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Climax, or Amplification, a series of ideas rising in strength:
• What man-what hero—what god ?'
Anticlimax, the reverse of Climax, when the ideas become less striking at the close. It is generally used to produce a ridiculous effect:
• In the name of the prophet-figs !'
Litotes expresses less than is meant, the rest being implied: • This is not altogether the safest road by which you could travel.'
· Chicken are bad gardeners.'
Antonomasia puts a proper for a common name, or vice versa, as when a patriot is called a Hampden:
Some village Hampden, who with dauntless breast.'
Catachresis is the use of a word in a new sense.
Anadiplosis, or Reduplication, the repeating the same word:
· Arm, arm, ye heavens, against these perjured kings.'
The above are sometimes called Figures of Rhetoric; and under the head of Figures of Speech there are also classed Figures of Syntax and Figures of Orthography,
The Figures of Syntax are :
Ellipsis, the omission of a word:
'He lives near St. Paul's (church).'
• This (being) done, proceed.'
Pleonasm, the use of superfluous words:
"The deck it was their field of fame.'
'First of all, see if it rains.'
Enallage is the use of one part of speech for another.
Stands Scotland where it did ?'
The Figures of Orthography are:
Aphaeresis, cutting off a letter or syllable from the beginning of a word, as 'gins, 'gainst, 'tis:
' 'Gins to pale his ineffectual fire.' Prothesis, adding a letter or syllable to the beginning of a word; as, disannul, unloose, arise, entreat.
Syncope, cutting out a letter or syllable from the middle of a word; as, lov'd, se'nnight.
Apocope, cutting off a letter or syllable from the end of a word:
Like a worm i’ the bud.'
Diaeresis, the separation of two vowels which would otherwise form one sound; as, zoology, aëronaut.
Synaeresis, the contraction of two vowels or syllables into
This occurs in Greek, but not often in English.
Tmesis, the division of a compound word into two, by inserting a word between; as, 'to-God-ward.' It is uncommon in English
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