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sult of which was, that, in 1229, the greater part of the instructers and students quitted Paris. Several of the instructers, men of great talents and great fame, accepted the liberal offers of Henry the Third of England, and went over to Oxford. The French government, soon conscious of its obstinacy, felt deeply the loss it had sustained, and proposed a reconciliation, which was effected through the mediation of Pope Gregory the Ninth. The rights and privileges of the university were now established with greater firmness, and to a greater extent. From that time a new impulse was given to the energies of the university, and it shone forth with brighter lustre than ever, under the supervision of the government.
The origin of academic degrees, and of the faculties, is involved in obscurity. The first doctor of divinity is said to have been nominated in 1150. It is, however, an unquestionable fact, that examinations, disputations, and promotions to the highest honors, were common as early as in the beginning of the thirteenth century, and indispensable for a public teacher. In order to maintain the authority and dignity attached by the first professors to their stations, the state and the then existing faculty of the seven liberal pursuits (facultas artium), namely, grammar, dialectics (logic), rhetoric, music, arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy, passed a law, which required evidence of the competency of any man, who offered himself as an instructer, either public or private. For this purpose, the aspirants were obliged to submit to several successive examinations; and when they were found to possess the requisite attainments and qualifications, an appropriate degree was conferred on them, under certain solemnities and ceremonies, congenial with the spirit of the age. A graduate of the lowest degree was called baccalaureus, and, by virtue of this rank, allowed, under the protection of the academical laws, to give private tuition to the students. He himself derived as great benefits from the performance of his duties, as the pupils did from receiving his instructions. For the continuation of his studies soon enabled the baccalaureus to aspire, by a second examination, to the degree of a licentiatus, which procured him a license to appear before the public, as an accomplished instructer, no longer under the control of the laws of the faculty; and after the payment of a certain amount of money for the insignia of his new station, he became the colleague of the professors, and partaker of all their rights and privileges, and
bore the name, at Paris, of artium liberalium magister; at Bologna, of philosophiæ doctor, and in Germany, of philosophia doctor et artium liberalium magister.
The philosophical faculty of the seven liberal pursuits maintained the preeminence of rank and honor, even after the incorporation of the faculties of theology, law, and medicine. But soon after this union, intellectual superiority yielded, in civil and political preponderance, to her younger, more practical sisters. The four nations remained in the possession of the facultas artium, and continued to elect four procuratores, who, together with the deans of the faculties, represented the university, under the executive power of the president. Thus early did Paris enter upon the splendid career, which has, in the course of centuries, operated so favorably on the character of man, and all the civil and political institutions of the civilized world. It has undergone many temporary changes and serious misfortunes, the greatest of which was its total abolition during the French revolution; but it, likewise, has enjoyed the constant veneration of the kings of France, who have distinguished it by a liberality almost incredible. The restoration to its former honors was effected during the reign of Napoleon. It has now five faculties, namely, of theology, law, medicine, philology, and of the natural sciences. The number of students is about four thousand. The public lectures are gratis. Paris contains, moreover, four colleges, each of which is larger than the largest college in America.
The national university of France had already assumed a regular and solid form, when the German emperors undertook the foundation of similar institutions. Accordingly, Charles the Fourth copied the constitution and organization of Prague and Vienna from that of Paris, rather than from the Italian and English universities. Even the ancient division into four nations (namely, into those of Bohemia, Poland, Bavaria, and Saxony), was retained in both cities. A contest for preëminence among these four nations, caused at Prague an emigration of several thousands, who established a university at Leipsic, and divided themselves into four nations, those of Meissen, Saxony, Bavaria, and Poland; which division is still preserved at Leipsic, and forms, as the only relic of those ages, a strange anomaly in the present order of things. None of the other numerous German universities, founded since the end of the fifteenth century, has admitted that division. The privileges
VOL. XXVII.-NO. 60.
granted to the oldest institutions, were of a very comprehensive nature, including legislative power, which has since been taken from them. Nor has political precaution thought it consistent with prudence, to confer this power on any of the new ones. There is, in other respects, a great diversity in the rights of the various establishments; yet an independent jurisdiction and free choice of new modes of teaching are common to all. The popes confirmed, sanctioned, and protected these privileges for three complete centuries. After the destruction of the power of the popes in Germany, by the success of the Reformation, the emperor succeeded to their authority over the universities; and since the dissolution of the German empire by Napoleon, every petty prince possesses and exercises it within his own jurisdiction.
Two ever memorable events breathed a new life into the universities, and directed their spirit to higher ends; the invention of the art of printing, and the reformation of Luther. The vast multiplication of books, since the invention of the art of printing, has shortened the time formerly spent in a professional course of study, and has brought the scattered intellectual treasures of every science under one comprehensive view, so as to be easily surveyed by the student, who is thus led more directly to the sources of knowledge. Seven years, at least, were, before that period, necessary to attend upon and to write professional lectures. Soon afterwards the whole academical course was finished in six years, and then in five years; the same time, which is still devoted to ecclesiastical education in Ireland and other Roman catholic countries. At present, four years are sufficient at Glasgow for the same studies; and a course of law and medicine is completed in four years at Paris, Padua, Barcelona, and Coimbra. The regular time of professional study in protestant Germany is three years, part of which, and very often, a fourth additional year is spent in other liberal pursuits, and in the acquisition of general information. Difficult, indeed, would be the task of obtaining, in so short a space, the large amount of knowledge required by the governments, for admission to the various offices in civil life, unless the student entered the university rich in preliminary acquirements. Accordingly, the German schools, gymnasia, or academies, lay a solid foundation of thorough classical knowledge, mathematics, logic, history, geography, and, as there is in that country no such intermediate
establishment as a college, include all those studies that are pursued in the English institutions of that name. The universities are established in Germany for the purpose of professional education, accompanied by all the auxiliary branches of art and science, which are of equal importance, and have an equal claim on public patronage, with the professions.
Dr Johnson's positive remark, that the invention of the art of printing had completely destroyed the value of lectures, may be true in reference to the English colleges, and those organized on the same plan; but it is most erroneous in respect to the continent of Europe, especially Germany, where lectures are the very soul of instruction, and the spring of the rapid success and celebrity of her literary institutions. The art of speaking well before an audience on a scientific subject, is, on account of the honor attached to that art, and on account of the great competition in all the branches of science, wrought up to the same degree of perfection, as with us the art of speaking well at the bar. The interest which the instructer feels in his subject, and the animation which he shows in explaining it, operate most powerfully on the hearers. Lectures read, can, for want of this animation, have but an indifferent effect. The branches of theology and law, logic, philosophy, mathematics, history, general literature, natural history, belleslettres, are and must be communicated to the auditors, by means of that academical art. Manuals, or text-books, are guides, for the purpose of facilitating the attendance on lectures, either by a previous perusal, or subsequent reperusal of the subject in question; but without the animating influence of oral communication, a scientific compendium will remain a dead letter, which the memory perhaps retains, but which does not enlighten the intellect. Let the faithful instructer have unlimited freedom in his department, and let him elevate it by constant application, fervent zeal, and external encouragement. The injuries done to the advancement of learning, by laws or habits confining the acquisition of a science to the study of a particular book, or some established method, are sufficiently known from the history of colleges and universities. Sir Isaac Newton's synthetical modes of teaching, in his time the best method in Europe, were secured to Cambridge by the institution of the mathematical tripos. The consequence of this has been, that this science has become stationary in England, while the continental nations, who are not restrained by any
laws or text-books in their modes of instruction, have applied the purely analytic method to the same science, and carried it to greater perfection. The honors, however, that are held out at Cambridge to students of a certain proficiency in mathematics, have powerfully operated on ambition, in that department, although they have repressed the other studies, for which no adequate encouragement existed. The classical tripos recently established in the same university, for the purpose of restoring the balance, does not seem as yet to have proved successful.
The neglect of the art of oral communication has frustrated all attempts at procuring popularity for philosophical pursuits at Oxford and Cambridge. Dr Whately complains bitterly of the fact, that the study of logic, which is one of the most popular pursuits in the German universities, could never gain ground at Oxford. The cause of this lies in the organization of the English colleges, where the professors are in the situation of petty, comfortable monarchs, who have no competitors to fear; and where the tedious labor of training and hearing recitations (a labor entirely unknown in German universities) devolves principally on the tutors. There in no circumstance from which an English professor, in reading his course of lectures, can derive excitement. It has frequently been remarked, that the prohibition of receiving a fee from the students, has reduced the lectureships at Oxford and Cambridge to sinecures. In the present state of affairs, observes an intelligent reviewer, the professor can neither hope for remuneration of a pecuniary nature, nor for fame, nor, above all, for the proud consciousness of usefulness. His powers, whatever they be, will remain a secret to himself; extraordinary exertion is out of the question, and his faculties must be stinted in their growth, for want of that genial and vivifying principle, which alone can expand them into full maturity.
The effect of the Reformation, to which we attributed another impulse given to the progress of the sciences, has manifested itself most satisfactorily in the Protestant universities of Germany, which, since the beginning of the eighteenth century, may be considered the first in Europe. Previously to this period, all the universities of the country were brought to the verge of ruin, by the general devastations of the thirty years' It is a well known fact, that Germany surpasses all other countries, both in the number and excellence of her universities; and no country is under greater obligations to such insti