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18

ADVERBS.

Adverbs may be distinguished from adjectives by their answering to one of the questions-How? how much? when? or where? Any adjective may be used as an adverb; as

He laughed loud and long.
An English shout pealed high and clear.

The grass grows so fast you can almost hear it.
There is a difficulty about the use of adjectives as adverbs in
English, which some have got over by calling the usage wrong
or a vulgarism.

But without doubt the usage is correct. Any adjective not of Latin form or ending in y may be used as an adverb, with this restriction, that it must not be an addition of new sense to the verb, but must merely qualify the essential meaning of the verb. For example, speed or non-speed is inherent in the meaning of 'running,' therefore you can say 'He runs quick, swift, fast, slow,' but no mental idea properly belongs to it; therefore even such expressions as 'He runs eager,' appropriate as the idea of eagerness is, are not quite correct.

It is obviously possible to speak of wonderful, noble, gentle, &c., running; but as none of these ideas belong to running as such, 'He runs wonderful, noble, gentle,' &c., is wrong.

The use of adverbs in Latin proceeds on this principle. What complicates the question is this; in addition to the difficulty of deciding essential and non-essential meaning in doubtful cases, comes in the fact, that a participle put with the verb always, and an adjective very often, is a predicate, with a construction of its own understood. Thus, 'He runs furious and determined.' • Furious and determined' are not adverbs, but a separate clause agreeing with the subject but joined with the sense of the predicate by a participle or verb under tood; e. g. 'being furious,' &c. That is to say, a separate fact is stated, not the kind of running.

Sometimes the very same words, according as they are read, may be either adverbs or predicative adjectives; as, ' An English shout peals high and clear.' If no stop is put, 'high' and clear' are adverbs belonging to 'peals;' but the clause might be punctuated thus, “An English shout peals, high and clear,' in which case they are predicative adjectives, and was high and clear.' Again, 'He walked slow' is correct, but, “He walked towards the house slow,' is not correct, because of the addition of the fresh idea 'towards the house to the verbal notion of walking, and this idea the word “slow cannot belong to as a qualifying adverb.

Occasionally, both in Greek and English, an adjective is thrown out of its place without becoming either adverbial or predicative in grammatical construction, merely to give it emphasis, e. g.– Beneath whose breath the leaves dead are driven.'

(Shelley.) • The leaves dead' is not correct grammar, though very emphatic and striking English.

This is obviously a very rare liberty.

Adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding ly (in old English 'like') to the word; as

He spoke calmly. He acted violently. It twinkled visibly. He was evidently afraid.

Ly is also an adjectival termination; as, Manly, womanly, godly, goodly, sickly, seemly. (In old English 'godly' and 'seemly' are both adjectives and adverbs.)

If an adjective ends in y, it becomes i in the adverb; as, Happy, happily; gay, gaily; merry, merrily; pretty, prettily.

If an adjective ends in le, the e is omitted in the adverb; as, Able, ably; humble, humbly; visible, visibly; agreeable, agreeably.

more

worse

The following adjectives are frequently used as adverbs :-
much

most
(well)
better

best
(badly)

worst. He hesitated much. He was more reasonable to-day. Would I had loved him more. It is a most inaccessible place. He dines mostly at four o'clock. You have done it well, but might have done it better. It is best (or better) left alone. badly sung and worse acted. She wrote worst of the three.

Some common adverbs of time and place, used also as prepositions, have been noticed under the head of “Prepositions.'

The following are the remaining adverbs in most common

It was

use:

soon

Of Timenow to-morrow

often to-day hereafter

oft at present thereafter

oft times hereupon afterwards

seldom thereupon presently

daily, or once a day directly

immediately the other day at once anon

weekly, or once a week yesterday

monthly, or once a month before in a minute

yearly, or once a year heretofore in an hour

always already

by and by hitherto

never lately

again
yet

still. Daily,' weekly,' 'monthly,' yearly,' nightly,' &c., are both adverbs and adjectives

He cast up his weekly accounts.
He cast up his accounts weekly.
He visited her grave yearly.
He paid a yearly visit to her grave.

ever

once

“The other day' is said by Johnson to mean the day before the day before yesterday,' or 'the third day back.' It is generally used less definitely.

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{ assuredly}

yes

undoubtedly
truly
verily

certainly
really
to be sure

decidedly. *Yea' and 'yes,' 'nay' and 'no' admit of no grammatical construction, and must stand alone. "Yes, I told you so.'

"Yea’ is only used in old English. “They fall down, yea, they worship.'

In modern English 'nay' is sometimes used in a similar 'manner. They fall down, nay, they worship.' Of Negationnay nowise

certainly not
not at all

not possibly
not
by no means

&c.
Of Doubt -

perhaps perchance possibly
peradventure probably

haply.

no

Of Manner

well
ill
thus
likewise

sideways
crosswise
straight, and other

adjectives

badly
ably, and other

adverbs in ly
how.

Of Number

once
twice
thrice, &c.

Of Order

first, firstly secondly thirdly, &c.

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Of Direction, compounded with ward

hitherward backward (back) eastward
thitherward forward

westward
upward
northward

homeward. downward southward

Of Location, compounded with aaside

ashore ahead

aground aboard

afloat

athirst abed ajar.

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