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volume, which will be followed by a plays much ingenuity in such devices. second on the domestic, political and Her hero, the younger brother of an industrial life of the Hebrews. The impoverished peer, is represented as a first six chapters of the present work man of ability, though giving no proof exhibit some of the aspects of the reli- of it except the nice conduct of a wardgious problem, define sociology, and the robe including 284 neckties, some casocial value of religion, rehearse the pacity for courteous insolence, and that current scientific views of the Bible, de- well-worn trait, scorn of his creditors. scribe the scenes of its chief incidents But he has no safeguards whatever and the more important of the races against a wonderful singer of Wagfiguring in it. Then, after explaining per's music, and her frank and detailed how the idea of God has developed, acknowledgment of thirteen years of Professor Smith writes on the sacred life of deepest shame does not hinder persons, places, services, and objects him from sacrificing every human beconnected with the religion of the He- ing belonging to him to his passion for brews, their sacred days and their con- her. Mrs. Atherton is skilful enough, ception of sanctity and draws a few and her description of a Wagnerian conclusions. The assistance which a performance clever enough, to produce reader of the Bible, be his aim what it a temporary aberration during which will, may draw from the work is incal- the reader finds him less contemptible culable. Even if he be fairly well read than he really is. She herself has no in Spencer, Miller and Renan, Barth, delusions about him though she seems and Lotze, Professor Smith's swift re- persuaded that the great singer, had view of the subject and his comments she not committed the unpardonable will renew interest in it, and if he sin of disloyalty to art, would have bring an untaught mind to the reading been an ideal woman. The Macmillan he will feel that he has found a new Company. Bible. The Macmillan Company.

Professor James L. Kellogg of WilThe day is long past when one could liams College opens his valuable "Shell accuse of a desire for notoriety the Fish Industries,” the new volume in woman whose books revealed a wide the American Nature Series, with a acquaintance with the possibilities of vigorous exposition of the wanton human depravity,' and when one en- wastefulness of the American, but it is counters a story in which a clever extremely doubtful if he expected it writer bends all her talent and knowl- to produce the slightest effect upon any edge of the world to showing that guilty reader. The colonial American honor, pride, ambition, gratitude, good wasted as much of every thing as his feeling, duty and personal fastidious- tools and facilities for carriage permitness are equally impotent to protect a ted, and the nineteenth century immiman from an evil woman, provided grants took advantage of new invenonly that she be the embodiment of tions, the formation of the country and some "art,” one finds the story com- increased ease of transportation to monplace. No elaboration will give make the proceedings of their predecesnovelty to the old sophistries--the only sors seem tame and spiritless. The opportunity for originality lies in de destruction of a continent in a few vising the steps by which a man of centuries is a possibility with such citeven moderate shrewdness may be led izens. After enumerating such gleams to accepting them. In her “Tower of of hope as he perceives in the prospect, Ivory,” Mrs. Gertrude Atherton dis- Professor Kellogg addresses himself to

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making accounts of the food mollusks sented in pictures extraordinarily stereinteresting to eaters and to cultivators, ographical in quality and so clear that and those to whom the problem of con- Ruskin would have given a volume to trolling their production has biological the statement of their beauties, and the attractions. Chapters on the anatomy reader finds it difficult to leave them. of the food mollusks, and their develop- This presentation of groups instead of ment, and the ciliary mechanisms, in- single examples is a noteworthy feattroduce the subjects of oyster culture ure of the book and worthy of imitation and growth in Europe. Japan and by future writers. The second chapAmerica; the implements used in gath- ter, “The Progress of Form,” the ering and cultivating; the natural ene- third, “Portraiture," and the fourth mies of the American oyster, and bi- “Anatomy and the Nude" prepare the valves in relation to disease. All the way for the next five, “Religious great oyster fields of the United States Thought All-Pervading," "Plastic Emare described, their histories are given bodiments of Religious Thought," "Secas far as known, and five closing chap ular Thought and Secular Form," ters the hard shelled and soft "Classical Thought" and "Baroque," shelled clam and scallops close the and in these the duplex interest of the work. As he was writing with a work, actual sculpture and its ethical triple aim, Professor Kellogg was com- development is unfolded and enforced. pelled to include many small matters Biography, authenticity, all other disnot to be found in other works and the tracting elements, are neglected for the excellent index was a necessity. The sake of these two and the result is such eater of the oyster, the cultivator and a series of strong impressions as one the scientific observer should be equally does not often receive. It must satisfied. Henry Holt & Co.

membered that the author is not yet

forty years of age, that he is an acIf the present year continue as it be- tive member of the House of Commons, gins, it will be more prolific in good that he holds more than one important books than any twelve month of the public position connected with art inlast five. Following close on the new terests, in order to estimate the imedition of the “History of Italian paint- mense energy and devotion implied by ing," comes “The Evolution of Italian this volume. The mere conception of Sculpture," by Lord Balcarres, and in- the work might make a reputation; its vites renewed study of a sister art, con. execution should bring fame of no sidering it in a manner especially grate- mean order. The style, no trivial deful to the conservative and the reli- tail in the literature of art, is clear gious, and eschewing the affectations and dignified, with a just assignment of all the “modern" schools. The in- of ornament, and here and there that troduction dwells upon the traditions smallest touch of humor invariably acof imperial art, the decadence of old companying imaginative power suffsources of inspiration, the discovery of cient to the understanding of art. The new fountains, and the acquisition of book is a thick quarto and its grouped new characteristics derived from the and single illustrations all of excellent barbarian invaders, and the first chap quality number six score. The author ter shows with what these elements half promises a subsequent volume exwere blended, the indigenous rudiments amining the primitive phase by a differof Italian sculpture, beginning with ent system of analysis and illustration, Benedetto Antelami. Illustrating this and it will be awaited with high expecchapter is a group of six façades pre- tations. E. P. Dutton & Co.

SEVENTE SERIES
VOLUME XLVI.

No. 3429 March 26, 1910

FROM BEGINNING
VOL.CCLXIV.

CONTENTS 1. Aviation in 1909. By T. F. Farman BLACKWOOD's MAGAZINE 771 II. Greece - Renaissance or Revolution ? By Spencer Campbell

FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 776 III. As It Happened. Book VI. Crisis. Chapter XI. Beneath the Cliffs.

Chapter XII. The Judgment of God. By Ashton Hilliers. (To be
continued.).

785 IV. Oriental Art. By Roger Fry

QUARTERLY REVIEW 793 The Development of William Butler Yeats. By Francis Bickley

THRUSH 802 VI. Ower Young to Marry Yet. By Jane H. Findlater. (To be concluded.)

CORNHILL MAGAZINE 805 A French Parliamentary Election.

SATURDAY REVIEW 812 VIII. The Present Position of Fiction. By A Novelist

ATHENÆUM 814 IX. The American People. .

SPECTATOR 817

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X. Some Old Chinese Songs. Rendered into English by David Wilson

NATION 820 A PAGE OF VERSE XI. Unforgotten. By Walter de la Mare PALL MALL MAGAZINE 770 XII, Angry. By W. H. Davies

. 770 XIII. Song. By Laurence Binyon

770 BOOKS AND AUTHORS

822

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By feeble candle-light to rest I'll get And in gray dreams walk where the violet

SONG. Blows sweet where once a foolish boy grew hot

O Love of my love, O blue,
Lest thou, o dear and far, didst love Blue sky that over me bends!
him not:

The height and the light are you,
And I the lark that ascends,

Trembling, ascends and soars, I shall not know, in dream, what age A heart that pants, a throat hath done,

That throbs, a song that pours
But turn to kiss a cheek for ever gone; The heart out as it sings.
And I, perchance, shall take thy hand Lo, the dumb world falls remote,
and say

But higher, higher the golden height! Words whereof Death steals not the Oh, I faint upon my wings! breath away.

Lift me, Love, beyond their flight,
Walter de la Mare. Lift, Oh, lift me in the night.
The Pall Mall Magazine.

Laurence Binyon.

AVIATION IN 1909.

1909 has been so eventful in aviation ville. Wright, Henry Farman, Delathat at its close the French Govern- grange, and Blériot. A great many ment was able to offer the citizens of inventors had built other flying mathe Republic consolation for being sur- chines, but none of them had remained passed by Germany in steerable bal- in the air even five minutes. It is diffiloons by the announcement of its de- cult, if not impossible, for any one to termination to keep the lead in aerial state correctly the number of aerolocomotion with the heavier than the planes of all descriptions which have air, destined in its opinion to drive all been constructed in 1909, or the number the military dirigibles off the aerial of men who have learned to pilot them. battlefield. Were the progress in avi- However, there are still few types of ation to continue as rapid as it has flying apparatuses which can be relied been during the last twelve months, on to ascend into the air and remain the day would be fast approaching there even in fairly calm weather till when the steerable balloon would be at their pilot may choose to descend, or be the mercy of the little aeroplane. But constrained to do so by the exhaustion whether it is wise for a nation to dis- of fuel for the motor. The most recount the perfecting of the heavier than nowned amongst them are the Wright, air by neglecting the lighter than air as the Voisin, the Henry Farman, the a military auxiliary is quite another Maurice Farman, the Curtiss, and the question. It is, however, interesting Cody biplanes, and the Blériot, the Anto note what the aeroplane has already toinette, and the Santos Dumont (La done, and can do to-day, and to exam- Demoiselle) monoplanes. Most remarkine what it must be able to achieve able feats have been achieved with to become an instrument of practical those machines, all of which are being daily utility in time of peace, and to constructed in large numbers, to satisfy perform all the services expected of it either the ambition of sportsmen to in war.

taste the sweets of flight, or that of In 1908 the aeroplane had just done men anxious to win some of the prizes enough to convince the thinking world at aviation meetings. Wilbur and Orthat aerial locomotion with the heavier ville Wright and the pilots of their mathan air would be an acquired addition chine have flown long and high. Orto the already existing means of civili- ville Wright has circled round the zation within a more or less distant statue of Liberty at the entrance of or near future. At the end of that New York harbor; and Tissandieron year few people thought that future his Wright biplane has flown from would be near, and now the progress Juvisy to Paris and back to Juvisy, afhas been so formidable that many per- ter doubling the Eiffel Tower at the sons look forward to a yet more rapid altitude of about 1400 feet; Paulham on development of aerial locomotion than a Voisin machine flew in a gale at that which characterized 1909. At the Bétheny; the same aviator on a Henry end of 1908 the only aeroplanes which Farman biplane repeated that feat at could fly were the Wright, the Voisin, Blackpool, and astonished the world by and the Blériot, and this last named his performances at Brooklands, and machine has done so only spasmodic- 'his cross-country flight from Bouy to ally; and the only aviators who had pi- Chalons and back, during which he rose loted them were Wilbur Wright, Or- to the altitude of 1900 feet; Henry Far-,

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