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with duke Humphry". He professes to keep a plentiful and open house for every straggling cavaliere, where the dinners are long and enlivened with music, and where many a gay youth, with a high-plumed hat, chooses to dine, much rather than to pay his shilling. He is so emaciated for want of eating, that his sword-belt hangs loose over his hip, the effect of hunger and heavy iron. Yet he is dressed in the height of the fashion,

All trapped in the new-found brauerie.

He pretends to have been at the conquest of Cales, where the nuns worked his bonnet. His hair stands upright in the French style, with one long lock hanging low on his shoulders, which, the satirist adds, puts us in mind of a native cord, the truly English rope which he probably will one day wear.

His linen collar labyrinthian set,

Whose thovsand double turnings neuer met:
His sleeves half-hid with elbow-pinionings,
As if he meant to fly with linen wings.
But when I looke, and cast mine eyes below,
What monster meets mine eyes in human show?
So slender waist, with such an abbot's loyne,
Did neuer sober nature sure conjoyne!

Lik'st a strawe scare-crow in the new-sowne field,
Rear'd on some sticke the tender corne to shield.P

In the Prologue to this book, our author strives to obviate the objections of certain critics who falsely and foolishly thought his satires too perspicuous. Nothing could be more absurd, than the notion, that because Persius is obscure, therefore obscurity must be necessarily one of the qualities of satire. If Persius, under the severities of a proscriptive and sanguinary government, was often obliged to conceal his meaning, this was not the case of Hall. But the darkness and diffi

That is, he has walked all day in saint Paul's church without a dinner. In the body of old saint Paul's, was a huge and conspicuous monument of sir John Beauchamp, buried in 1358, son of Guy and brother of Thomas, earls of Warwick. This, by a vulgar mistake, was at length called the tomb of Humphry duke of Gloucester, who was really buried at St. Alban's, where his magnificent shrine now remains. The middle ile of Saint Paul's is called the Dukes gallery, in a chapter of the Guls Horne Booke, "How a gallant should behaue himself in Powles Walkes." Ch. iiii. p. 17. Of the humours of this famous ambulatory, the general rendezvous of lawyers and their clients, pickpockets, cheats, bucks, pimps, whores, poets, players, and many others who either

for idleness or business found it convenient to frequent the most fashionable crowd in London, a more particular description may be seen, in Dekker's "Dead Terme, or Westminsters Complaint for long Vacations and short Termes, under the chapter, Pawles Steeples complaint." Signat. D. 3. Lond. for John Hodgetts, 1608. 4to. Bl. lett.

Barnaby Rich in his Irish Hubbub, printed 1617, thus describes four gallants coming from an ordinary. "The third was in a yellow-starched band, that made him looke as if he had been troubled with the yellow iaundis.They were all four in white bootes and gylt spurres," &c. Lond. 1617. 4to. p. 36.

P B. iii. 7. f. 62.

culties of Persius arise in great measure from his own affectation and false taste. He would have been enigmatical under the mildest government. To be unintelligible can never naturally or properly belong to any species of writing. Hall of himself is certainly obscure yet he owes some of his obscurity to an imitation of this ideal excellence of the Roman satirists.

The fourth Book breathes a stronger spirit of indignation, and abounds with applications of Juvenal to modern manners, yet with the appearance of original and unborrowed satire.

The first is miscellaneous and excursive, but the subjects often lead to an unbecoming licentiousness of language and images. In the following nervous lines, he has caught and finely heightened the force and manner of his master.

Who list, excuse, when chaster dames can hire
Some snout-fair stripling to their apple squire,
Whom staked vp, like to some stallion steed,
They keep with eggs and oysters for the breed.
O Lucine barren Caia hath an heir,

After her husband's dozen years despair:
And now the bribed midwife sweares apace,
The bastard babe doth beare his father's face.

He thus enhances the value of certain novelties, by declaring them to be

Worth little less than landing of a whale,
Or Gades spoils', or a churl's funerale.

The allusion is to Spenser's Talus in the following couplet,

Gird but the cynicke's helmet on his head,

Cares he for Talus, or his flayle of leade?

He adds, that the guilty person, when marked, destroys all distinction, like the cuttle-fish concealed in his own blackness.

Long as the craftie cuttle lieth sure,

In the blacke cloud of his thicke vomiture;

Who list, complaine of wronged faith or fame,
When he may shift it to another's name.

He thus describes the effect of his satire, and the enjoyment of his own success in this species of poetry.

Now see I fire-flakes sparkle from his eyes,
Like to a comet's tayle in th' angrie skies:

Some fair-faced stripling to be their page. Marston has this epithet, Sc. Villan. B. i. 3.

Had I some snout-faire brats, they should indure

The newly-found Castilion calenture,

Before some pedant, &c.

In Satires and Epigrams, called The Letting of Humors Blood in the HeadVayne, 1600, we have "Some pippinsquire." Epigr. 33.

Cadiz was newly taken.

His powting cheeks puft vp aboue his brow,

Like a swolne toad touch'd with the spider's blow:
His mouth shrinks side-ways like a scornful playse3,
To take his tired ear's ingrateful place.-

Nowe laugh I loud, and breake my splene to see
This pleasing pastime of my poesie :
Much better than a Paris-garden beare',
Or prating poppet on a theater;

Or Mimo's whistling to his tabouret",
Selling a laughter for a cold meal's meat.

It is in Juvenal's style to make illustrations satirical. They are here very artfully and ingeniously introduced".

The second is the character of an old country squire, who starves himself, to breed his son a lawyer and a gentleman. It appears, that the vanity or luxury of purchasing dainties at an exorbitant price began early.

Let sweet-mouth'd Mercia bid what crowns she please,
For half-red cherries, or greene garden pease,
Or the first artichoak of all the yeare,

To make so lavish cost for little cheare.

When Lollio feasteth in his revelling fit,
Some starved pullen scoures the rusted spit:
For els how should his son maintained be
At inns of court or of the chancery, &c.
The tenants wonder at their landlord's son,
And blesse them at so sudden coming on!
More than who gives his pence to view some tricke
Of strange Morocco's dumbe arithmeticke,

Of the young elephant, or two-tayl'd steere,
Or the ridg'd camel, or the fiddling freere*.-

A fish. Jonson says, in the Silent Woman, "Of a fool, that would stand thus, with a playse-mouth," &c. A. i. s. 2. See more instances in Old Plays, vol. iii. p. 395. edit. 1780.

"Then led they cosin [the gull] to the gase of an enterlude, or the bearebayting of Paris-Garden, or some other place of thieving." A MANIFEST DETECTION of the most vyle and detestable vse of DICE PLAY, &c. No date, Bl. lett. Signat. D. iiii. Abraham Vele, the printer of this piece, lived before the year 1548. Again, ibid. "Some ii or iii [pickpockets] hath Paules church on charge, other hath Westminster hawle in terme time, diuerse Chepesyde with the flesh and fishe shambles, some the Borough and Bearebayting, some the court," &c. Paris-garden was in the Borough.

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Fools they may feede on words, and liue on ayrea,
That climbe to honour by the pulpit's stayre;
Sit seuen yeares pining in an anchor's cheyre,
To win some patched shreds of minivere !

He predicts, with no small sagacity, that Lollio's son's distant posterity will rack their rents to a treble proportion,

And hedge in all their neighbours common lands.

Enclosures of waste lands were among the great and national grievances of our author's aged. It may be presumed, that the practice was then carried on with the most arbitrary spirit of oppression and monopoly.

The third is on the pride of pedigree. The introduction is from Juvenal's eighth satire; and the substitution of the memorials of English ancestry, such as were then fashionable, in the place of Juvenal's parade of family statues without arms or ears, is remarkably happy. But the humour is half lost, unless by recollecting the Roman original, the reader perceives the unexpected parallel.

Or call some old church-windowe to record
The age of thy fair armes.-

Or find some figures half obliterate,

In rain-beat marble neare to the church-gate,
Upon a crosse-legg'd tombe. What boots it thee,
To shewe the rusted buckle that did tie
The garter of thy greatest grandsire's knee?
What, to reserve their relicks many yeares,
Their siluer spurs, or spils of broken speares ?
Or cite old Ocland's verse, how they did wield
The wars in Turwin or in Turney field?

Afterwards, some adventurers for raising a fortune are introduced.

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One trades to Guiana for gold. This is a glance at sir Walter Raleigh's expedition to that country. Another, with more success, seeks it in the philosopher's stone.

When half his lands are spent in golden smoke,
And now his second hopefull glasse is broke.
But yet, if haply his third fornace hold,
Devoteth all his pots and pans to gold.

Some well-known classical passages are thus happily mixed, modernised, and accommodated to his general purpose.

Was neuer foxe but wily cubs begets;

The bear his fiercenesse to his brood besets:
Nor fearfull hare falls from the lyon's seed,
Nor eagle wont the tender doue to breed.
Crete euer wont the cypresse sad to bear,
Acheron's banks the palish popelar:
The palm doth rifely rise in Jury field',
And Alpheus' waters nought but oliue yield:
Asopus breeds big bullrushes alone,
Meander heath; peaches by Nilus growne:
An English wolfe, an Irish toad to see,
Were as a chaste man nurs'd in Italy".

In the fourth, these diversions of a delicate youth of fashion and refined manners are mentioned, as opposed to the rougher employments of a military life.

Gallio may pull me roses ere they fall,
Or in his net entrap the tennis-ball;

Or tend his spar-hawke mantling in her mewe,
Or yelping beagles busy heeles pursue:
Or watch a sinking corke vpon the shore",
Or halter finches through a privy doore';
Or list he spend the time in sportful game, &c.
He adds,

Seest thou the rose-leaues fall ungathered?
Then hye thee, wanton Gallio, to wed.

Hye thee, and giue the world yet one dwarfe more,

Svch as it got, when thou thyself was bore.

In the contrast between the martial and effeminate life, which includes a general ridicule of the foolish passion which now prevailed, of making it a part of the education of our youth to bear arms in the wars of the Netherlands, are some of Hall's most spirited and nervous


fin Judea.

B. iv. 3. f. 26.

angle for fish.


a pit-fall. A trap-cage.

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