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We have here almost as horrid a mixture as the ingredients in Macbeth's caldron. In these lines there is much enthusiasm, and the character of original composition. The abruptnesses of the text are judiciously retained, and perhaps improved. The translator seems to have felt Ovid's imagery, and this perhaps is an imagery in which Ovid excels.
Golding's version of the METAMORPHOSIS kept its ground, till Sandys's English Ovid appeared in 1632. I know not who was the author of what is called a ballet, perhaps a translation from the Metamorphosis, licensed to John Charlewood, in 1569, "The vnfortunate ende of Iphis sonne vnto Teucer kynge of Troye." Nor must I omit "The tragicall and lamentable Historie of two faythfull mates Ceyx kynge of Thrachine, and Alcione his wife, drawen into English meeter by William Hubbard, 1569," In stanzas*.
Golding was of a gentleman's family, a native of London, and lived with secretary Cecil at his house in the Strand. Among his patrons, as we may collect from his dedications, were also sir Walter Mildmay, William lord Cobham, Henry earl of Huntingdon, lord Leicester, sir Christopher Hatton, lord Oxford, and Robert earl of Essex. He was connected with sir Philip Sydney: for he finished an English translation of Philip Mornay's treatise in French on the Truth of Christianity, which had been begun by Sydney, and was published in 1587'. He enlarged our knowledge of the treasures of antiquity by publishing English translations of Justin's History in 1564", of Cæsar's Commentaries in 1565", of Seneca's BENEFITS in 1577°, and of the GEOGRAPHY of Pomponius Mela, and the POLYHISTORY of Solinus, in 1587, and 1590o. He has left versions of many modern Latin writers,
his Dedication to his English version of Peter Aretine's War of Italy with the Goths, Lond. 1563. 12mo. To this he has prefixed a long preface on the causes of the irruption of the Goths into Italy. He appears to have also lived in the parish of All Saints ad murum, London-wall, in 1577. Epist. prefixed to his Seneca. His Postils of Chytræus are dedicated from Pauls Belchamp to sir W. Mildmay, March 10, 1570.
1 In quarto. It was afterwards corrected and printed by Thomas Wilcox, 1604.
m Lond. 4to. Again 1578. There is the Psalter in English, printed with Henry Middleton, by Arthur Golding. Lond. 1571. 4to.
The Dedication to Cecil is dated from Pauls Belchamp, 12 Octob. Lond. 12mo. Again, 1590. There was a translation by Tiptoft earl of Worcester, printed by Rastall. No date. I suppose about 1530.
° Lond. 4to. To sir Christopher Hatton. P Lond. 4to.
which then had their use, and suited the condition and opinions of the times; and which are now forgotten, by the introduction of better books, and the general change of the system of knowledge. I think his only original work is an account of an Earthquake in 1580. Of his original poetry I recollect nothing more, than an encomiastic copy of verses prefixed to Baret's ALVEARE published in 1580. It may be regretted, that he gave so much of his time to translation. In GEORGE GASCOIGNE'S PRINCELY PLEASURES OF KENILWORTH-CASTLE, an entertainment in the year 1575*, he seems to have been a writer of some of the verses :-" The deuise of the Ladie of the Lake also was master Hunnes-The verses, as I think, were penned, some by master Hunnes, some by master Ferrers, and some by master Goldingham 9." The want of exactness through haste or carelessness, in writing or pronouncing names, even by cotemporaries, is a common fault, especially in our old writers; and I suspect Golding is intended in the last name'. He is ranked among the celebrated translators by Webbe and Merest.
The learned Ascham wishes that some of these translators had used blank verse instead of rhyme. But by blank verse‡, he seems to mean the English hexameter or some other Latin measure. He says, "Indeed Chauser, Thomas Norton of Bristow, my Lord of Surry, M. Wiat, Thomas Phaier, and other gentlemen, in translating Ouide, Palingenius, and Seneca, haue gone as farre to their great praise as the coppy they followed could cary them. But if such good wittes, and forward diligence, had been directed to followe the best examples, and not haue beene caryed by tyme and custome to content themselves with that barbarous and rude Ryming, amongest theyr other woorthye prayses which they haue iustly deserued, this had not been the least, to be counted among men of learning and skill, more like vnto the Grecians than the Gothians in handling of theyr verses." The sentiments of another cotemporary critic on this subject were somewhat different. "In
[In which year it was printed; and afterwards inserted at the end of Gascoigne's Works in 1587. Mr. Nichols has given the whole a place in his entertaining collection of the Progresses and Processions of Queen Elizabeth.PARK.]
4 Signat. B. ij.
But I must observe, that one Henry Goldingham is mentioned as a gesticulator, and one who was to perform Arion on a dolphin's back, in some spectacle before queen Elizabeth. Merry Passages and Jeasts, MSS. Harl. 6395. One B. Goldingham is an actor and a poet, in 1579, in the pageant before queen Elizabeth at Norwich. Hollinsh. Chron. iii. f. 1298. col. 1. [Goldingham wrote a poem inscribed to Queen Elizabeth, entitled "The Garden Plot," extant in No. 6902
of the Harl. MSS. More of his poetry, with a masque of his devising, may be found in a tract entitled, "The joyfull receiving of the Queene's Majestie into her Highness citie of Norwich," &c. 1578. 4to. He seems likewise to have had a hand in the Princely Pleasures of Kenilworth Castle.-RITSON.]
↑ [Arthur Hall likewise eulogises the excellent and laudable labour of Golding, for making Ovid speak English in no worse terms than the author's own gifts gave him grace to write in Latin. Ded. before the ten books of Homer's Iliades, 1581.-PARK.]
[Daniel, in his "Apology for Ryme," 1603, seems to mean blank verse when he speaks of single numbers.—PARK.] Fol. 52 a. 53 b. edit. 1589. 4to.
queene Maries time florished aboue any other doctour Phaier, one that was learned, and excellently well translated into English verse heroicall, certaine bookes of Virgil's Æneidos. Since him followed maister Arthur Golding, who with no less commendation turned into English meetre the Metamorphosis of Ouide, and that other doctour who made the supplement to those bookes of Virgil's Æneidos, which maister Phaier left vndoone." Again, he commends "Phaier and Golding, for a learned and well-connected verse, specially in translation cleare, and uery faithfully answering their authours intent."
I learn from Coxeter's notes, that the FASTI were translated into English verse before the year 1570. If so, the many little pieces now current on the subject of LUCRETIA, although her legend is in Chaucer, might immediately originate from this source. In 1568, occurs a Ballett called "the grevious complaynt of Lucrece"." And afterwards, in the year 1569, is licensed to James Robertes, "A ballet of the death of Lucryssia." There is also a ballad of the legend of Lucrece, printed in 1576. These publications might give rise to Shakspeare's RAPE OF LUCRECE, which appeared in 1594. At this period of our poetry, we find the same subject occupying the attention of the public for many years, and successively presented in new and various forms by different poets. Lucretia was the grand example of conjugal fidelity throughout the Gothic ages.
The fable of Salmacis and Hermaphroditus, in the fourth book of the METAMORPHOSIS, was translated by Thomas Peend, or De la Peend, in 1565. I have seen it only among Antony Wood's books in the Ash
t Puttenham's Arte of English Poesie, Lond. 1589. 4to. lib. i. ch. 30. fol. 49, 51.
Registr. Station. A. fol. 174 a. To John Alde. The story might however have been taken from Livy: as was "The Tragedy of Appius and Virginia," in verse. This, reprinted in 1575, is entered to R. Jones, in 1567. Ibid. fol. 163 a. And there is "The Terannye of Judge Apius," a ballad, in 1569. Ibid. fol. 184 b. W Registr. A. fol. 192 b.
* It is remarkable, that the sign of Berthelette, the king's printer in Fleet-street, who flourished about 1540, was the Lucretia, or as he writes it, Lucretia Ro
There is another Lucretia belonging to our old poetic story. Laneham, in his Narrative of the queen's visit at Kenilworthcastle in 1575, mentions among the favorite story-books "Lucres and Eurialus." p. 34. This is, "A boke of ij lovers Euryalus and Lucressie [Lucretia] pleasaunte and dilectable," entered to T. Norton, in 1569. Registr. Station. A. fol. 189 a. Again, under the title of "A booke entituled the excellent historye of Euryalus and Lucretia," to T. Creede, Oct. 19, 1596.
Registr. C. fol. 14 b. This story was first written in Latin prose, and partly from a real event, about the year 1440, by Æneas Sylvius, then imperial poet and secretary, afterwards pope Pius the Second. It may be seen in Epistolarum Laconicarum et Selectarum Farragines duæ, collected by Gilbertus Cognatus, and printed at Basil, 1554. 12mo. (See Farrag. ii. p. 386.) In the course of the narrative, Lucretia is compared by her lover to Polyxena, Venus, and Emilia. The last is the Emilia of Boccace's Theseid, or l'alamon and Arcite, p. 481.
It is licensed to Colwell that year, with the title of the "pleasaunte fable of Ovide intituled Salmacis and Hermaphroditus." Registr. Station. A. fol. 135 a. [The printed title bears: "The pleasant fable of Hermaphroditus and Salmacis, by T. Peend, gent, with a morall in English verse. Anno Domini 1565, mense Decembris." 8vo. It begins:
Dame Venus once by Mercurye
molean Museum. An Epistle is prefixed, addressed to Nicholas Saint Leger esquire, from the writer's studie in Chancery-lane opposite Serjeant's-inn. At the end of which, is an explanation of certain poetical words occurring in the poem. In the preface he tells us, that he had translated great part of the METAMORPHOSIS; but that he abandoned his design, on hearing that another, undoubtedly Golding, was engaged in the same undertaking. Peend has a recommendatory poem prefixed to Studley's version of Seneca's AGAMEMNON, in 1566. In 1562, was licensed "the boke of Perymus and Thesbye," copied perhaps in the MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM. I suppose a translation from Ovid's fable of Pyramus and Thisbe2.
The fable of Narcissus had been translated, and printed separately in 1560, by a nameless author, "The fable of Ovid treting of Narcissus translated out of Latin into English mytre, with a moral thereunto, very plesante to rede, Lond. 1560"." The translator's name was luckily sup
In quarto. Lond. for T. Hackett. Bl.
Registr. Station. A. fol. 92 a. To William Griffiths. I know not whether the following were regular versions of Ovid, or poems formed from his works now circulating in English. Such as, "the Ballet of Pygmalion," to R. Jones, in 1568. Ibid. fol. 176 a. Afterwards reprinted and a favourite story. There is the "Ballet of Pygmalion," in 1568. Ibid. fol. 176 a."A ballet intituled the Golden Apple," to W. Pickering, in 1568. Ibid. fol. 175 a.
"A ballet intituled, Hercules and his Ende," to W. Griffiths, in 1563. Ibid. fol. 102 b. There is also, which yet may be referred to another source, 66 A ballet intituled the History of Troilus, whose troth had well been tryed," to Purfoote, in 1565. Ibid. fol. 134 b. This occurs again in 1581, and 1608. The same may be said of the "History of the tow [two] mooste noble prynces of the worlde Astionax and Polixene [Astyanax] of Troy," to T. Hackett, in 1565. Ibid. fol. 139 a. Again, in 1567, "the ballet of Acrisious," that is, Acrisius the father of Danae. Ibid. fol. 177 b. Also, "A ballet of the mesyrable state of king Medas," or Midas, in 1569. Ibid. fol. 185 b. These are a few and early instances out of many. Of the Metamorphosis of Pigmalions Image, by Marston, printed 1598, and alluded to by Shakspeare [Meas. for Meas iii. 2.], more will be said hereafter.
There is likewise, which may be referred hither, a "booke intitled Procris and Cephalus divided into four parts," licensed Oct. 22, 1598, to J. Wolfe, perhaps a play, and probably ridiculed in the Midsummer Night's Dream, under the title Shefalus and Procrus. Registr. Station. B. fol. 302 a.
[Procris and Cephalus by A. Chute, is mentioned with his poem of Shore's Wife in Nashe's "Have with you to Saffron Walden," 1596, where he alludes to a number of Paphlagonian things more.-PARK.]
There is also, at least originating from the English Ovid, a pastoral play, presented by the queen's choir-boys, Peele's Arraignement of Paris, in 1584. And I have seen a little novel on that subject, with the same compliment to the queen, by Dickenson, in 1593. By the way, some passages are transferred from that novel into another written by Dickenson, "Arisbas, Euphues amidst his slumbers, or Cupid's Iourney to hell, &c. By J. D. Lond. For T. Creede, 1594. 4to." One of them, where Pomona falls in love with a beautiful boy named Hyalus, is as follows. Signat. E 3. "She, desirous to winne him with ouer-cloying kindnesse, fed him with apples, gaue him plumes, presented him peares. Having made this entrance into her future solace, she would vse oft his company, kisse him, coll him, check him, chucke him, walke with him, weepe for him, in the fields, neere the fountaines, sit with him, sue to him, omitting no kindes of dalliance to woe him," &c. I have selected this passage, because I think it was recollected by Shakspeare in the Midsummer Night's Dream, where he describes the caresses bestowed by the queen of the fairies on her loved boy, act v. sc. 1.
Come sit thee down upon this flowery bed
I have a venturous fairy that shall seek
See also, act ii. sc. 1.
In the Arraigne
pressed; but at the close of the work are his initials, "Finis. T. H.*” Annexed to the fable is a moralisation of twice the length in the octave stanza. Almost every narrative was anciently supposed or made to be allegorical, and to contain a moral meaning. I have enlarged on this subject in the DISSERTATION ON THE GESTA ROMANORUM. In the reign of Elizabeth, a popular ballad had no sooner been circulated, than it was converted into a practical instruction, and followed by its MORALISATION. The old registers of the Stationers afford numerous instances of this custom, which was encouraged by the increase of puritanism. Hence in Randolph's MUSE'S LOOKING-GLASS, where two puritans are made spectators of a play, a player, to reconcile them in some degree to a theatre, promises to moralise the plot: and one of them answers,
I do approve it may be for instruction.
ment of Paris, just mentioned, we have the same subject and language:
Playes with Amyntas lusty boye, and coyes him in the dales.
To return. There is, to omit later instances, "A proper ballet dialogue-wise between Troylus and Cressida,” Jun. 23, in 1581. Registr. Station. B. fol. 180 b. "Endimion and Phebe," a booke, to John Busbye, April 12, 1595. Ibid. fol. 131 b. A ballad, "a mirror meete for wanton and insolent dames by example of Medusa kinge of Phorcius his daughter." Feb. 13, 1577. Ibid. fol. 145 b. "The History of Glaucus and Scylla," to R. Jones, Sept. 22, 1589. Ibid. fol. 248 b. Narcissus and Phaeton were turned into plays before 1610. See Heywood's Apolog. Actors. Lilly's Sappho and Phao, Endimion, and Midas, are almost too well known to be enumerated here. The two last, with his Galathea, were licensed to T. Man, Oct. 1, 1590. [But see supr. p. 329.] Of Penelopes Webbe, unless Greene's, I can say nothing, licensed to E. Aggas, Jun. 26, 1587. Ibid. fol. 219 b. Among Harrington's Epigrams, is one entitled, "Ouid's Confession translated into English for General Norreyes, 1593." Epigr. 85. lib. iii. Of this I know no more. The subject of this note might be much further illustrated.
* [These initials are very confidently applied by Ritson to Thomas Howell, whose "poetic poesies" were set forth in 1568, and have been noticed at p. 164 su pra.-PARK.]
b As, "Maukin was a Coventry mayde," moralised in 1563. Registr. A. fol. 102 a. With a thousand others. I have seen other moralisations of Ovid's stories by the puritans. One by W. K. or William Kethe,
a Scotch divine, no unready rhymer, mentioned above, p. 253. In our singingpsalms, the psalms 70, 104, 122, 125, 134, are signatured with W.K. or William Kethe. These initials have been hitherto undecyphered. At the end of Knox's Appellation to the Scotch bishops, printed at Geneva in 1558, is psalm 93, turned into metre by W. Kethe. 12mo. He wrote, about the same time, A ballad on the fall of the whore of Babylon, called "Tye the mare Tomboy." See supr. p. 149. note. And Strype, Ann. Ref. vol. ii. B. i. ch. 11. pag. 102. edit. 1725. Another is by J. K. or John Kepyer, mentioned above as another coadjutor of Sternhold and Hopkins (see supr. p. 164.), and who occurs in "The Arbor of Amitie, wherein is comprised plesaunt poems and pretie poesies, set foorth by Thomas Howell gentleman, anno 1568." Imprinted at London, J.H. Denham, 12mo. Bl. lett. Dedicated to ladie Anne Talbot. Among the recommendatory copies is one signed, "John Keeper, student." See also "J. K. to his friend H." fol. 27 a.; and "H. to K." ibid. Again, fol. 33 b. 34 a. and 38, 39, &c.
[Another ballad by Wyllyam Kethe occurs among several metrical relics in the library of the Society of Antiquaries. It is thus entituled:
Of misrules contending with God's worde by name,
And then, of one's judgment that heard of the same.
Other pieces preserved in the same collection, transmit the names of John Pit, or Pyttes, Nicholas Balthorpe, Thomas Emley, Lewis Evans, L. Stopes, and Thomas Gilbart, as ballad-rhymers of the same prosaic school.-PARK.]
Acti. sc. 2. edit. Oxf. 1638. 4to. Again,