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at least written after Churchyard's death: for in the third Epigram, the writer says, that Haywood was held for EPIGRAMS the best when Churchyard wrotea.

Some of the critics of the author's days are thus described.

The mending poet takes it next in hand;
Who hauing oft the verses ouerscan'd,

"O filching!" straight doth to the stat❜ner say,
"Here's foure lines stolen from my last newe play."—
Then comes my Innes of court-man in his gowne,
Cryes, Mew! What hackney brovght this wit to towne?
But soone again my gallant youth is gon,
Minding the kitchen more than Littleton.
Tut what cares he for law, shall haue inough
When's father dyes, that canker'd miser-chuffe.
Next after him the countrey farmer views it,
"It may be good, saith he, for those that vse it:
"Shewe me king ARTHUR, BEUIS, or SIR GUY," &c.a.

In these days, the young students of the Inns of Court seem to have been the most formidable of the critics.

The figure and stratagems of the hungry captain, fresh from abroad, are thus exposed.

Marke, and
you love me. Who's yond' marching hither?
Some braue Low-Countrey Captain with his feather,

Powles churchyard." Is H. P. for Henry Peacham? One of the Epigrams (Epig. 51.) in the last-mentioned collection appears, with some little difference only, in Peacham's Minerva, ol. 61. edit. 4to. By one H. P. are "Characters and Cures for the Itch. Characters, Epigrams, Epitaphs." A Ballad-maker is one of the characters, p. 3. London, for T. Jones, 1626, 12mo.

a I have some faint remembrance of a collection of Epigrams, by Thomas Harman, about the year 1599. Perhaps he is the same who wrote the following very curious tract, unmentioned by Ames: "A Caueat for common cvrsitors, uulgariter called Uagabondes, set forth by Thomas Harman, esqvier, for the vtilitie and proffyt of his naturall countrey. Newly augmented and imprinted Anno domini M. D. LXVII. Imprinted at London in fletestrete, at the signe of the faulcon, by Wylliam Gryffith, and are to be solde at his shoope, in saynt Dunstones churchyard, in the west." A quarto in black letter, with a wooden cut in the title. In the work, is a reference to the first edition in the preceding year, 1566. It is dedicated, with singular impropriety, to Elizabeth countess of Shrewsbury. The writer speaks of his lodgings "at the White fryers within the cloyster." fol. 20 b. This seems to have given rise to another

piece of the same sort, unnoticed also by Ames, "The fraternitye of vacabondes, as wel of ruflyng vacabondes, as of beggerly, as women as of men, of gyrles as of boyes, &c. Wherevnto also is adioyned the xxv order of Knaues, &c. Imprinted at London, by Iohn Awdely, dwellyng in little Britayne streete, without Aldersgate, 1575." Bl. let. 4to. [Another edition by the same printer appeared in 1565, which renders Warton's conjecture (that the work was suggested by Harman's book) impossible. See Brit. Bibliograph. vol. ii. p. 12.-PRICE.] These, by the way, are some of the first books exhibiting, not only the tricks, but the language of thieves, which Jonson has introduced into his Masque of Gipsies. Compare Ames, Hist. Pr. p. 423.

They were famous for their entertainments at the inns of court.


country gentleman, yeoman.


d Old romances. Sat. ii. Signat. H. 3. Hence, among a variety of instances, says Marston in the second preface to his Scourge of Villany,

Some pedant spruce, or some span-
new-come fry,

Of Inns a-court, striuing to vilefie
My darke reproofes, &c.

And high-crown'd hat. See, into Paules he goes,
To showe his doublet and Italian hose.

The whiles his Corporal walkes the other ile,
To see what simple gulls he can beguile.8

The wars in Spain and the Low-countries filled the metropolis with a set of needy military adventurers, returning from those expeditions, who were a mixture of swaggering and submission, of flattery and ferocity, of cowardice and courage, who assumed a sort of professional magnanimity, yet stooped to the most ignominious insults, who endeavoured to attract the attention of the public by the splendour of martial habiliments, were ready for any adventures of riot and debauchery, and insinuated themselves into favour by hyperbolical narrations of their hazardous achievements. Jonson's Bobadil was of this race of heroic rakes. We have seen one of them admirably described by Marston".

In 1600 appeared, a mixture of Satires and Epigrams, "THE LETTING OF HUMOURS BLOOD IN THE HEAD VAINE, with a new morisco daunced by seauen satyrs, upon the bottom of Diogenes tubbe," written by Samuel Rowlands, and printed by William White!.

In a panegyric on Charnico, a potation mentioned by Shakspeare*, he alludes to the unfortunate death of three cotemporary poets, two of which are perhaps Green and Marlowe, or perhaps George Peele.

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The great man's head, if the true reading, must be a cant-word for the sign of some tavern. Harrington has an Epigram of one getting drunk at the Sarazens head. B. i. 52. W. Fenner mentions the Saracen's head, without Newgate, and another without Bishopsgate, both famous for ferocity of feature. The Compter's Commonwealth, &c. p. 3. Lond. 1617. 4to. Brill, which we now call The Brill, is a town in the Netherlands. See also Hall, Sat. iv. 4.

And pointed on the shoulders for the


As new come from the Belgian garrisons.

In small octavo. There is another edition, without date, in small quarto, exhibiting a very different title, "HUMORS ORDINARIE, where a man may be verie merrie, and exceedingly well vsed for his six-pence. At London, Printed for William Firebrand," &c. I know not which is the first of the two. He praises Tarleton the comedian, for his part of the Clowne, and his Clownishe sloppe, Epigr. 30. and Pope for his part of the Clowne. Sat. iv. Singer the player is also mentioned. Ibid. One Samuel Rowlands, I know not if the same, has left in verse, "The betraying of Christ, Judas in despair, The Seven wounds of our Saviour on the crosse, with other poems on the Passion," dedicated to sir Nicholas Walsh, knight, 1598, for Adam Islip, in quarto. Under the same name I have seen other religious poems, rather later. See Percy's Ball. iii. 117.

It is called a sparkling liquor, in Goddard's Mastif-Whelp, or Satires, no date. Sat. 63. [See Notes to Second Part of Henr. VI. a. ii. s. 3.]

I will steepe
Thy muddy braines in sparkling

See Reed's Old Plays, iii. 457.

1 A sign.

As for the worthies on his hoste's walle',

He knowes three worthy drunkards passe them alle:
The first of them, in many a tauerne tride,
At last subdued by Aquavita dide:

His second worthy's date was brought to fine,
Freshing with oysters, and braue Rhenish wine.
The third, whom diuers Dutchmen held full deere,
Was stabb'd by pickled herrings and stronge beere.
Well, happy is the man doth rightly know,
The vertue of three cuppes of Charnico! m

The rotation of fashionable pleasures, and the mode of passing a day of polite dissipation in the metropolis, are thus represented. 'The speaker is SIR REVELL, who is elegantly dressed in a dish-crowned hat and square-toed shoes.

Speake, gentlemen, what shall we do to-day?

Drinke some braue health vpon the Dutch carouse",
Or shall we to the GLOBE, and see a play?

Or visit Shoreditch for a bawdie house?
Let's call for cardes, or dice, and have a game:
To sit thus idle, &c.P

In another we have the accomplished fashion-monger.

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In another, of a beau still more affected, he says,

Behold a most accomplish'd cavaleere,
That the world's ape of fashions doth appeare!
Walking the streets, his humour to disclose,
In the French doublet, and the German hose:
The muffe, cloak, Spanish hat, Toledo blade,
Italian ruffe, a shoe right Flemish made :
Lord of misrule, where'er he comes he 'll revell, &c.


How rare his spurres do ring the morris dances!

One of the swaggerers of the times, who in his rambles about the town, visits the Royal Exchange as a mercantile traveller, is not unluckily delineated.

Epigr. 25.

Epigr. 32. Boots were a mark of dignity or elegance, ibid. Epigr. 8. He scornes to walke in Powles without his bootes.

Sometimes into the Royal 'Change he 'll droppe,
Clad in the ruines of a broker's shoppe.
And there his tongue runs byass on affaires,
No talk, but of commodities and wares.-
If newes be harken'd for, then he prevayles,
Setting his mynt at worke to coyne new tayles'.—
He'll tell you of a tree that he doth knowe,
Vpon the which rapiers and daggers growe,
As good as Fleetstrete hath in any shoppe,
Which being ripe downe into scabbards droppe.-
His wondrous trauells challenge such renowne,
That Sir John Mandeuille is qvite pvt downe".
Men without heads, and pigmies hand breadth hie,
Those, with no legges, that on their backs do lie;

Hall has a character partly resembling this, Sat. vi. 1.

Tattelius, the new-come traueller,
With his disguised coate, and ringed ear,
Trampling the bourse's marble twice a day,
Tells nothing but starke truths, I dare
well say, &c.

The bourse's marble is the pavement of the Royal Exchange, now newly erected by sir Thomas Gresham. The Royal Exchange seems to have been frequented by hungry walkers as well as saint Pauls, from Robert Hayman's Quodlibets, or Epigrams, &c. Lond. 1628. 4to. Epigr. 35. p. 6.

TO SIR PEARCE PENNILESSE. Though little coyne thy purselesse pockets lyne,

Yet with great company thou 'rt taken vp;

For often with duke Humfray thou dost dyne,

And often with sir Thomas Gresham


" Hall alludes to sir John Mandeville's Travels, a book not yet out of vogue. Sat. B. iv. 6.

Or whetstone leesings of old Mandeuille.

And in the Irish Banquet, or the Mayors Feast of Youghall, certain pieces of this age parabolized in T. Scot's Philomythie, printed in 1606. Svo. Signat. M. 2.

Of Ladies loues, of Turnaies, and such
As Mandeville nere saw.

I have "The Spanish Mandevile of Miracles, translated from the Spanish," Lond. 1618. 4to. The Dedication, to lord Buckhurst, is dated 1600.

Or, do the weather's iniurie sustaine,
Making their leggs a penthouse for the raine.x

Gabriel Harvey, in his Four Letters printed in 1592, quotes some English hexameters, from "those vnsatyrical Satyres, which Mr. Spenser long since embraced in an overloving sonnet." This passage seems to indicate a set of satires, now unknown, to which Spenser had prefixed the undeserved honour of a recommendatory sonnet, now equally forgotten.

Meres, who wrote in 1598, observes, "As Horace, Lucilius, Juvenal, Persius, and Lucullus, are the best for SATYRE among the Latins, so with us, in the same faculty these are chiefe: PIERS PLOWMAN, Lodge, Hall of Emanuel colledge in Cambridge, the author of PIGMALION'S IMAGE AND CERTAINE SATYRES", the author of SKIALETHIA"." And in another place, having cited some of Marston's satires, he adds Rankins as a satirist". I have never elsewhere seen the name of Rankins. Nor have I seen Lodge's Satires, unless his "ALARUM AGAINST USURERS, containing tried experiences against worldly abuses," and its appendix, his History of Forbonius and Prisæria, printed at London in 1584, may be considered under that character*.

Wood also, a great dealer in the works of our old minor poets, yet at the same time a frequent transcriber from Meres, still more embarrasses this matter, where he says, that Lodge, after he left Trinity college at Oxford, about the year 1576, and "had spent some time in exercising his fancy among the poets in the great city, was esteemed, not Joseph Hall of Emanuel college excepted, the best for satyr among English men." Lodge was fitted for a different mode of composition. He was chiefly noted for pastorals, madrigals, and sonnets; and for his EUPHUES GOLDEN LEGACY, which furnished the plot of the As You LIKE IT of Shakspeare. In an extended acceptation, many of the prose-pamphlets written about this period by Greene and Decker, which paint or expose popular foibles and fashions, particularly Decker's GUL'S HORNBOOK, a manual or directory for initiating an unexperienced spendthrift into the gaieties of the metropolis, might claim the appellation of satires. That the rage of writing satires, and satirical

Or those, who having legs, and lying on their backs, &c.

* Sat. i. In these Satires, Monsieur Domingo a drunkard is mentioned, Epigr. 1. See Shaksp. Second Part of Hen. IV. a. v. s. 3.

Y Let. iii. p. 44.

7 Marston's Scourge of Villanie had not yet appeared.

a Fol. 282. 2.

Fol. 277. [William Rankins wrote "Seven Satires," &c. Printed in 1596.— RITSON.]

[The work alluded to by Meres, was

Lodge's "Fig for Momus, 4to," noticed above.-PRICE.]

c Ath. Oxon. i. 498.

d Harrington in his Epigrams, mentions the Satires of a poet whom he often attacks under the name of Lynus, B. i. 67.

His Distickes, Satyres, Sonnets and Hexameters,

His Epigrams, his Lyricks, and Penta


And again, he has an Epigram "Against a foolish Satyrist, called Lynus." B. i. 14. See also, B. i. 41.

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