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THE CHILDREN'S CORNER.

The Children's Corner.

THE WONDERFUL SIXPENCE.. On a lovely morning in the month of May, as I was travelling in the neighbourhood of a small town in the county of Salop, I was overtaken by a young man of rather grave countenance, and probably about twenty five years of age. Happening to be both travelling the same way, we soon fell into conversation about the state of trade, money matters, and other subjects. After we had conversed together a short time on these, he said "Well, sir, I will relate to you an anecdote of a boy who was very well known by my father, to show you what can be done with but a very small sum of money. The parents of this boy were so poor that they could not afford to take more than two scanty meals each day. The father in fact was not able to earn a livelihood for his family, in consequence of a paralytic stroke, with which he was attacked when the subject of this story was not more than nine years old, so that what little they had to depend upon came wholly from the parish. When this boy was about eleven years of age, a neighbouring farmer one day employed him to assist in driving a few pigs to market, for which he gave him sixpence. The boy, on receiving this, was so overjoyed that he did not at first know what to do with it; but, after considering a short time on the subject, he at last resolved to give it to his parents. When he got home, however, they refused it, saying that, as he had done the work, he had the greatest right to the money. A few days after this, while he was in company with some other boys about his own age, one of them happened to commence talking about rabbits, and told his com panions what he had gained by

them in the course of the last year. This account produced such an ef fect on the mind of James Hall (for that was the boy's name), that he resolved to try what he could gain in the same way. So with his sixpence he purchased two young rabbits; and, after a few months they produced four more. Two of these he sold when they were one month old for threepence each; so by this time he had his sixpence again and four rabbits besides. Next year, the produce of his four rabbits brought him in 15s. with which he purchased a few potatoes, and rented a small piece of land. He raised fifteen bushels, three of which he kept to plant and the other twelve he sold for 2s. 6d. per bushel, which, with 10s saved by his rabbits, came to £2. The following year he went to service, and gave the rabbits to his parents. He, however, rented a larger piece of land for raising potatoes; this piece yielded him 60 bushels, which he sold at 3s. per bushel, and having saved 108. out of his wages, he had therefore £9. 10s. in his possession. The death of his father, whose funeral expences cost him £2. 10s., reduced his money to £7. In the following year he rented half an acre of land for potatoes, which cost him £3. 4s.; this piece yielded him 96 bushels, which he disposed of at 3s. per bushel. The amount, added to £4. 16s. which he had in hand, and £1. saved out of his wages, came to £30. 4s. Thus he went on, and at length he left service, married, and rented a small farm; and by constant perseverance, and making a right use of his property, he soon became the most opulent farmer in the neighbourhood, and died worth more than £20,000. O. P.

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TESTIMONIES AGAINST WAR.

Ir is an encouraging fact to a lover of peace, that in most ages of the world, great and good men have been found who have deplored the existence of war; who have characterized it as the destroyer of the welfare of mankind, and who have declared, that of all the customs, ancient or modern, there is none which produces more misery, none more universally evil, none, in short, more repugnant to sentiments of humanity, justice, benevolence, and piety. How comes it, then, that whilst those who zealously advocate institutions for the increase of knowledge, for the repression of drunkenness, cruelty to ani mals, &c., permit, nay, encourage this terrible scourge? What but the most lamentable perversion of public opinion could have rendered it so popular as the arbiter of national disputes? This opinion in favour of war must be radically changed before peace can become permanent and general; and among other means calculated to produce so desirable a change, we wish to show how men the most distinguished for their learning, wisdom, and virtue, have regarded the custom of war.

PAGANS.

We could not expect the heathen to denounce a custom so emphatically their own; yet we find the wisest and best of them reprobating it in the strongest terms. Here are the words of the great moralist of antiquity, SENECA: "We punish murders and massacres committed amongst private persons; what do we respecting wars, and the glorious crime of murdering whole nations? Here avarice and cruelty know no bounds. Barbarities are authorized by decrees of the senate and the votes of the people; and things, which if men had done in their private capacity, they would have paid for with their lives, we extol when perpetrated in regimentals at the bidding of a general.”—MINUTIUS calls it "the part of a wild beast, not of man, to inquire how bite may be returned for bite, and evil for evil."-CICERO complains bitterly of the effects of war on the liberal arts and peaceful pursuits, and says:-"As soon as the alarm of war is sounded, wisdom herself, the mistress of affairs, is driven from the field; force bears sway, and the grim soldier alone is caressed."

TESTIMONIES AGAINST WAR.

EARLY CHRISTIANS.

CLARKSON says, that " so long as the lamp of christianity burnt pure and bright, christians held it unlawful to bear arms, and actually abstained from the use of them at the hazard of their lives." The opinions of the first christian writers after the apostles relative to war, were similar for 300 years, if not longer. JUSTIN MARTYR, one of the earliest in the second century, and TATIAN, the disciple of Justin, both consider war unlawful, as does CLEMENS of Alexandria, a contemporary of the latter. IRENEUS, who flourished in 180, declares that "christians have changed their sword into instruments of peace, and they know not how to fight;" and TERTULLIAN, a little later, says, "Can one who professes the peaceable doctrine of the gospel, be a soldier? Jesus Christ, by disarming Peter, disarmed every soldier afterwards." To these testimonies might be added those of CYPRIAN, AMBROSE, CHRYSOSTOM, JEROME, and many others who were of opinion that it was unlawful for christians to engage in war.

In support of these views the early christians suffered even unto death, usually testifying at the place of execution, as in the case of Maximilian, Marcellus, &c., that being christians they could not bear arms for any earthly consideration.

MODERN CHRISTIANS.

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WYCLIFFE, the " morning star of the Reformation," says, "What honour falls to a knight that kills many men? hangman killeth many more, and with a better title. Better were it for men to be butchers of beasts, than butchers of their brethren!"

ERASMUS, who lived about 150 years after Wycliffe, wrote against war with unrivalled beauty and force. He says, "If there is in the affairs of mortal men any one thing which it is proper uniformly to explode, and incumbent on every man by every lawful means to avoid, to deprecate, to oppose, that one thing is doubtless, war. There is nothing more unnaturally wicked, more productive of misery, more extensively destructive, more obstinate in mischief, more unworthy of man as formed by nature, much more of man professing christianity. Yet, wonderful to relate, war is undertaken, and cruelly, savagely conducted, not only by unbelievers but by (professing) christians."

THOMAS SECKER, archbishop of Canterbury, thus speaks: "War in all cases is accompanied with dreadful evils, of which we are apt to consider the heavy expense as if it were

TESTIMONIES AGAINST WAR.

the only one, and forget the sufferings and miserable deaths of such multitudes of human creatures, though EVERY ONE of them is a MURDER committed by the authors of this calamity."

JOHN WESLEY thus expostulates:-"You may pour out your soul, and bemoan the loss of true genuine love in the earth. Lost indeed! You may well say, but not in the ancient sense, 'See how THESE CHRISTIANS love one another!' These christian kingdoms that are tearing at each other's bowels, desolating one another with fire and sword! These christian nations that are all on fire with intestine broils, party against party, and faction against faction! Yea, what is most dreadful of all, these christian churches (tell it not in Gath; but, alas! how can we hide it from Jews, Turks, and Pagans?) that bear the name of Christ, the Prince of Peace, yet wage continual war with each other!"

VICESSIMUS KNOX. "Morality and religion forbid war in its motives, conduct, and consequences." "What christian but must drop a tear over the fertile realms of Christendom, crimsoned with human blood, shed at the instigation of the spirit of Apollyon, or the Destroyer, taking his abode in hearts which have rejected the Holy Ghost, the spirit of love, the

God of Peace."

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BISHOP WATSON.-" Christianity looks upon all the human race as children of the same father; and in ordering us to do good, to love as brethren, to forgive injuries, and to study peace, it quite annihilates the disposition for martial glory, and utterly debases the pomp of war."

ROBERT HALL, the eloquent Baptist preacher, in his sermon, entitled "Reflections on War," thus speaks: :- "War is the fruitful parent of crimes. It reverses, with respect to its objects, all the rules of morality. It is nothing less than a temporary repeal of the principles of virtue. It is a system. out of which almost all the virtues are excluded, and in which nearly all the vices are included."

ADAM CLARKE declares " War to be as contrary to the spirit of christianity as murder; that nothing can justify nations in shedding each other's blood; that all men should live in peace, and that all men мIGHT live in peace."

J. A. JAMES says:-" A hatred of war is an essential feature of practical christianity; and it is a shame upon what is called the christian world, that it has not long since borne universal and indignant testimony against this enormous evil.”

TESTIMONIES AGAINST WAR.

R. WHATELY, the present archbishop of Dublin, says :"That the best mode of accomplishing the extinction of that great disgrace to civilized men and christians-war, is an object which no one can more heartily desire than myself."

STATESMEN.

Sir WALTER RALEIGH says::“There is no profession more unpropitious than that of warriors, and he that taketh up his rest to live by this profession, shall hardly be an honest man.'

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General WASHINGTON, first president of the United States, exclaims: "How pitiful, in the eye of reason and religion, is that false ambition which desolates the world with fire and sword, compared to the milder virtues of making our fellowmen as happy as their frail condition and perishable natures will permit them to be."

DANIEL O'CONNELL.

"Remember no political change is worth a single crime, or, above all, a single drop of human blood." Lord BROUGHAM, in his speech at the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, says: :-"When I reflected that this peaceful and guiltless and useful triumph over the elements, and over nature herself, had cost a million only of money, whilst 1,500 millions had been squandered in war, the greatest curse of the human race, and the greatest crime, because it involves every other crime within its execrable name; when I think that if 100, and but 100, of those 1,500 millions had been employed in promoting the arts of peace and the progress of civilization, and of wealth, and of property amongst us, instead of that other employment which is too hateful to think of; instead of being burthened with 800 millions of debt, borrowed after spending 700 millions, we should see the whole country covered with such works as the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, and with peace and the blessings of peace."

HISTORIANS, PHILOSOPHERS, &c.

The learned THOMAS DICK thus speaks of war:-"It is an indelible disgrace to nations in modern times, who designate themselves as civilized and enlightened, that such a mode of settling disputes and differences should be resorted to as that of warfare. It is glaringly unchristian; it is atrocious and inhuman; it is a violation of the fundamental laws which unite the moral universe; it is accompanied with almost all the evils that can afflict humanity; it is subversive of the wealth

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