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English pint of pure bile was evacuated in this way, every twenty-four hour. The quantity of secreted bile cannot, however, be ascertained by this extraordinary exertion.

Mr. Leeds next informs us of his success in curing a case of chronic rheumatism with sarsaparilla in substance. It must be in fubstance, if it be ever useful.-The theoretical part is too far extended, and frequently trilling.

Another account, by Mr. Brown, of the loss of a part of the substance of the brain, follows. The fracture of the cranjun was very confiderable and extensive.

• Froin the whole history of this case, I think we may draw the following conclusions :

61. That a found state of the brain is not fo cflentially necessary to life as has been imagined.

• 2. That it may be very much injured, without producing dangerous, or even alarming consequences. And, 3. That this case affords a proof, that the brain may

be more freely treated, provided, in every circumstance, the injury is entirely uncanneēted with compression.

• This laît conclusion is clearly pointed out, by attending to the útuation of the patient;, for notwithstanding the bone was beat in upon the brain, the dura mater lacerated, and a quantity of brain extravasated between the cranium and teguments, no alarming symptom ensued. It can only be explained from that quantity of brain getting immediate vent, which was necessary to compensate for the depression of the bone, and consequently preventing its power of compression.

We may hare another opportunity of entering on this fubject; but so many instances have occurred of a part of the brain being destroyed, without any injury, that our author's firit corollary has been long established. We may take an opportunity of showing, that a small part of the brain only is ne. cessary to the corporeal functions, and that a great part of the mass is only useful in forming extensive communications, and preserving, probably, a degree of power to resist fuch injurious impresions, as few may experience, and consequently few find the ill consequence of.

The next Efray, is an account of an inflammatory disease of the skin, alternating with affections of the bowels, which at last proved fatal, by Mr. Brown. Some circumstances in the treatment deserve attention. Quicksilver was given, and it seems to have reached the obstructed part very soon, notwithstanding, in some of the convolutions of the intestines, it must have ascended. It added weight to the fæces, for two thirds of the quantity, not very minutely divided, was evacuated, in the first stool. Another çircumstance is, that, when large 7

qual]

quantities of water were thrown in, the colon was filled, but the valve prevented its paffing farther; yet tobacco smoke patfed through the valve, and the smoke seemed more active than any other kind of injection.

Dr. Robertson defcribes a case where, by a projected suicide, the trachea had been cut through, and the edges were in time healed, so as to form a callous wound. The edges were flightly scarified, and brought together by ligatures, and covered by the retracted skin. In short, the whole was successfully treated, without any material impediment.

Dr. Tilton gives the supplement of an account of rabies can nina in the sixth volume of the Medical Commentaries. The disease recurred three times; but we strongly doubt of the diforder having arifen from the bite. Recurrence of rabics canina, without fresh infection, is almost unprecedented; and the whole seems to be a case of mania with some peculiar symptoms. Even in her best intervals an abhorrence of water attended her.

Dr. Maharg defcribes, what in northern climates is not uncommon, suppuration after erysipelas; a case of hernia congenita, where, after reduction, no stools could be obtained, and a short imperfect description of an erysipelatous peripneumony, from a Dr. S. The last is fingular, but not very uncommon : we have seen it epidemic more than once; and our author is right in saying, that it is necessary to keep up per{piration, especially with the addition of opium.-- But wine, and even bark, are occasionally necessary.

Mr. Dove's case of anasarca, cured by infusion of tobacco; the cutaneous eruption, cured by alterative pills of antimony and mercury, by Mr. Robert Bishopric; a common case of epilepsy from a nervous affection of the finger, which seems greatly confused by theoretical disquisitions, but which was relieved by dividing the nerve; and an account of pulmonary consumption, seemingly relieved by abstinence -from liquids, deserve no particular remark.

The last Effay, by Dr. James Hamilton, jun. gives an accurate description of Lowder's extractor, with a very judicious distinction between the different powers of Roonhuysen's lever, the forceps and the extractor of Dr. Lowder:

• From these observations it is obvious, that the instrument introduced into practice by Dr. Lowder, affords exactly the alüstance, in the first order of laborious labour, which is required; for it fupplies the place of the propelling powers, or increases their efficacy, by acting on the body of the child, without injuring any part of the mother.

. This property renders it of great use in certain cases of deform

ed

ed pelvis, viz. where the short diameter of the brim is about three inches. In such cases, the long continued strong action of the uterus, often eventually forces the head into the pelvis; but the strength of the patient is in consequence so much reduced, that after it has proceeded so far, the pains are entirely fufpended, and the delivery must neceffariiy be finished by the use of mechanical expedients; but the child's life is commonly previously destroyed, by the compretion of the brain.

It, in such cases, it be polible to increase with safety the vis à icrgo, the child would then be forced through the brim of the selvis before the woman's strength were exhausted, and before its life were endangered; confequently, many children, commonly doomed to inevitable deftruction, would be preserved.

"Lowder's lever, I apprehend, poffes this power. It may be calculated, that, by its use, the efficacy of the labour-throes is at least doubled. Hence the child, in cases of flight deformity of the pelv s, is forced through the oppofing pait within one half of the time which would be otherwise required; and this is accom-> plished without injury either to the mother or infant; for the inItrument prelies on no part of the former; and it refts on such parts of ihe latter, that no harm can poflibly be donc.'

But however desirable it may be to leften the number of mechanical expedients, and to simplify practice, I apprehend, that many lives would be loft if we poflefled or employed no fuch inftrument as the forceps. As they have the property of a lever,' delivery can in many cases be accomplished much more expeditiously by them iban b: Dr. Lowder's instrument. This feems to be the fole advantage which they posiels over it; and that is counterbalanced by several great vifadvantages. Many authors, indeed, have alleged, that the forceps lave exclusively the power of diminithing the size of the fatal cranium, by the pressure cr their blades, and hence have attributed a degree of pre-eininence to them, which in fact is not their due; for as the size of the child's head is, in natural cates, diminished as far as is necessary, by the contrictions of the uterus forcing it forw:rd through the bones of the pelvis, an increase of the vis à tergo will of course increase that diminution, if the shape of the pafliçe require it. While Lowder's lever, there!ore, poreftes the power of comprelling the cranium in common with the forceps, it has a decided superiority over them in this, that it accomplifies that end by fimilar means with nature.

• The great disadvantages of the forceps are, that they are inapplicable when the child's head is situated high in the pelvis; that their application is often dificult to the operator, ani painful to the patient; and that, as their centre of action is on the parts of the patient, they must injure her in proportion to the relitiance opposed to the delivery.

. On

On the whole, then, in cases of the firft order of laborions labours, both instruments must be occafionally had recourse to. Wen the head is not completely within the cavity of the pelvis, Lowder's lever must be employed; and even when it is in that polition, the same means may be used, if there be pains. But, when the labourthroes are entirely fuspended, or when any circumstance renders it necessary to terminate the delivery with expedit on, ti e forcers ought to be employed in preference to every other instrument, if the head of the child be within their reach.'

The last fection of the volume is, as usual, Medical News, and on this part, we have usually been concise. The itate; however, of the university, and the new buildings, have formerly claimed our attention, and it is now necili:ry to remark, that the sums subscribed have been expender, while the buildings are ftill unfinithed. To what this inuit be attributed is uncertain-there was a time when the noít Azlatary, useful instructions, were not supposed to be connected with fplendid domes and elegant architecture: at prefent the fate of science is, from the language and folicitations employed, seeiningly dependant on the new buildings Had the patrons of the university been as anxinus in properly suprlying the vacant offices, as in railing the new buildings, the latter would not have been necessary.

Pudet hæc opprobriaEt dici potuiile & non dicta refelli. The death of the principal surely deferved fome notice, from his connection with the university, and from is amiable conciliating manners, independent of his extensive literary acquisitions. -But of him and his successor, if any is appointed, we find no record. Perhaps none is yet appointed, for it would not be easy to find an adequate reprefentative; and few, except an Ajax, or an Ulyfies, would covet the arms of Achilles.

Dr. Faynard's powder for stopping hemorrhages seems, on the authority of Dr. Odier, to be the charcoal of becch wood in powder. Eyen internally, a tea fponful three or four times a day is said to be very successful.

The oniv other information we shall notice is that of two treatises on cutaneous affections by Drs. Willan anii Garnet, with coloured plates, deligns which we fully approve of, and works which we impatiently expect to fre.

The

The History, Civil and Commercial, of the British Colonies in

the West Indies. (Concluded from our last.) THE HE remaining articles in this history are comprised under

the heads AGRICULTURE, GOVERNMENT, and COMMERCE. The former includes a particular description of the sugar-cane, its history, and mode of cultivation, and the feveral processes it undergoes in the making of sugar and rum. In this part of the work, although we meet with some things which are not new to those who have studied the agriculture of the West India islands, yet there are, at the same time, many original and important observations drawn from the exa perience of a long series of years, and which entitle Mr. Ed. wards to no inconsiderable rank among the Scriptores de re rultica, the Youngs and Marshalls, who have endeavoured to rescue the art from the errors of indolence, and the ignorance of hereditary practice. In discusling these subjects, Mr. Ed. wards refers chiefly to the island of Jamaica, as his own experience was confined to that ifland, but occasionally marks the variations of system in the others, from the best authorities.

In treating of the capital necessary in the settlement or purchase of a sugar plantation, which consists of three parts, the lands, the buildings, and the stock-he informs us that the bufiness of sugar planting is a sort of adventure, in which the man who engages, must engage deeply. A British country gentleman, who is content to jog on without risque on the moderate profits of his own moderate farm, will startle to hear that it requires a capital of no less than thirty thousand pounds sterling, to embark in this employment with a fair prospect of advantage; for, it must be underitood that the annual contingencies of a small or moderate plantation, are very nearly equal to those of an etate of three times the magnitude. These facts are explained by calculations, for which we must refer to the work itself, and the author concludes the subject with the following remarks :

• Admitting even that his (the planter's) prudence, or good fortune, inay be such as to exempt him from most of the losses and calamities that have been enumerated, it must nevertheless be remembered, that the sugar planter is at once both landlord and tenant on his property. In contrasting the profits of a West Indian plantation with those of a landed estate in Great Britain, this circumstance is commonly overlooked; yet nothing is more certain than that an English proprietor, in stating the income which he receives from his capital, includes not in his estimate the profits made by his te nants. These constitute a distinct object, and are usually reckoned equal to the clear annual rent which is paid to the proprietor. Thus a farm in England, producing an income of 31 per cent to the

owner,

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