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am I to take this? Wherewith shall I beat him? Wherewithal shall I get dinner? Wherefore do you treat me so? Whereabouts is the stable ?

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a above
a about

according to
a across
a c after ad

c against a along amid or amidst among or amongst a around or round

a besides a between or betwixt a beyond a by

concerning a down

during cere c except or excepting c for

from a in


instead of a near ad a next ad a c notwithstanding


a athwart a c before a behind a below a beneath beside

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a throughout a off

c till or until a on or upon.

a to or unto opposite ad

touching out of

toward or towards ad a over

under ad over against

a underneath. regarding

a up ad respecting

with save

a within a c since

a c without. a through Notice the following phrases :Above. Above a hundred men. Above forty years old.

Over and above the quantity required. They shot

their arrows from above (adverb). About. The towns about Capua. What are you about ?

About a week. About a mile. What do you think

about it? I am about to die. According to. According to his promise. According to

Macaulay. According to Saint Mark. Across.

Across the river. Are you going across ? (adverb). After. After dinner. What are you after ? An hour

after (adverb). After he had done speaking (conjunction). The after proceedings did not take

long (adjective). Against. He ran against me in the street. Caesar spoke

against it. Against to-morrow. Against I come

(conjunction). Along. Along the roadside. Come along with me (adverb). Amidst, or Amid, means in the middle of. Amidst the storm

they sang. Amid the breakers. (‘Amid' is gene

rally poetical.) Stood in the midst of them. Among. Alone among crowds. Out from among the most


Around. Around the ruined column. Round the world.

Look round, or around (adverb). At. What are you aiming at? What are you at? At

the appointed signal, he fired. He rose at sunrise. He ran at full speed. He was at supper. At the bottom of a well. Begin at the beginning. Take him at his word. He valued it at fifty pounds. Good at cricket. At school; at home; at sea; at Rome. (We generally say ' in London.') At first; at last; at least; at most; at the most. At an end; at hand; at present; at once. At one; at variance; at odds; at all. At my request; at my expense. At leisure; at work. At sight; at your peril.

Twelve at a shot. At them ! Athwart is poetical, and means across. Athwart the dark

ness. And clenched the ear-rings endlong and

athwart with claws of griffin grasp (adverb). Before. Before my face. Before my time. Before Alex

ander. Death before dishonour. I never saw him before (adverb). The day before (adverb). The

day before he was killed (conjunction). Behind. Behind the rest of the procession. Behind the hill.

Behind Cicero in oratory. Behind in everything

(adverb). Below. Below the surface of the earth. Below the rank

of squire. The passengers went below (adverb).

What is written below (adverb). Beneath. Beneath my roof. This is altogether beneath you.

('Beneath' is more common in poetry, ‘below' in prose.) Beside. He sat beside the river. Besides. Besides other reasons. And besides, he was not

there (adverb). (In old English, 'beside' is used for 'besides' as a pre

position; as, 'Oxen and sheep, beside harts and roebucks.)

Between. The sea flows between England and her enemies.

War between Prussia and Austria. Between the
Queen and the prisoner at the bar. A space was

left between (adverb). Betwixt is poetical. Betwixt us two. Beyond. Beyond sea. Beyond measure. To go beyond any

one, i.e. cheat (old English). What is there

beyond ? (adverb.) By. Locative: The cottage by the brook Hard by yon

wood. Stand by your friends.
‘By’is joined with the agent of a passive verb-

It was not said by me.
Instrumental: To go by train. To learn by heart. By

name; by profession ; by nature. By no means. Other phrases : Older by two years. By all you hold

sacred. By myself. By the way. One by one. By next year. By day. By night (either 1, in the night; or 2, before night). He sat by (adverb).

He lived hard by (adverb). Concerning is originally a participle. Tell me all you know

concerning this affair. Down. Down the river. Down the gulf of time.

‘Down’ is generally an adverb; as

To put down, hang down, sit down, &c. Up and down. Upside down. He is downright honest.

Consols are down to ninety. During. During the reign of Elizabeth. Ere. Ere the day, three hundred horse had met. Ere

the sun set (conjunction). 'Ere' is poetical. ('Ere' is a different word from eer,

and is not, like the latter, a contraction of ever.) Except, Excepting, are originally the imperative and participle.

No one was there, except the king and queen. All escaped, excepting two of the crew.


The use of 'except' as a conjunction is only found in

books in old English, but it is still allowable collo

quially-Do not speak except I speak to you.
‘But’ is apparently used in the sense of 'except;' as-

None were present but the parties concerned. Who

but you ?
It is however really an adverb; as-

There were but three. Out of all the number but
one returned. But for me you would have been
That peach is not for you. Which party are you
for? I will give it you for three shillings. I will
come for you (to fetch you). I will go for you
(instead of you). What have you got for breakfast ?
For my sake. He was angry with me for saying so.
He could not speak for laughing. As for you.
Pretty well for you. For all that. Look for ;
wait for; long for. Take this for granted. I
know this for certain. He took me for an enemy.
For fear you should be disappointed. But for you

I should have died. I am sorry for you.
· For’ is sometimes omitted; as, “Pick me a plum.'

For once. For ever. For the present. For the
most part. For three years. For years. For miles.
For example. You dare not for your life. Word

for word. For as much as you have promised. ('For,' preposition joined with much.' 'As, relative

adverb. “Much, adjective, agreeing with reason’
understood. “As, relative pronoun.)
The use of for' as a conjunction is very frequent-

For what is glory, but the people's praise.
Cause: The brook will be swollen, for it rained last night.
Inference: It must have rained last night, for the brook

is swollen. (Whately.)
When prepositions are used as adverbs, there has been

originally something omitted in the expression; as, 'He was left behind,' i. e. behind his companions.

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