday the insurrection was definitively the Sunday a decree was passed postponing quelled.
until the 5th of July, the payment of commer. The loss of life has been terrific. No less cial bills due 23d June; and another granting than ten general officers have been put hors de a credit of 3,000,000 fr. to be distributed among combat, a greater loss than in the most the indigent population of the department of the splendid engagements of Napoleon. Four or Seine. Gen. Cavaignac having resigned the five members of the National Assembly are powers with which he was temporarily intrustamongst the killed, and as many more ed, the Assembly passed a decree confiding to
him the entire executive authority, with the was expected to attack Verona, but since that title of President of the Council, with power to period he has maintained rather an unaccountappoint his own ministry. The 9th and 12th able state of inactivity. Lombardy has agreed legions of the National Guard have been dis to join Piedmont and Sardinia, to form one kingarmed and dissolved; the Paris Clubs have dom under Charles Albert. Vepice still holds been closed, and several newspapers suppressed. out for a Republic. Emile Girardin, editor of “La Presse,” has Vienna has been the subject of another outbeen arrested and confined. Ten thousand of break, which led to the Emperor's retiring from the insurgents are said to be captured and in his capital. On the 15th May an order was prison, and those charged as chiefs, promoters issued for the dissolution of part of the National or instigators, or with having furnished money, Guard which was organized for political obarms or ammunition, or committed any act of jects, and formed a nucleus for a physical force aggravation, are to be tried by Court Martial. party. Dissatisfaction also prevailed respect
The departments have been generally quiet, ing the election law, and the students prepared but at Marseilles, an émeule of the workmen in a petition against the constitution, which they the atéliers nationaux broke out, and barricades proposed to present with a popular demonstration were formed, but the movement was put down of force. They demanded a withdrawal of the with the loss of about fifty of the National military ; that the central committee of the Guard. The people of Paris were at the last | National Guard should not be dissolved ; and accounts engaged in burying their dead, and that the election law should be declared null the Assembly had decreed a grand national and void. They were joined by numbers of ceremony in honor of those who fell in defence the lower classes, and the Burgher Guard “fraof public order and tranquillity. Trade and ternized” with them; and their joint demands commerce appear to have entirely ceased. were ultimately conceded. On the evening of
An insurrection took place in Naples on the that day the Emperor and family privately 17th May, in which 450 of the troops were quitted the city, and retired to Innspruck. This killed ; and subsequently the city was given event created the greatest excitement in Vienna, up to pillage by the government during several the inhabitants of which are said to be unanihours. Several magnificent villas and palaces mously in favor of maintaining a constitutional on the sea-shore were reduced to ruins, and monarchy. Some young men, who took adborrible atrocities committed. The King, in a vantage of the confusion to proclaim a Repubproclamation, justified the measure on the lie, were with difficulty saved from the fury of ground of necessity. Upwards of 1700 bodies, the people; and a deputation was forthwith including the soldiers, were interred on the 17th. dispatched to solicit the Emperor's return, but The Sicilians dispatched 1500 men to aid in he declined to come until such time as he should the revolt, who defeated the royal troops sent be assured the city had returned to its former against them. Advices to June 17th state the allegiance. He was received with great ensituation of the King to be critical, the insur- thusiasm at Innspruck, and numerous addresses gent provinces having had some successes and from other parts of his dominions have been refusing to lay down their arms. It is said the presented, praying him to transfer his capital King contemplates abdication. The Parlia- from Vienna to some other place. The outment sitting at Palermo, has published a list of breaks appear to arise from a body of workfour candidates for the throne of Sicily-a son men, kept by the State, at an expense of about of the King of Sardinia, the son of the Duke of 8 or 10,000 forins per day: To develop and Tuscany, Louis Napoleon, and the Prince de put in practice the free institutions granted by Beauharnois.
the Emperor, he has appointed a constituent The Pope, having refused to declare war assembly to meet in Vienna, where he intended against Austria, was compelled to form a new to open the proceedings about the 20th June. cabinet of laymen, leaving the question to Prague, the capital of Bohemia, has been altheir uncontrolled decision; and in obedience most reduced to ruins. An insurrection broke to the popular demand they made war for his out on the 12th June in consequence of Prince Holiness, and large bodies of troops were for Windischgrätz refusing cannon and ammunition warded. The Pope has since regained his to the students. The Princess was killed by a popularity, and is attempting to negotiate a shot fired from a window, notwithstanding peace.
which her husband went out to implore the In Lo.nbardy the Austrians suffered a defeat preservation of peace; but the mob seized and at Goito, on the 30th May, on which day they were proceeding to hang him, when he was also surrendered Peschiera, where the garrison rescued by his troops. Barricades were raised, and the inhabitants had for several weeks suffer- crowds of peasants arrived to assist the ined the greatest extremities of want; they were surgents, and the Prince after some fighting in fact almost starved. On the 11th June, the withdrew his troops to the neighboring heights, Italians in Vicenza were forced to surrender bombarded the city, and put down the insurrecthat place to the Austrians. Charles Albert's tion. head-quarters were at Villa Franca, and he The cholera is increasing in Moscow.