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ciples upon which the spiritual man's belief is founded, ver. 15. -For what animal man hath understood and approved the gracious purposes of the Lord Christ, respecting the salvation of the world? or what animal man is able to instrụct the spiritual man? But, added he, we apostles have the gracious purposes of Christ made known to us by the Spirit, so that we are able both to know them, and to communicate them to the world, ver. 16. New TRANSLATION.
COMMENTARY. CHAP. II. 1 (Ka, 204.) CHAP. II. 1 Now I brethren, Now I, brethren, when I one of the weak persons who called came to you, came not you, when I came to you, came noi (roll) with excellency of with excellence of speech, and of wisspeech, (.) and of wis- dom ; I did not, in eloquent speechdom, declaring to you the
es, propose a new scheme of phitestimony of God.
losophy, when I declared to you the
things which God hath testified. 2 For I determined to 2 For though I knew ye expectmake known nothing a- ed me to bring you some new mong you, but Jesus scheme of philosophy, I determined Christ, and him crucified. to preach nothing among you, but
Jesus Christ, and him crucified. 3 And I in weakness, 3 And knowing that my doctrine, and in fear, and in much and speech, and bodily presence, trembling, was with you. would appear despicable to you, I,
in a sense of my weakness, and in fear, and with much trembling, was
with you at first. 4 And my discourse, 4. And my conversation in private, and my preaching WERE and my preaching in public, was not not with persuasive words with the persuasive language, which of human wisdom, but human wisdom dictates as most effec
sophy: and valued their teachers in proportion to the skill which they shewed, in setting off their opinions by the beauty and harmony of their language. No wonder therefore, if the apostle, knowing the humour of the Greeks, explained the doctrines of the gospel to the Corinthian philosophers, rhetoricians, and people, with fear and much trembling.
Ver. 4.-1, Persuasive words. The word mutuis is not found any where else in this sense. But Salmasius, Comment. de lingua Hellenist. p. 86. ob. serves, that it is justified by the analogy of the Greek language, in which qudo signifies, qui parcus est; and More , qui imitatur ; consequently re96, qui persuadet, a person or thing that persuades.
2. Demonstration of the Spirit. Whitby and Locke, following Origen, by the demonstration of the Spirit, understand the evidence arising from the
wisdom, but in demonstra- αλλ' εν αποδειξει πνευματος tion of the Spirit, and of xai Suvaļevso power : 5 That your faith should
5 Iνα η σιςις υμων μη η not stand in the wisdom of εν σοφια ανθρωπων, αλλ' εν men, but in the power of
δυναμει Θεου. . God. 6 Howbeit we speak
6 Σοφιαν δε λαλουμεν εν wisdom among them that
τους τελειοις σοφιαν δε ου are perfect : yet not the
του αιώνος τουτου, wisdom of this world, nor
, of the princes of this world, αρχοντων του αιώνος τουτου, that come to nought. των καταργούμενων
7 But we speak the wis- 7 Αλλα λαλουμεν σοφιαν dom of God in a mystery, Θεου εν μυςηριω την αποκε
Jewish scriptures, which were dictated by the Spirit of God; and in which the coming of the Christ, his preaching, &c. are clearly foretold. But as the Gentiles neither knew the Jewish scriptures, nor acknowledged their divine authority, previous to their conversion, nor could read them in the original when shewn to them, I do not see how the apostle could use the prophecies contained in them, as arguments for converting the Gentiles. Their only use was to confirm the Gentiles after they were converted. And therefore I am of opinion, that the Spirit here, as in many other passages, signifies the gifts of the Spirit, accompanied with his ordinary influences on the hearts of mankind.
3. And of power. The word durdues, power, is often used in scripture, to express the power of working miracles, Acts x. 38. How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost, and, durduel, with power.
Ver. 6.-1. We speak wisdom. What the apostle here calls wisdom, is the doctrine concerning ihe person and offices of Christ, treated of in his epistles to the Ephesians and Colossians; the justification of sinners by faith counted to them for righteousness, explained in his epistle to the Romans ; the rejec. tion and resumption of the Yews, foretold in the same epistle ; the coming and destruction of the man of sin, foretold 2 Thess. ii. ; the priesthood, sacrifice, and intercession of Christ, explained in his epistle to the Hebrews ; and the resurrection of the dead, foretold in this epistle : in short, the whole doctrines of the gospel taken complexly, which are called, chap. xii. 8. The word of wisdom, and chap. i. 39.'wisdom from God.
2. Among the perfect. The fully initiated into the heathen mysteries, were named Tenslos, Perfect, because these mysteries in their whole extent were discovered to them. The apostle, Heb. vi. 1. calls the deep doctrines of the gospel, Perfection, and here sirnames the persons who had these doctrines discovered to them, perfect men, because in the following verse be terms the gospel a mystery. In other passages however he uses the word Texuoi, Pere with the demonstration of tual for moving the passions, but I the Spirit, and of power.3 established my mission, by the gifts
of the Spirit imparted to you, and by
miracles wrought in your presence. 5 That your faith might 5 That your belief of the gospel not stand in the wisdom might not stand in philosophical argiof men, but in the power ments eloquently expressed, but in the of God. (See 2 Cor. iv. power of God: in the miracles, which 7. notes.)
God enabled me to perform, for
proving the gospel. 6 (A) However, we 6 However, both in private and speak wisdom among the in public, we speak what is known perfect : 2 But not the wis- to be wisdom, among the thoroughly dom of this world; 3 nei- instructed. But it is not the wisdom. ther of ihe rulers of this of the gods of this world ; it is none world, * who are to be made of their mysteries ; neither is it the nought.
wisdom, or religion, of the rulers of this world, who, with their falsc re
ligions, are to be abolished. 7 (AX, 78.) For we 7 For, among the fully instructed, speak the wisdom of God, we speak a scheme of religion form
fect, to denote persons fully instructed in the doctrines of the gospel, where no allusion to the heathen mysteries is intended. See Philip. iii. 15.
3. But not the wisdom of this world. As the apostle in the beginning of the verse, gives the name of wisdom to that scheme of religion which he taught by inspiration, the wisdom of this world, if nothing more had been added, might have meant the false religions practised by the heathen rulers and people jointly. But seeing he adds, neither the wisdom of the rulers of this world, it is plain that the wisdom of this world, was something different from ibe wisdom, or religions, established by the heathen rulers. I therefore suppose the wisdom of this world, means the wisdom of the gods of this world; or the mysteries which the heathen priests feigned to have received from their gods by inspiration, and which, properly speaking, constituted a secret religion which they communicated only to the initiated. Whereas the wisdom of the rulers of this world, means the public and popular religion, invented by the heathen law-givers, and supported by the heathen magistrates.
4. Neitber of the rulers of this world. These, according to Estius, are evil spirits, the authors of magic, divination, and idolatry, who were to be de. stroyed by Christ, with the whole body of their wisdom or error.-
:-Because ebe rulers of this world are said, ver. 8. to have crucified the Lord of glory, Locke, by the wisdom of the rulers of this world, understood the wisdom of the Jewish rulers; meaning, I suppose, the tradition of the elders, and that corrupt form of religion which they had introduced, called, Gal. i. 14. judaism. For that, as well as heathenism, might be called, The wisdom of the rulers, &c. See however the preceding note.
even the hidden τυιεdom κρυμμενην, ήν προωρισεν
8 which God ordained be- eos τρο
των αιώνων εις fore the world unto our dogav nuovo glory.
8 Which none of the 8 Hν ουδεις των αρχοντων princes of this world knew:
του αιώνος τουτου έγνωκεν ει for had they known it,
γαρ έγνωσαν, ουκ αν τον Κυthey would not have cru
ριον της δοξης εςαυρωσαν. cified the Lord of glory.
. 9 But as it is written, 9 Αλλα καθως γεγραπται Eye hath not seen, nor ear Α οφθαλμος ουκ ειδε, και heard, neither have entered into the heart of man,
ους ουκ ήκουσε, και επι καρ
διαν ανθρωπου ουκ ανεβη, α the things which God hath prepared for them ήτοιμασεν ο Θεος τους αγαπωthat love him.
Ver. 7.—1. Which was hidden in a mystery. The doctrines of the gospel, called the wisdom of God, lay long hidden in the types and figures of the law of Moses, and in the Old Testament prophecies. These, therefore, consti. tuted the mystery, of which the apostle speaks; and in which he says, the wisdom of God was kept bidden during the Mosaic dispensation. To recommend the gospel to the Greeks, and to wean them from those vain mysteries of which they were so passionately fond, the apostle here, and in various other passages, (see Ephes. i. 9. note.) dignified the gospel with the appellation of a mystery, not only because it had hitherto been kept secret, Rom. xvi. 25. Ephes. iii. 9. Col. i. 26. but because the discoveries which it contains, (see ver. note 1.) were unspeakably more important than the disco. veries made in any of the heathen mysteries, and were far more certain, be. ing wisdom from the true God. See Pref. to the Ephes. sect. iii.
2. To our glory; that is, according to Whitby, to be the means of the future glory and happiness of the saints. But I prefer the interpretation in the commentary, because St. Paul's design is to shew, that none but the apostles enjoyed the glory of revealing the doctrines of the gospel in an infal. lible manner ; and that the false teacher, and all others who set themselves, in opposition to the apostles, were imposters not to be gloried in.
Ver. 8.-1. None of the rulers of this world knew. Locke observes, that in the writings of the New Testament, ale ÁG, this world, commonly signifies the state of mankind before the publication of the gospel, as contradistinguished to the evangelical state or constitution, which is commonly called, alay pendc07, the world to come.-By taking notice that none of the rulers of this world, and particularly none of the Jewish chief priests and elders, knew the gospel to be from God, the apostle shewed the Corin. thians, what little reason they had to value the false teacher, on account of the knowledge he derived from his Jewish instructers.
which was hidden in a mys. ed by the wisdom of the true God, tery,' BUT which God which was long hidden in a mystery, predetermined before the but which God predetermined before ages, SHOULD BE SPOKEN the Mosaic dispensation began, should to our glory. ?
be explained by us apostles, to our
great honour. 8 Which WISDOM none 8 Which wisdom neither Pilate, of the rulers of this world nor Herod, nor Caiaphas, nor the elknew:' for if they had ders of the Jews, knew to be the wisknown it, they would not dom of God: For if they had known have crucified the Lord of it to be his, they would not have cru
cified Jesus, the Author of all the glorious things displayed in the gospel
mystery. 9 (Aris, 78.) For, as 9 The ignorance of the rulers, it is written, (Isa. Ixiv. 4.) was occasioned by the things conThose things ' eye hath not tained in the mystery of God's wisseen, and ear hath not heard, dom, being above human compreand into the heart of man hension, (see ver. 6. note 1.) For as have not entered, which it is written, Those blessings, eye hath God hath prepared for not seen, and ear hath not heard, and them who love him. into the heart of man have not enter
ed, which God hath prepared for them who love him.
2. Would not have crucified the Lord of glory. The divine person who appeared to the patriarchs, was called by the Jews, the God of glory, and the King of glory, because when he appeared he was commonly surrounded with fire or light. Psal. xxiv, 10. Who is this King of glory? The Lord of hosts, he is tbe king of glory.--Acts vii. 2. The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham.—The apostle gave the appellation of the Lord of glory, to Jesus, for the important reason mentioned in the commentary, and because the glory in which he appeared during his incarnation, was the glory of the only begotten of the Fatber ; the glory of a character absolutely perfect.
Ver. 9.-1. 'A cofanu, Those things eye hath not seen. As the relative (4) is found twice in this sentence, I think the first stands for the demonstrative pronoun ταυτα. . See Ess. iv. 67. and I have so translated it. Clem. Alex. Strom. 5. hath here aand xapusoojev, But we preach ; which I take to be an explication rather than a various reading.—The meaning of the prophet's words, as applied by the apostle, is, that those blessings which God hath prepared for them who love him, and which in the gospel he bath discovered and promised to bestow on them, are so great, that nothing like them have ever been beheld by men, or reported to them. Nay, the mind of man, by its own powers, is not able to form the most distant idea of them.