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Often have even the sufferings regard the indifference of his Chrisof an animal impressed on his tian brother, not merely with forthoughts the evil of sin, or the bearance, but respect; and should silent monition of fields and groves keep in mind, thai his own aptitude raised his mind to brighter worlds, to improve the influence of natural wbere

objects is, as much as any other “ Heaven's immortal spring shall yet means of grace, the gift of God, arrive,

and must therefore be considered And man's majestic beauty bloom again, as a talent for which a strict acBright through the year of loves trium- count will be required. He will phant reign."

feel how much less frequently his Whep harassed bythe disorders and taste for the works of creation inconsistencies of the moral world, has been made the auxiliary of deoften has he been soothed by the votion than it might have been; characters of Divine love impressed how often the solema appeals of on so many of the scenes around animate or inanimate nature have him ; and often, too, has be been been made in vain; how often, awed into humility byequallyevident under the effects of a ruffled temmarks of vindictive justice; and this per, or a perverse inclination, he even before he began to perceive has resisted those influences which that Nature could only display, and were so well calculated to win hion not reconcile, these apparently con- back to calm and profitable mediflicting attributes. Thus Nature, tation. Thus, if ever be is disposed under the Divine blessing, became to indulge self-complaisance in the to bin a lesser light, which ruled consciousness of a gift so flattering his anxious night of spiritual igno- to human pride as that of mental rauce, and usbered in the dawn of susceptibility and taste, these reDivine illumination. And now, flections will temper his satisfacthough rejoicing in the greater tion, and make him feel how, even light, he is still open to the influ- in trifles, the heart is prone to any ence of these tributary rays, and destination rather than that which feels gratefully disposed to be re- constitutes its truest privilege and minded of his Almighty Benefactor best enjoyment. and Preserver, through the medium On the other band, let the op. of his works. The close and af- posite character, who is disposed io fecting analogy which exists be- treat as airy nothings the imaginatween the processes of nature and tive musings of his neighbour, and ihe process wbich has been carried to pride himself upon the strength on in his own soul, is another cir- and sterling qualities of a mind cumstance which serves still more that disdains them, remember that to rivet his regard; since he can this difference of opinion may oriscarcely go abroad among her pro- gina!e rather in the bluntness of ductions without being reminded of his own perceptions than in the ihat delicale arrangement by which diseased or puerile state of his the spiritual blade has been foster neighbour's understanding; and ed and the full ear developed. That no talent is to be despised

The difference between these which has the power of leading the two characters is the result, neither mind to sacred meditations, or the of wilful neglect in the one, nor of heart to devout affections. meritorious effort in the other. It

C. D. has arisea from the temper of their minds, the habits of their education, and in some measure, perhaps, To the Editor of the Christian Observer.. from the peculiarities of their spi. A CORRESPONDENT in your Numritual noviciate. Hence the devout ber for last September has proposed admirer of nature should learn to the following queryl: Is it the duty of religious persons to attend the church by the heterodoxy, rather service of God in their parish than by the morality, of the minichurch, in cases where the minister ster's preaching. is notoriously deficient in exhibit- “ Itching ears" and irregularity ing the peculiar doctrines of the are sedulously to be avoided; but Gospel, and where, in truth, they it also may be further observed, go in expectation of nothing be- that no religious person seems yond merely moral discourses? bound to shew an approval of such

In addition to the excellent reply merely moral and defective preachof Philiturgus, in your Number for ing, by uninterrupted attendance. November, I would remark, that if He may conscientiously avail himyour querist live in London, he self of the ministryof a neighbouring must know that many religious per- clergyman; but, I think, he ought, sons, and sound churchmen, do not if opportunity serve, candidly to regularly attend their parish church: acquaint his minister with the cause nor does such regularity, I think, of his occasional absence, and to appear binding upon them ; chiefly state his continued preference for because their example is not so the established order of religion. prominent as to be detrimental to At the same time, let him not forget the interests of religious order; vor that he may read emivent divines can the churches contain all the pa. and devotional writers at home. rishioners.

He has Moses and the Prophets ; If he reside in the country, he he can hear Christ and his A postles; must be sensible that, when lie and with these helps, if he be per. ceases to attend his parish church, severing in prayer for the blessed be must, in nine instances out of influences of ihe Holy Spirit, he ten, frequent either a Dissenting will not retrograde very much, alMeeting bouse or remain at home. though he should not always bave the But it is presumed, that no reli- privilege of hearing such preaching gious churchman would do either, as be most approves. unless forcibly driven from his

A. B.


To the Editorof the ChristianObserver. formed on horseback, that subject

should engage much of my attenIn the course of the year 1820, and tion. the spring of 1821, I made an exten- I was by no means qualified, eisive tour through Upper and Lower ther by previous habits or informaCanada and the United States of tion, to avail myself fully of the America, traversing the latter valuable opportunities of observa through Maine and Louisiana, vation wbich I enjoyed : but I through Alabama, and back again made a few general remarks on the through the States of Mississippi subject, in my correspondence with and Tennessee.

my brother; and baving found on Although I had no intention of my arrival at home that he had remaining in the country, the sub- preserved my letters, it has ocject of emigration had become so curred to me, that, superficial as interesting before I left England, my knowledge was on many parts that it was natural that in a jour of the subject, I might possibly ney of nearly 8000 miles in the New add something to the general stock World, about 1800 of which I per- of information op a question so peculiarly interesting at a time in The lands which the Government which so many persons have been is at present distributing in Upper vader the painful necessity of de- Canada lie parallel to the St. Lawciding on the eligibility of expa- rence and the Lakes, and constitute triating themselves, in order to a range of townships in the rear of find in the New World a freedom those already granted. They are from those cares under which they said to be no where above ten were sioking in the Old.

or fifteen miles distant from the If on perusing the letters I send old settlements. Land officers are you-which are copied, I believe, established in ten different districts, without any alteration except in order to save the emigrants the where there are personal allusions trouble of going up to York; but -it should be compatible with your their power is restricted to grants plans to insert them in the Chris- of a hundred acres.

When an tian Observer, they are quite at emigrant has chosen the township your service.

in which he wishes to settle, and At a future time I may perhaps has complied with the necessary trouble you with some remarks on formalities, he receives, by lot, the religion and morals of the Unit- a location-ticket for a particular ed States, if I persuade myself they hundred acres, with a condition will be of any interest.

that he is not to dispose of them Although I most decidedly pre- for three years. The title is not fer my own country, I feel that given till' he has performed his very great injustice has been done settling duties; which are, to clear to America by most of our tra, five acres in each hundred, and the vellers and journalists; and I was half of the road in front. Now gratified to perceive, that the Chris- these certainly appear to be very tian Observer, in the true spirit easy conditions on which to obtain which becomes its character, was the fee-simple of a hundred acres : the first 10 endeavour to establish and the proposal to emigrate must a more correct as well as a more therefore be a tempting one to a candid and liberal appreciation starving labourer or mechanic. of that interesting and powerful, The real inducements, however, though in some respeets rival, na- are so much less than the apparent tion.


ones, that although many would

wisely emigrate even with a full Philadelphia, Nov. 6, 1820. conviction of the difficulties they

- Neither am I able to write had to encounter, I believe that, to you as fully as I could desire on at present, there is not one emithe subject of emigration to the grant in five hundred who does United States, upon wbich you say not feel bitterly disappointed on you shouldwish io hear what occurs his arrival at Quebec. Instead of to me. On this difficult and inte- finding himself, as bis confused resting topic, I will enter more par- ideas of geography had led him to ticularly shortly; and, in the mean expeet, on the very borders of his time, will send you the result of little estate, he learns with astomy observations on the induce- nishment that he is still five ments which Canada appeared to hundred miles from his transatme to offer to Eoglish labourers lantic acres; and, if he has no and other persons of little or no money in his pocket, he may proproperty. Those observations bably have to encounter, in reachwere necessarily both rapid and ing them, severe distress superficial; and my information is than he ever felt at home. There proportionably scanty, although I is indeed much benevolent feeling endeavoured to seize every oppor.. towards emigrants both at Quebec funity of obtaining intelligence. and Montreal ; and societies have



been formed in each of these places, veral of the principal merchants at to afford them information and Montreal, who did not dispute it ; relief; but the inhabitants are be- one of them observing only that he ginning to complain that the requi. believed there had been cases in sitions for this purpose are becom- which grants of 50 acres were made ing more burdensome than even without fees *. It is much to be the English poor-rates. The steam- regretted that where land is said boat companies are also liberal (in to be gratuitously bestowed, any deed almost every man of property fees should be deemed necessary; feels a personal interest in the en- as the beon, when accompanied couragement of emigration); but with this demand, is calculated an emigrant must be unusually for- to produce discontent rather than tunate who reaches the Land Office gratitude, especially where the emiin Upper Canada, without expend- grant finds that his fees amount to ing at least sl. after landing at one half the sum at which he could Quebec. The emigrants who ac- select and buy the same quantity companied us in the steam-boat in of land, without the delay attendwhich I ascended the St. Lawrence, ing the grant, and unshackled with were some of those lately sent out any conditions or clearing dues. free of expense by ourGovernment; The surveyors receive their combut there was one, a smart shoe- pensation in land, and generally maker, not of that number, who secure the most valuable portions. bad been detained some weeks at When I was in Canada, they would Quebec earning money to carry him sell their best lots at one dollar up the river.

per acre ; while 131. 10s., the fees When the emigrant arrives at on a hundred acres, amount to the Land Office of the district more than half a dollar per acre. where he proposes to setile, deter. I never met with any one person mined perhaps in his choice by the among all those with whom I conhope that his lot will place him in versed on the subject, who did not the vicinity of an old acquaintance, agree that, if a settler had, but a he may probably have to wait some very little money it would be much weeks before the next distribution more to his advantage to buy land, takes place; during which he must than to receive it from government. be supporting himself at an ex- Supposing the emigrant to be pense increased by his ignorance able to pay his fees, he may still of the manners of the country. have the misfortune to find that his He then learns, perhaps for the allotment (for he can only choose first time, that there are certain bis township, not his estate,) is not fees to be paid at the different worth cultivating. In this case he offices through which his papers has to pay two respectable persons must pass. I have a list of these for surveying and certifying it to before

me, in which they are stated be irreclaimable ; and he is then to be,

permitted to take his chance in the For 100 Acres L. 5 14 1 next distribution. Generally speak200 do.

16 17 6 ing, I believe he may expect to find 500 do.

39 19 9 himself in his own forest from three 1000 do.

78 10 2 to six weeks after his arrival at the I was however informed, by se- Land Office in Upper Canada. veral persons from York with whom Even then his situation is most I crossed Lake Ontario, one of dreary, especially if he has no whom said he was in the habit of neighbour witbin a reasonable distransacting this business for the tance, and has to purchase and emigrants, that, for a hundred

I believe grants of 50 acres are geacres, the fees were 131. 10$. This nerally, or always, to be obtained will. I mentioned to the Sheriff and se. out fees.

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carry bis provisions from a remote of clearing a moderate proportion settlemeni. But if he has no money of their land, (possessing 1001, 10 to procure food; if he has a wife 2001. or 500l. for instance,) may, and family to provide for, without in a single year, be very comfortably the forlorn hope of parish assist- settled in a decent log-house with ance; if he is a weaver or a spin- out-buildings, and with every propes, accustomed to warm rooms, spect of a liberal supply of all the and to employments little calculated substantial comforts of a farm. to impart either the mental or phy- Every year would add largely to sical qualifications essential to his their abundance, and to their facivery support; if he is, in fact, of a lities for improving and extending class to which a large proportion their estate ; but they would accuof the poor emigrants from Great mulate money but slowly, unless Britain belong, I can hardly conceive they had, as they probably would any thing inore distressing than his bave, an occasional foreign market sensations, when, arriving on his for their grain besides the West new estate, with an axe in his hand Indies. They may also derive some and all his worldly goods in his little profit from pot and pearl wallet, he finds himself in the midst ashes, which Mr. G- of Monof a thick forest, whose lofty trees treal told me he received on consignare to be displaced by a labour al- ment from Ohio; a distance of 800 most Herculean, before lie can erect miles, by way of Lake Erie and Onthe most humble shelter, or culti-tario. The situation of the Upper vate the smallest patch. And if Canadians is further said to be faat such a time he has further 10 vourable to the culture of hemp, notanticipate the rigours of a long withstanding the failure hitherto of Canadian winter, bis situation must the most promising experiments. be deplorable in the extreme. Grain, however, will be their

Under such circumstances, which staple commodity; and although I should imagine are the ordinary the large body of settlers who circumstances of the poorest emi- arrive annually may afford a tengrants to Canada, I can conceive porary market, they will soon proof no resource,

nor could I hear duce far more than they consume, of any, except that of hiring them- and under ordinary circumstances selves to some older seluler, in the will depress the prices very nearly hope of saving a trifle in order to to a level with the cost of producbe able, in the course of time, 10 tion. Indeed I heard the farmers pay for clearing an acre or two of of Lower Canada complaining that ibeir forest farm, or to buy pro- their markets were gluited with the visions while they attempt a task produce of the Upper Province. for which they are little qualified. For several years the average Sometimes a few will join, and one price of wheat in Upper Canada half hire themselves out to obtain has been about five shillings for provisions for the other half while sixty pounds; but on the American felling the trees. If they surmount shores of the Lake we found it at the difficulties of the first year, twenty five to thirty-three cents; they may expect at its termination and although its introduction into to be in possession of an adequate Upper Canada is either prohibited supply of food for their families; or shackled with heavy duties, it and with the prospect, if they are of course will find its way into the industrious, of being independent province whenever the price there and progressively prosperous dur. is materially higher than at home. ing the remainder of their lives. In the Lower Province, when our

Those, however, who have money ports are open, they consume enough to provide for their imme. American grain, and export their diate wants, and to pay the expense own; as it is necessary their ship

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