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Austria, and if formerly the wars about successions, wars for the Protestant intereit, &c. were defenfible--the prefent is a parallel occasion. Very true, if—but if we have on former occasions wasted our blood and treasure in settling this imaginanary balance, and after long wars, have found ourselves by some unforseen occurrence, as in the war for the Spanish fucceffion, just where we set out, ought it not to teach us to confine ourselves to the plain path of making war only to repėl actual injury. Speculations which involve in them the rile and fall of empires, are too big for the powers of man. If there is to arise in Europe another universal monarchy, it will depend upon circumstances and a state of things which our feeble political manoeuvres can neither bring on nor retard. The wind bloweth where it lifteth, and the tide of success heaves fometimes on this shore and sometimes on that, from caufes so nice and variable as to baffle all calculation. Let every nation then be content to resist only specific acts of aggression, either towards herself, or, if her generosity leads her to do it, towards others: all else is speculation ; and the invariable experience of history will tell us that one speculation is nearly as good as another.-The author indeed does not puth his reasoning so far as to advise us to go to war to reduce the power of Austria and Russia, but the interference he hints at manifeftly leads to it. How for instance should we relish the being told that the king muit divide his successions, give Havover ('uppose) to one branch, and our East India poilellions to another, left we should grow too powerful. - Certainly however the author's arguments are sufficiently valid against strengthening and cooperating with powers so formidable and so fingirious.

In the Preface, the Calm Observer disculles some of those general questions of internal government which have been agitated in the writings of Burke and Paine, and he shows himself to have adopted temperate and guarded fentiments of liberty.

We beg leave, before we conclude, to notice to the author a paflage in which through inadvertence he seems to have confounded Atheists and Deifts, between whom the difference is, Įiterally speaking, immense. It is as follows:

• The first of these impressions is owing to the fuppofed atheifin of the French nation; which might be combated by a peremptory denial of the fact from perfonal knowledge; though I must admit, that many individuals doubt, and not a few deny, the existence of a God. But I have often atked, (as I find the respectable Ir. Wyvil has done,) why it is if this species of argument is valid, that we send an embally to China; the governors of which country, according to Mr. Hume, are the only regular body of deifts in the univerie; being the disciples of Confucius, and having no prieste or religious establishment whatever!' B4


We now take our leave of this masterly writer, by no means, however, joining in the with he expresses of the leave being a final one.

We are willing to indulge him in concealing himfelf from, but we cannot allow him to desert, the public.

Medical Commentaries for the Year 1793. Exhibiting a concise

View of the lateft and most important Discoveries in Medicine and Medical Philosophy, collected and published by Andrew Duncan, M. D. F. R. and A. SS. Ed. 8vo. 6s.

Boards. Robinsons. 1794. WE

E meet Dr. Duncan, in his annual orbit, under some

disadvantages. The causes we have often alluded to, which have occalioned fome little irregularity in our progresfive accounts of Medical and Philosophical Works, have enabled him to precede us in some subjects. But, as our difficulties are in a great degree removed, we trust that we shall soon, as indeed the nature of our work requires, again anticipate the flower progress of an annual publication. This volume is, in many respects, valuable: its contents are in general well chofen; and, though the Efsays do not rise above their usual mediocrity, yet the interesting nature of a few renders this part of the volume less tedious than we have usually found i:.

Among the works examined, we find Dr. Valli's Experiments on Animal Electricity, Dr. Fowler's Experiments on the same subject, Dr. Beddoes' Observations on the Nature and Cure of Calculus, &c. Mr. Home's Observations on Ulcers, from the Transactions of a Society for the Improvement of Medical and Chirurgical Knowledge; Dr. Webster's Facts, tending to show the Connection of the Stomach with Life, Difeale, and Recovery; Mr. Bell's Treatise on the Gonor, rhæa and Lues; Dr. Trotter's Observations on the Scurvy; Dr. Wade's Paper on the Prevention and Treatment of the Dir. orders of Seamen and Soldiers, in Bengal; Mr. Earle's Treatise on the Hydrocele, and Dr. Currie's Account of the remarkable Effects of a Shipwreck on Mariners, from the Philosophical Transactions, we have already noticed. Dr. Fowe ler's and Mr. Bell's works alone have not yet occurred; and Dr. Valli's, from the extent of our examination, is not yet concluded.

The first Eray which claims our attention, is entitled Tractatus de Roborantium in Rheumatismo Arthritico Neceflitare, by Dr. Buchhave, from the Copenhagen Transactions, It is far from unexceptionable, either in the arguments or the practice. The denign is to recommend the united efficacy of évacuants and tonics, a practice sufficiently rational, but the

idea is not pursued with propriety; for the only medicines, recommended, are the gum urbanum and the guaiacum-Perhaps the general view, pursued to a greater extent, and with a better choice of the medicines employed, might be highly salutary.

Dr. Callisen's Observatio de Diarrhoea cum Obstructione Alvi haud infrequenti connubio, from the fame collection, is not very important. Every practitioner knows, that scybala often remain in the bowels, and elude a violent and continued diarrhoea : the case recorded differs only in the quantity of fæces collected, which resembled to the touch, externally, an intestinal concretion. The ball was brought down by the powers of nature, and broken by the forceps introduced, when it had reached the anus.

Dr. Buchhave's Experiments on the Use of the Atropa Beladona in Chincough, in Rabies Canina, Melancholy Mania, and Epilepsy, are more valuable. In rabies canina it is said to have succeeded : in pertussis, it was given to infants, within the first year, in the dose of half a grain ; to patients between one and two years he gave a full grain, to those of eight years old two grains, and to those beyond their twentieth year four grains. It produced the usual fymptoms of narcotic vegetables, but was successful. After using it, the disease seldom continued more than fourteen days. Emetics were interposed every three or four days.

From the Copenhagen Transactions we also find an attempt to establish the use of opium in fyphilis, by M. Schonheyder; but the various, accurate trials, by many of the most able practitioners, have decided against it. There can, however, be no impropriety in having numerous facts collected on each fide.

M. Seguin's New Observations on Respiration and Animal Heat deserve attention; yet, perhaps, his essay contains little that is new. Dr. Priestley, Lavoisier, and Crawford, have anticipated his most material remarks, and he has only united the scattered limbs. We shall select the theory :

' In the lungs, oxygen gas is decomposed, in consequence of the affinity of the carbonated hydrogen of the blood for oxygen, being greater than that of oxygen for caloric, and of carbonated hydrogen for blood. In proportion as the oxygen unites with the hydrogen and carbon, water and carbonic acid are formed: the caloric combines itself with the venous blood, which, in losing its carbonated hydrogen, becomes arterial, and has its capacity for containing caloric immediately augmented. But the blood, now arterial, in circulating through the body, gradually absorbs carbonated hydrogen, repalles to the venous state, and lets loose a portion of its caloric, in proportion as its capacity for containing it is diminished. The almost uniform temperature in all parts of the body is then owing to the fucceffive changes of arterial blood to venous throughout the body, and of venous to arterial in the lungs. It is also a confequence of this fact, that the greater temperature of some parts of the body is to be ascribed to the arterial blood absorbing more carbonated hydrogen, or its becoming venous more rapidly.


• M. Seguin terminates his memoir with some important confequences, drawn from there observations.

1st, The cold fit at the beginning of fevers coincides with the diminution in the number of pulsations and inspirations.

22, The increased heat, which fucceeds the cold fit, is owing to the accelerated circulation and respiration.

• 3d, The burning hent of putrid fevers depends upon the putref. cent state of the syliem, which increases the proportion of carbonated hydrogen in the blood, and detaches its caloric.

4th, The heat of inflamed parts is owing to the same cause, united to accelerated circulation.

' In the prefent memoir, M. Seguin presents the beginning only of a most important inquiry respecting the philosophy of the animal body; for he has treated only of one of the phenomena of respiration. We are here informed, that in conjunction with M. Lavoisier, he is engaged in experiments on digestion, tending to show the influence which infpiration has in the combination of chyle with blood; which will contribute not a little to the advancement of medical science.'

We remember pointing out, in a former volume of our Journal, ard illustrating the opinion by various facts, that all unisorm heats are probably owing to heat appearing in consequence of decomposition. The heat of mineral waters, the fubject that suggested the remark, is most probabiy from this fource.

M. Margucron's chemical Examination of the Serosity produced by Blisters, is from the fourteenth volume of the Annals of Chemistry, a work which, in the present political state of Europe, it may be some time before we can overtake.--We have not been so happy as to meet with one of the few copies of the latur volumes which have reached this country.- We thall consequentiy observe, in this place, that serum hias more gluten than seriosity, and feriosity more than the synovia of the joints. The proportion of water and of falts increases in the same order: the falts are the same in each, and the quan. tity linall.

Dr. Schreger's Difertation on the Nature and medical Powers of the Bark of the Fraxinus Exccllor is not of great importance. It is a tonic and astringent; but Dr. Schreger adds nothing to what we formerly knew of its effects. The principal novelty conditis in the pharmaceutical treatment. Its

this part

active ingredient diffolves in water: the gummy refin is in the largest proportion; and its useful parts are not volatile.

These are the different works of which an account is given: they are evidently too few, and convey no adequate view of the medical literature of the year. It could be wished that

the Commentaries was extended farther, and the more trifling obfervations of the next part omitted.-But we despair of a reform so much more troublesome and inconvenient.

The first Eslay, among the Medical Observations, is by Dr. John Crawford, on the Virtues of the native Camphor; but he is surely mistaken in supposing the different kinds of camphor, and its different properties, hitherto unknown.

The Epidemic lever of Grenada, described by Mr. Chifo holm in the next Article, was evidently an hepatitis

, and the treatment with mercury and opium very succesful. The account is genuine and important. The light yellow urine, like Madeira, which tinges linen of the fame colour, is the best diagnostic of an affection of the liver. Turbid urine, like unfined porter, shows that there is nothing peculiar in the fever.

Mr. Drummond's Observations respecting the Guinea Worm, only show that the irritation of the worm, if the head is not secured when it first points, may produce troublesome itching, with cutaneous affections. We fufpect, however, from the occurrence of bumps in the skin, that there was some other cause of the pruritus: these are symptoms very peculiar to the bites of animalcules.

Mr. Leny's account of the boy who lost a considerable portion of the brain, without the loss of any mental or corporeal faculty, is in no respect fingular or new.

Dr. Gordon's Account of an alarming Case of Flooding, which happened in the ninth month of pregnancy, is not very singular, as the placenta was not attached to the orifice of thie uterus. Mr. Rigby's plan of waiting for the dilatation of the os tincæ, and supporting the patient carefully, seems to have þeen more frequently successful,

A case of extra uterine conception, assuming the appearance of a retroverted uterus, by the same author, is indeed fingular. But the os uteri, though elevated towards the brim of the pelvis, was in a natural itate. The factus defcended between the uterus and rectum, penetrated the rectum, and the bones were discharged by the anus. Naturc eflectually, in this way, relieved the patient.

A curious case of expectoration of bile, also by Dr. Gordon, follows. After an hepatitis, in which probably fome adhesion took place, a jaundice came on, and the bile formed a pasage through the diaphragm, into the bronchix. Near an


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