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itself. Armored automobiles were of no spread far and wide. Colonel E. D. service at all, because they could not pos Swinton of the British Army heard of the
peculiar machine, and immediately realized the advantages of an armored tractor for battle over torn ground. But in the first few months of the war that ensued, this idea was forgotten, until the effectiveness of the machine gun and the necessity for overcoming it recalled the matter to his mind. At his suggestion a caterpillar tractor was procured, and the military engineers set themselves to the task of designing an armored body to ride on the caterpillar-tractor belts. Of course the
machine had to be entirely re-designed. Underwood & Underwood
The tractor was built for hauling loads, A FRENCH TANK WITH SKIDS AT EACH END. and not to climb out of deep shell-holes;
but by running the traction belts over the sibly travel over the shell-pitted ground of
entire body of the car and running the forNo Man's Land. The Russians tried a big steel shield mounted on wheels, which a squad of soldiers would push ahead of them, but this plan failed because the wheels would get stuck in shell-holes. A one-man shield on wheels was tried by the British. Under its shelter a man could steal up to the barbed wire and cut it and even crawl up to a machine-gun emplacement and destroy it with a hand-grenade. But this did not prove very successful, either, because the wheels did not take kindly to the rough ground of a battle-field.
Press Illustrating Service
A GERMAN TANK, VERY HEAVY AND CUMBERSOME. And now we come to the third chapter of our story. Just before the great war ward part of the tractor up at a sharp broke out, Belgium, poor unsuspecting angle that difficulty was overcome.
is essential to the success of any invention, and the British engineers were determined to let no inkling of the new armored automobiles reach the enemy. Parts of the machines were made in different factories, so that no one would have any idea of what the whole would look like. At first the
new machine was known as a “landUnderwood & Underwood
cruiser" or "land-ship"; but it was feared THE LIGHT FRENCH "MOSQUITO" TANK.
that this very name would give a clue to Belgium, was holding an agricultural ex spies, and so arty descriptive name was hibition. An American tractor was on forbidden. Many of the parts consisted exhibition. It was the one developed by of rolled steel plates which might readily Mr. Holt, and its remarkable perform- be used in building up vessels to hold ances gained for it a reputation that water or gasolene; and in order to carry
out this delusion the name "tank" was themselves to fighting the infantry. Britadopted. The necessity of guarding even ish soldiers following in the wake of the the name of the machine was shown later, bullet-proof tank were protected from the when rumors leaked out that the machines shots of the enemy and were ready to atwere being built to carry water over the tack them with bayonet when the time desert regions of Mesopotamia and Egypt. was ripe. But the tanks also furnished an Another curious rumor was that the ma indirect protection for the men.
It was chines were snow-plows for use in Russia. not necessary for them to conceal themTo give some semblance of truth to this selves behind the big tractors. Naturally, story, the parts were carefully labeled, every Hun who stood his ground and "For Petrograd."
fought directed all his fire upon the tanks, Probably never was a military secret so leaving the British infantry free to charge well guarded as this one, and when, on practically unmolested. The success of September 15th, 1916, the waddling steel the tank was most pronounced. tractors loomed up out of the morning In the meantime the French had been mists, the German fighters were taken informed of the plans of their allies, and completely by surprise. Two days before, they set to work on a different design of their airmen had noticed some peculiar tractor. It was not until six months later machines which they supposed
that their machine saw service. The armored automobiles. They had no idea, French design differs from the British however, that such formidable monsters mainly in having the tractor belt confined were about to descend upon them.
to the wheels instead of running over the The tanks proceeded leisurely over the entire body of the tank. It is more blunt shell-torn regions of No Man's Land, than the British and is provided at the forwallowing down into shell-holes and ward end with a steel cutting-edge, which clambering up out of them with perfect adapts it to break its way through wire ease.
They straddled the trenches and entanglements. At each end there are paused to pour down them a stream of two upward-turning skids which help it machine-gun bullets. Wire entanglements to lift itself out of a hole. The larger were nothing to them; the steel wire machines carry a regular 75-millimeter simply snapped like thread. The big (3-inch) field-gun, which is a very formibrutes marched up and down the lines of dable weapon. They carry a crew of one wire, treading them down into the ground officer and seven men. and clearing the way for the infantry. Life in a tank is far from pleasant. The Even trees were no barrier to these tanks. heat and the noise of machinery and guns Of course they did not attack large ones, is simply terrific. Naturally, ventilation but the smallish trees were simply broken is poor and the fumes and gases that acdown before their onslaughts. As for con cumulate are most annoying, to say the crete emplacements for machine-guns, the least. Sometimes the men are overcome tanks merely rode over them and crushed by them. But war is war, and such disthem. Those who attempted to defend comforts have to be endured. themselves in the ruins of buildings found But the tank possesses one serious dethat the tanks could plough right through fect which the Germans were not slow to walls and bring them down in a shower discover. Its armor is proof against maof bricks and stone. There was no stop- chine-gun fire, but it cannot ward off the ping these huge monsters, and the Ger shells of field-guns, and it is such a slow mans fed in consternation before them. traveler that the enemy does not find it a
There were two sizes of tanks; the very difficult task to hit it with a rapidlarger aimed to destroy the machine-gun fire gun if the gunner can see his target. emplacements, and they were fitted with And so the Germans ordered up their guns firing a shell, while the smaller
guns to the front lines, where they could tanks, armed with machine-guns, devoted score direct hits. Only light guns were
used for this purpose, especially those an ordinary man can run. "Whippets" whose rilling was worn down by long ser the British call them, because they are like vice, because long range was not necessary the speedy little dogs of that name. They for tank fighting.
carry but two men, one to guide the tank When the Germans began their great and the other to operate the machine-gun.
The French, too, have built a light "mosquito" tank, which is even smaller than the British tank, and fully as fast. It is with these machines, which can dart about quickly on the battle-field and dodge the shells of the field-guns, and which are immune to the fire of the machine-gun, that the Allies are able to make progress against the Germans.
When the Germans retreat, they leave behind them nests of machine-guns to cover the withdrawal of their armies. These gunners are ordered to fight to the
They look for no mercy and Underwood & Underwood
expect no help. Were it not for the light A WHIPPET"-THE LITTLE BRITISH TANK THAT CAN TRAVEL TWELVE MILES AN HOUR. tanks, it would be well nigh impossible to
overcome these determined bodies of men driye, last spring, it was rumored that without frightful losses. they had built some monster tanks that Since America invented the machinewere far more formidable than anything gun and also barbed wire, and since the Allies had produced. Unlike the Brit- America furnished the inspiration for the ish, they did not use the tanks to lead the army, but to follow and destroy small nests of French and British that were left behind. When the French finally did capture one of the German tanks that had fallen into a quarry, it proved to be a poor imitation. It was an ugly-looking affair, very heavy and cumbersome. Owing to the scarcity of materials for producing high-grade armor, it had to make up
Press Illustrating Service in thickness of plating what it lacked in quality of steel. The tank was intended to carry a crew of eighteen men and it tank with which to trample down the wire fairly bristled with guns, but it could not entanglements and stamp out the machinemanæuver as well as the British tank; for guns, naturally people are expecting our when some weeks later a fleet of the Ger
army to come out with something better man tanks encountered a fleet of heavy than anything that has been produced so British tanks, the Hun machines were far. Just what we are doing is a military completely routed.
secret. The censor has, however, allowed It was then that the British sprang an the publication of the picture of a big tank other surprise upon the Germans. After constructed for use by our forces, as shown the big fellows had done their work, a lot above. of baby tanks appeared on the scene and What we are doing toward the develchased the German infantry. These little opment of other forms of the tank is a tanks could travel at a speed of twelve story which must wait until later in the miles per hour, which is about as fast as history of the war.
To review in detail the events of that GERMANY ON THE DEFENSIVE
glorious month would be tedious and quite The September chapter in the Story of the supererogatory (see dictionary); but the Great War carried on satisfactorily the in- only way to tell how a business is succeedteresting developments of the midsummer ing is to strike a balance on the account installment. As an author of history, Gen- books at regular intervals. In this ineral Foch seems gifted with a style much stance it is decidedly satisfactory to the more pleasing than that of General Hind- Bookkeepers of Freedom. cnburg and his collaborator, General Lu Against the Allies there is nothing to dendorff.
enter except those items which constitute Friday, September 13, was General Persh- the unavoidable "wear and tear" of war. ing's birthday. The American army cele- In their favor are these tremendous ones: brated it by tendering to its commander a a large area of France recovered ; Paris little token of its respect and affection: the definitely saved; the Teuton morale seriSt. Mihiel salient. The gift will stand in ously disturbed ; great numbers of prisonhistory beside General Sherman's Christ- ers and guns taken; vast quantities of mumas present to President Lincoln in 1864. nitions captured or destroyed, supply bases
BRIDGE BUILT BY AMERICANS
cut off, transport and communications in- Italy had looked to us, as an ally in arms, terrupted; the St. Mihiel salient cleared, more with hope than with assurance: perMetz threatened, the vitally important haps our young armies would be unable to iron field of Briey endangered; the Rhine stand the strain—who could tell? valley cities bombed—and the German The events of September 13 and the
following days gave the final answer to that question. An all-American army conducted a decidedly "major" operationand made a good, clean job of it. Ask the folks in St. Mihiel!
THE DEFEAT OF THE TURKISH
WHERE IN FRANCE."
When Turkey began to squabble with Bulgaria, and both of them with Germany, discerning observers perceived the first sure signs of the approach of the inevitable collapse of the Teutonic alliance. Germany made her allies not true partners in her crimes, but victims of her utterly unscrupulous plotting and subjects of her Rule of Force. Her despotic power could hold only so long as her own armies were victorious. When the Huns began to lose, their fellow-conspirators against the world's peace were bound to lose faith in her.
We can hardly suppose that Bulgaria Press Ilustrating Service
and Turkey ever put any real faith in KING GEORGE AND GENERAL PERSHING “SOME
Germany's promises; but they did believe
in her ability to conquer the free nations, people at home awakening to the possibil- and they saw their own best advantage in ity of invasion of their own territory. association of their interests with hers.
In addition, the Teutons had failed in When Germany began to appear unable to their submarine campaign against the At- “deliver the goods,” the minor members lantic ferry of American troops and sup of the Brotherhood of International plies; Spain drew nearer to the limit of Pirates began to weaken. her endurance of German injury and in Late in September the joyous news came sult; the Bolshevik cloud that had smoth-that the Allies under the British General ered Russia was thinning under the kindly Allenby had defeated, crushingly, two rays of the sun of assistance by the Allies; Turkish armies in Palestine. More than the nations fighting for freedom were vic 25,000 prisoners were taken; also many torious in the Balkans, Bulgaria surrend guns and great quantities of munitions. ered, the Turkish power was battered. On Some 40,000 more Turkish troops were every side the Teuton structure of greed placed in a situation from which escape and dishonor seemed crumbling.
seemed impossible. And what nation had better reason to Important as was this triumphant conrejoice than America ? Europe had blessed clusion of a well planned and swiftly exher for supplying food, and had waited ecuted campaign, measured by purely milipatiently for her armies to take their place tary results, it was still more valuable to in the field. But England, France, and the Allies because of the effect it must