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absent adult air-bladder alimentary canal anal animal anterior aperture appear arch artery attached become blood body bones branches branchial branchial sac canal cartilage caudal cavity cells closely coasts common complete connected consists continuous covered dermal developed distinct dorsal fin duct eggs Elasmobranchs elongate extend external Fishes front genera genus gills gland head includes intestine known lateral length less living lower male margin median mouth nearly nerve neural North occur organ origin pair pectoral pectoral fins pelvic pharynx placed plates portion position posterior present primitive probably processes rays regarded region remains remarkable represented ribs scales seas separated short side similar simple single skull soft species spines structure supporting surface tail teeth Teleostei Teleosts transverse upper usually vein ventral ventral fins vertebrae vessels wall young
Page 260 - Its natural habitat is the bowel, and it has been demonstrated to be present along the whole length of the alimentary canal from the mouth to the anus.
Page 723 - ... the caudal fin acts as a rudder, save when it is needed for unusually rapid swimming, when it is used as in other fishes; the chief function of the broad pectorals seems to be that of forming a current of water through the gills, thus aiding respiration, which would otherwise be difficult on account of the narrowness and inflexibility o(
Page 528 - There is absolutely no reason for regarding Cephalaspis as allied to Pteraspis beyond that the two genera occur in the same rocks, and still less for concluding that either has any connection with Pterichthys.
Page 653 - ... sessile, inserted on the centra behind the transverse processes; anal spines 3; species silvery in color, the dorsal deeply notched, with 10 spines; vertebra:; 10 + le>=2f
Page 506 - ... swallows sand for the sake of the included nutrient particles. Apparently the airbladder is a functional lung at all times, acting in conjunction with the gills. At irregular intervals the fish rises to the surface and protrudes its snout in order to empty its lung and take in fresh air. While doing so the animal makes a peculiar grunting noise, 'spouting...
Page 760 - We know of no book available to the general reader which affords such a vast fund of information on the structure and habits of molluscs.
Page 760 - There are very many, not only among educated people who take an interest in science, but even among specialists, who will welcome a work of reasonable compass and handy form containing a trustworthy treatment of the various departments of Natural History by men who are familiar with, and competent to deal with, the latest results of scientific research. Altogether, to judge from this first volume, the Cambridge Natural Historv promises to fulfil all the expectations that its prospectus holds out.
Page 617 - If these Amblyopses be not alarmed, they come to the surface to feed, and swim in full sight like white aquatic ghosts. They are then easily taken by the hand or net, if perfect silence is preserved, for they are unconscious of the presence of an enemy except through the medium of hearing. This sense is, however, evidently very acute, for at any noise they turn suddenly downward and hide beneath stones, etc., on the bottom.
Page 93 - It was four feet in length, and ten inches in diameter. When a Pyrosoma is stimulated by having its surface touched, the phosphorescent light breaks out at first at the spot stimulated, and then spreads over the surface of the colony as the stimulus is transmitted to the surrounding animals. I wrote my name with my finger on the surface of the giant Pyrosoma, as it lay on deck in a tub at night, and my name came out in a few seconds in letters of fire.
Page 480 - haunts the deeper holes and depressions of the muddy bed of the Nile, although it is not essentially a bottom-liver or mud-fish. It is most active at night when in search of food, and then it may readily be taken by trawl-lines. The lobate pectoral fins are used for progression, but their primary function is to act as balancers, and they exhibit the characteristic trembling movements so often seen in the balancing fins of teleosts. Polypterus does not readily live out of water, rarely longer than...