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Four letters that a child may trace! Daughter of her whose face, and lofty

Yet men who read may feel a thrill name

From powers untouched by time or Prenuptial, of old States and Cities

space speak,

Vibrations of the eternal willWhere lands of wine look north to peak

With body and mind and soul respond on peak

To "love" and all that lies beyond. Of the overwatching Alps: through her, you claim

On truth's wide sea thought's tiny Kinship with vanished Power, unvan

skiff ished Fame;

Goes dancing, far beyond our speech, And midst a word grown colorless and Yet thought is but a hieroglyph bleak

Of boundless worlds it cannot reach: I see the blood of Doges in your cheek, We label our poor idols "God," And in your hair the Titian tints of And map with logic heavens untrod. flame.

Music and beauty, life and art

Regalia of the Presence hidDaughter of England too, you first Command worship, drew breath

heart, Where our coy Springs to our coy Sum- Write love on every coffin-lid; mers yield;

But infinite-beyond, aboveAnd you descend from one whose lance The hope within that one word and shield

"Love." Were with the grandsire of Elizabeth,

Annie Matheson. When the Plantagenet saw the avenger The Athenaeum.

Toward him spurring over Bosworth

William Watson.

When I die, o bury me

Within the free young wildwood;

Little birches o'er me bent

Lamenting as my child would!

Let my surplice-shroud be spun I left behind the ways of care,

Of sparkling summer clover;

While the great and stately trees The crowded hurrying hours,

Their rood-screen rich hang over! I breathed again the woodland air, I plucked the woodland flowers:

For my bier-cloth blossomed May

Outlay on eight green willows!

Seagulls white to bear my pall Bluebells as yet but half awake,

Take flight from all the billows. Primroses pale and cool,

Summer's cloister be my church Anemones like stars that shake

Of soft leaf-searching whispers, In a green twilight pool

From whose mossed bench the night

On these still lay an enchanted shade, To all the vale chant vespers;
The magic April sun;

Mellow-toned the brake amid,
With my own child a child i strayed My organ hid be cuckoo;
And thought the years were one. Paters, seemly hours and psalm

Bird voices calm re-echo!
As through the copse she went and Mystic masses, sweet addresses,

Blackbird, be thou offering,
My senses lost their truth;

Till God His bard to Paradise
I called her by the dear dead name Uplift from sighs and suffering.
That sweetened all my youth.

Alfred Perceval Graves.
Henry Newbolt. The Thrush.



Almost a century has elapsed since the once immense colonial empire of Spain began to disintegrate and crumble away, and the most precious of her oversea possessions, gained for her by Cortez, Pizarro and their successors, as they firmly believed, for all time, one by one threw off the oppressive yoke under which they had groaned for some four hundred years. The South American colonies avalled themselves of Napoleon's conquest of Spain to establish their own independence; and, after Napoleon's fall, the mother country, weakened by her terrific struggle with France, and hampered by internal revolutions and the worthless government of Ferdinand VII, was able to do little towards recovering her lost empire.

Mexico was almost the first Spanish colony to enter upon the struggle for freedom; but, though the initial blow at Spain's dominance was struck in 1810, it was only in 1821 that an independent government was successfully established, and the Republic of Mexico was set up. Some years previously, in 1817, Chile had declared herself free; while Venezuela, Paraguay, and New Granada had broken away from the Spanish Viceroy's authority and had formed themselves into the Republic of Colombia, only, however, to be again broken up and reconstituted into separate independent sovereign states. Ecuador and Peru, the latter the very centre of Spanish colonial power, were lost to the Crown of Spain in 1821; while Guatemala in 1822 and Bolivia in 1823

seceded from the mother-country. Buenos Aires and Uruguay established their own independent governments in 1824; and the smaller Central American colonies of Nicaragua, Honduras, and Costa Rica were no less successful in breaking their fetters, San Salvador being the last province to revolt, in 1843, against the Spanish dominion. Florida had been sold by Fer. dinand VII to the United States, which, its own account, subsequently seized Porto Rico and the Philippines and emancipated Cuba. Thus, with the exception of the Canaries, a few small islands in the Gulf of Guinea, and one or two "presidios” in Morocco, Spain has been dispossessed of all her colonies.

On September 15, 1910, General Porfirio Diaz, President of the United States of Mexico, will enter upon his eightieth year and the thirtieth year of his Presidency, an occasion which will synchronize with the holding of important celebrations in connection with the centenary of Mexico's emancipation from Spain. The occasion is not only one of great interest in relation to the life of an exceptional man, but will solve the important question, which has for some time been agitating the minds of Mexicans, and is of interest to the world at large the question, namely, who is to succeed him. The existing presidential term will expire on November 30, 1910; but, though so recently as January, 1909, General Diaz declared in a personal interview that, "no matter what my friends and supporters may say, I re

• 1. “Porfirio Diaz, seven times President of Mexico." By Mrs. Alec. Tweedie. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1906.

2. "President Diaz and Modern Mexico" By Enrique C. Creel, Mexican Ambassador to the United States. New York: Sunday Magazine, 1907.

3. * Ethics in Action: Porfirio Diaz and his Works." By a Soldier of the old Guard. Mexico City, 2a Independencia, 1907.

4. “What does the Future hold for Mexico?". By Henry Litchfield West. New York: Harper, 1908.

5. “La Sucesion Presidencial en 1910," Issued by El Partido Nacional Democratico. Coahuila, Mexico: Francisco J. Madero, 1909.

6. "Un Pueblo, un Siglo, y un Hombre." By Dr. Fortunato Hernandez. Mexico City: Geographical Society, 1909.

as a


tire when my present term of office jection the once all-powerful influence ends; and I shall not serve again," he of Rome in Mexico. has now definitely accepted re-nom- The life of Porfirio Diaz may be dination.

vided into two distinct periods-his

brilliant career as a soldier, and his It was in 1830 that Porfirio Diaz inestimable service

statesman. was born, at which date Mexico had Bulwer Lytton once wrote of Richealready experienced some nine years lieu that it was strange so great a of strenuous existence as a Republic. statesman should be so sublime a poet. A twelvemonth's freedom from the Of Diaz it may be observed with equal yoke of Spain was succeeded by an truth that it is remarkable so good a Empire under Agustin Iturbide, whose soldier should have proved himself so ludicrous attempt at monarchy was cut great a statesman. The disposition to short by his execution. Then came destroy and the desire to build up do President Vittoria's ephemeral Consti- not often go hand-in-hand, the world tution, which was followed by a suc- offering but few examples of a man, cession of internecine revolutions, in- who has once freed his country from a terrupted by united struggles against succession of troubles, succeeding, as the last lingering remnants of Span- Porfirio Diaz has succeeded, in turning ish authority. Thus young Diaz was the ruin of war into the prosperity of reared amid a turmoil of alarums ana an abiding peace. Simon Bolivar, the excursions, the din of which reached great Latin-American liberator, may even the remote

of Mexico be cited as an opposite case in point, where he was born, the city of Oax- his brilliant services as a soldier being aca, situated at a distance of some partially obliterated by his unwitting 234 miles, then necessitating about a blunders as a ruler, week's journey, from the capital. Poverty and even privations were Here, at the time of the American in- among the earliest experiences of vasion of Mexico, namely, in 1848, he

young Diaz.

His father and mother was studying for the Church under the were so badly off that they were comtutelage of his uncle and guardian, pelled to keep a small inn, known as Bishop José Agustin Dominguez, and the "Sun," at Oaxaca City; the former, watched over by his good friend Licen- while still a young man, falling a vicciado (lawyer) Marcas Perez, Governor tim to Asiatic cholera and leaving a of the State of Oaxaca. It says much family of six small children, of whom for Diaz that, even at this early pe- Porfirio was the eldest, in indigent cirriod of his life, when he determined to cumstances. Diaz' parents, José Fausforsake the cloister for the more stir- tino Diaz and Petrona Mori de Diaz, ring scenes of the camp, he was en- the latter of Indian (Mixteca) blood, abled, by his striking personality, to were, however, very highly respectea influence in his favor such an expe- in their city; and the humble birthrienced man of the world as the State place of Porfirio for many years reGovernor. He, moreover, braved the mained a national shrine. To-day it is displeasure of his uncle the bishop the site of a great public schooi nained with calm determination. Certainly after the President, erected by the naneither of them could foresee at that tion in his honor. time that it was to be the hand of this With the determination to be a good young ex-priest which was to help in soldier rather than a bad priest, young perpetuating the separation of Church Diaz left the Jesuits' seminary at Oaxfrom State, and to keep in stern sub- aca at the age of nineteen. By this



times he had received a good education, ness of death." His contemporaries so thorough, indeed, that he had been are unanimous in declaring that the enabled to give private lessons in stoicism which he displayed in these Latin to other students, while he also trying circumstances was highly refilled the important position of libra- markable in a youth of his age. He rian at the Institute of Sciences. Al- received

of his most serious though he had studied law under Mar- wounds on August 13, 1857, when cas Perez and Benito Juarez (after- fighting at close quarters at the battle wards President), he did not take any of Ixcapa. He was struck in the side degree, owing to the fact that the then by a builet which long remained emPresident, General Santa Anna, feel- bedded in the body, and caused hun ing alarmed at the liberal tendency of great suffering. First aid having been the educational establishment where administered, to the astonishment of Diaz was a pupil, autocratically sup- his men he rose from the ground and pressed it. This, as much as anything continued fighting until weakness put else, provoked Diaz into rebellion an end to all further efforts.

As an against the tyrant; and it was he who evidence of the severity of this wound, organized one of the first bodies of it may be observed that it was found malcontents to rise against Santa to be in a septic condition some fifty Anna, who, for many years, proved days after the battle, by which time himself the evil genius of Mexico. the bullet itself had completely disapAs a consequence of this, prescribed peared. It

not until twenty and with a price on his head, young months afterwards that some AmeriDiaz was compelled to fly; and for sev- can surgeons who were in Mexico suceral years he was relentlessly perse- ceeded in extracting the projectile. cuted by the Government of his own Long before his complete recovery, country on the ground that he was however, Diaz was again to the fore, a rebel. So long as General Santa Anna sword in hand, defending his native remained in power-and this, with sev- city of Oaxaca against the attacks of eral interruptions, continued

from the Conservative leader, Marcelino Co1843 to 1853–Diaz continued to be a bos. Ill as he was, he took an active refugee; but he nevertheless succeeded part in the long siege which the Libin taking an active part at a distance eral forces were called upon to within the several revolutionary outbreaks stand in the convent of San Domingo, which at that period characterized re- again undergoing great physical privapublican government in Mexico, when, tions, including that of semi-starvation. indeed, war seemed to be the only na- The city having been abandoned by tional industry.

the local government, Porfirio Diaz was In 1856 the great struggle between compelled to make his escape; but it the Conservatives (the Church party) was not for long that he was absent and the Liberals was at its height; and from the scene of action. Gathering Diaz took the side of the latter, in around him many of his former fol. support of the now Governor of Oax- lowers, Diaz, who by this time had aca, Benito Juarez, who subsequently been raised to the rank of captain, puras above stated, became President of sued his old enemy, Marcelino Cobos Mexico. Young Diaz did not escape the (one of the notorious rebel brothers of risks of battle, for, while still a sub- that name), as far as Jalapa in Te. altern, he was seriously wounded, and, huantepec, and there defeated him on as he has himself stated, "suffered February 25, 1858. It was Diaz also great physical agonies and the bitter- who, later on, confronted and overcame the fanatical Spanish Carlist Con- of War when offered to him by his chado, a man of the same low stamp grateful patron Benito Juarez, who had of character as the Cobos. In the fa- in 1858 been elected President. mous battle of Rancho de las Jicaras, The attitude assumed by Porfirio fought on April 13, 1859, Diaz won for Diaz in connection with the death of himself the rank of commander; and, Maximilian in 1867 has formed the subat the battle of Mixtequilla, in the ject of much diverse and no little confollowing June, he attained to the rank demnatory comment; much must be of colonel. After the recapture of allowed, however, for the sentiments Oaxaca in the following year, Diaz of a pure-bred Mexican, and his inwas created a colonel in the regular tense antipathy to an alien sovereign, army, having up to that period ranked forced upon his distracted country only as colonel in the National Guard against its almost unanimous will. It or Militia. It is eloquent of the char- has been asserted that Diaz might acter of the man that all this time he readily have used his influence with had been acting entirely upon his own President Benito Juarez to spare the initiative, having apparently been coin- life of the unfortunate Maximilian, but pletely forgotten by the Federal Gov- the question naturally arises, Why ernment, as six months had passed should he have done so? To him, as without any communication between to many thousands of other Mexicans, Diaz and the capital.

Maximilian, both in his person and his Diaz' subsequent achievements by policy, represented all that was hateforce of arms, such as his recapture ful and dangerous to the precious from the Conservatives of the city of freedom for which the patriots had Tehuantepec; his repulse of their fierce fought and died, and which-even at attack (under the leadership of the the moment of its attainment-was traitor Marquez) upon Mexico City in threatened with 'destruction. That 1861; his second victory over Marquez Porfirio Diaz showed no disposition of at Jalatlaco, in the same year; his first mercy to Maximilian is true. It is serious encounter with the invading equally true that Maximilian, who had French and his services at the battle issued a stern edict against all Mexiof Puéblo in 1862; his unwavering de- can republicans caught with arms in votion to the republican cause all their possession, would have shown through the subsequent Maximilian none to Diaz. troubles, and the numerous exploits With the withdrawal of the French which he performed on this occasion from Mexico and the death of Maximilin defence of his country; his subse- ian, Diaz services as a soldier quent imprisonment by and escape remained for a period uncalled from the hands of the French in 1865; for; but troublous times for the his long and capable leadership at the Republic were still to come. The restorming of Puéblo for the second time turn of Benito Juarez to power in 1867 in 1867, as well as at the siege of Mex- was followed, after a stormy and ico City which occurred in the same somewhat violent period, by his death year, down to the period of his tri- in 1872. The seething discontent ocumphant entry into the capital in casioned by the actions of his succesJune, 1867—all show Porfirio Diaz to sor, Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, have been successful both as a fighter found expression in the revolution of and as a leader; while all through he 1876, in which Diaz himself took an asked nothing for his services, and active part. Lerdo's subsequent flight even refused the position of Minister was the beginning of Diaz' triumph,

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