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of such an orator, would not be lost; it would call forth genius, and guide it to excellence; an effect, which all the books ever written upon oratory and delivery are incapable of producing. Time and circumstances, which exert a most powerful influence over every country, would raise this practice beyond mere imitation, and stamp an original character upon the eloquence grounded on this basis. All true greatness has always been the same in every civilized nation, and what is deemed great by all civilized nations is a safe criterion of genuine great


The orations of Lysias, and the speeches, discourses, and rhetorical essays of Isocrates, are still of value; though they suffer by a comparison with Demosthenes, and for this reason are not apt to be overrated. The treatise of Aristotle on the Art of Poetry, and that of Longinus on Sublimity, are in high estimation with German scholars, who endeavor to discover new beauties, and carefully point them out in new commentaries. Frequent reference is made to them; but they seldom form a subject for separate lectures. The Lives of Plutarch, with his Moral essays, ought not to remain unknown to any youth of a liberal education.

The department of Roman eloquence is also under the care of able professors. The most acceptable are the public and private illustrations of authors, who have some immediate relation to the four professions; as Cicero de Legibus, in a legal point of view, for law students; Celsus, for physicians; and Cicero's Academica, Cicero de Officiis, de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum, and other philosophical essays of the same writer, for students of philosophy and divinity, or more generally for a miscellaneous audience. Numerous lectures on other books of Cicero, such as his historical treatises, the treatise de Oratore, Brutus, and the Orator, convey general information to the hearers. In like manner, the two classic dramatists, Plautus and Terence, are explained with all the profuseness of philological learning. Select parts of the didactic poem of Lucretius, the Epicurean, de Rerum Naturâ, flowing from the fulness of a poetic soul and vivid imagination, are sometimes read, but not regularly. More common are the lectures on the Satires and Epistles of Horace. Virgil's didactic, pastoral, and epic poetry, and Livy's history, are generally confined to schools. The native simplicity and elegiac sensibility of Tibullus, the Grecian imagery of Propertius, and his brilliant allusions to lost glory, are much relished.

Tacitus awakes the mind to reflection, and stamps it with lasting impressions; a sober perusal of his works is, therefore, productive of a good moral effect. Quintilian's Oratory yields an abundant harvest to the assiduous Latin scholar. Pliny's epistolary style is still attractive, notwithstanding the perfection to which this branch of literature has been carried in modern times. Some have a predilection for the historical epics of Lucan and Silius Italicus, and frequent the halls in which they are read; others prefer the heroic poem of Valerius Flaccus on the Expedition of the Argonauts; but few are fond of the circumstantial bombast of Claudian. The bitter sarcasm and the moral lashes of Persius and Juvenal, who, with Horace, their predecessor, have composed almost the only original part of Roman literature, are topics of frequent academic discussions.

There are three or more professorships of classical literature, established in each university. The first chair is filled by the professor of poetry and eloquence, a member of the philosophical faculty, and by virtue of this, competent to officiate, in his turn, as rector or prorector. It is he that delivers the Latin orations at the public solemnities; the number of which varies in the different universities. It is he that invites to these solemnities by Latin programs, or brief discussions on any literary subject, especially referring to antiquity. It is he that addresses the students in the semiannual catalogues of lectures. It is, also, his duty to prepare Latin poems (either in elegiac verse or in the metres of Horace) on extraordinary occasions, a class of productions containing some specimens of great merit. The same professor, assisted by two of his colleagues, conducts the philological seminary.

This consists, in most of the universities, as in Göttingen, Berlin, Jena, and Leipsic, of only nine members, who, according to the law, continue but two years as such, and then retire, to make room for the aspirants, whose number is not limited, and sometimes equals that of the actual members, and who perform precisely the same duties. The laws oblige them to attend the daily exercises, and to interpret and to dispute, in their turn, under the direction of one of the professors. They perform these duties in the same succession in which they became either members or aspirants, after a previous examination in any Greek author, held in the Latin tongue by the principals of the seminary. The first member has, besides, to read, at the commencement of each term, a Latin introduc

tion of his own composition (for everything is transacted in this tongue), relating to the Greek or Roman author, who is to be publicly interpreted by all the members and aspirants, for the benefit of all those who wish to partake of the advantages which the seminary offers to all. The directors distribute among themselves the supervision of the Greek and Latin departments, and the discussions of the disputants and opponents. Each member and each aspirant writes, every term, one, or sometimes two dissertations, on any subject of antiquity, history, or philosophy, one copy of which is handed to the professor, and another to the opponent, who attacks those parts in which he thinks the author either weak or mistaken. Honor and emoluments attend the members of this classic fraternity; and the best success often crowns their exertions. They are eagerly sought for as instructers of the gymnasia; or the university itself offers them employment as private teachers, till, through the faithful performance of these duties and literary distinctions thus acquired, public favor is secured; which soon raises them to stations worthy of their character, talents, and attainments. The benefits resulting to the public from such institutions are inestimable. They impart to the student a scientific knowledge of the profession he is going to practise as teacher, form his character and habits as such, by causing him to study the art of communicating his ideas in the simplest and most engaging manner, to shape and to finish the thoughts of his pupil according to his own model, and to instil into his tender mind those delicate and elevated feelings of honor, which are the best safeguard against illiberality of opinion, and against the abuse of confidence. These feelings, which grow with the pupil, find the most powerful promoters at the universities, and are cultivated through life.

Seminaries, on a larger scale, for the education of popular teachers, are conducted by distinguished divines of each state, who, for the most part, reside in the capital, and are the same persons who examine each clergyman three times before his ordination. Unless a candidate can give evidence of his ability, and of, at least, a two years' stay in those popular institutions where religious instruction is the main object, he is not allowed to teach any branch of knowledge whatever. We cannot now enter upon the particulars of these seminaries, they being beyond the limits of our present discussion.

ART. IV.-The Farmer's Manual, including a Treatise on the Management of Bees. By FREDERICK BUTLER. Hartford. S. G. Goodrich.

THE bee seems to be a native of every part of the globe, and the same characteristic traits distinguish the whole race; we allude simply to the Honey Bee, Apis Mellifica. Even in New South Wales, we find that, excepting in some variation of size and color, the honey bee is the same with that of Europe and America. The history of one bee, and of one community of bees, is, with the slight variation which is always produced by climate, the history of the whole race; nor should we venture to add our stock of observation to the great mass of what is already known upon the subject, and accessible to every class of persons, did we not wish to excite the attention more particularly of those who inhabit the mountainous districts of this portion of our country, to this practicable and profitable branch of horticulture.

From the commencement of history to our own day, bees have been an object of attention, honey has been used, and wax has been an article of commerce. In fact the amount consumed of the former for food, medicine, and a pleasant beverage, and of the latter for various purposes in the arts, would astonish those who have never turned their attention to the subject. In the savage and civilized state, wherever there has been sun enough to mature a flower, every individual of the community is as familiar with the luxury of honey, and the merits and uses of bees-wax, as with the daily food that is consumed.

Man has never been slow to appropriate to himself the physical powers of the inferior animals; but of all those which have been subdued to his use the bee alone has preserved its independence. We ought not, in fact, to use the term subdued, as it does not apply to the situation or position which the bee holds among us in its domestic state. Neither its nature nor its habits are in any wise altered or modified. It preserves its singular economy unchanged, whether it inhabit a hollow tree in the midst of an unfrequented forest, or a hive in the centre of an apiary.

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And here, we would remark, that a hive ought not to be considered as the house or habitation of the bee, for even in

the forests, where there may be supposed to be abundance of hollow trees suited to their purposes, bees have built their cells on the under side of a stout branch; and they have neglected the convenient form of a well constructed hive, to attach themselves to the eaves of a house, or to the inner sides of a chimney. The nature of this part of their instinct goes no further than to secure a firm roof, to which they can attach the cells, and a position that shall protect the cells from the sun and rain.

This faculty, or instinct, is sometimes at fault, for we often hear of their adopting the strangest and most unsuitable tenements for the construction of cells. A hussar's cap, so suspended from a moderate sized branch of a tree, as to be agitated by slight winds, was found filled with bees and comb. An old coat, that had been thrown over the decayed trunk of a tree and forgotten, was filled with comb and bees. Any thing, in short, either near the habitations of man, or in the forests, will serve the bees for a shelter to their combs.

If this instinct were as absolute as some persons would make us believe, the bees, when swarming, would undoubtedly choose a domicile, as nearly similar to the one they had left as possible; but this is rarely the case. In their pursuit of food, with which the woods as frequently supply them as the gardens, their quick eye guides them to the places suitable for the establishment of a swarm. They do not, by a distinct succession of thoughts, arrive at the conclusion, that the hollow tree will suit them as a dwelling; but they find it unoccupied, they pass it daily, and when the whole swarm is collected on the branch of a tree, these foraging scouts, that have espied the hollow tree, run over the mass of bees as they hang, give the signal of departure, lead the way to the woods, and the queen and the whole swarm follow to the selected tree.

But although the bees are rarely unprovided with a retreat for a new swarm, yet they readily accept of a more obvious one, when offered. Aware of this willingness on the part of the bees, man takes the opportunity, when they are collecting their numbers, of introducing them into a hive, and of bringing them under his own immediate surveillance, that he may the more easily partake of the fruits of their labors. Yet although colony after colony have dwelt in uninterrupted succession in a particular apiary, their instinct is not improved, nor their reflective powers enlarged. They are the same in all their in

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