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to be found too many whose rank, and tens of thousands of persons fortune, or other peculiar circum- from London to Bristol; and, for stances, rendered them tenfold any thing I know to the contrary, more criminal tban the general mob throughout the kingdom; and yet of spectators. It is such persons no effectual hindrance was opposed who perpetuate and extend these by the magistracy, and no person atrocities, which but for their purse called to accouni for being a sharer and countenance might be easily in the transaction. Surely the laws, and promptly checked.--My next if duly enforced, would be found remark refers to the guilt and dis- strong enough to prevent such ex. grace which attach to our police for hibitions; and if they are not, it is not preventing the recurrence of fully time they were strengthened. such scenes. The day, the hour, :
C. the site were known to thousands
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
1. Thoughts on the Music and 7. Songs of Zion, being Imitations of
Words of Psalmody in the Psalms. By JAMES MONTGO-
• Of all the services of our 2. A Charge delirered at the Pri- church," says Bishop Porteus,
mary Visitation of Herbert, none appears to me to have sunk Lord Bishop of Peterborough, to so low an ebb, or so evidently in July 1820; with an Appen- to veed reform, as our Parochial dix, containing some Remarks Psalmody.” The evil of which the on the modern Custom of Sing- good bishop complains has long ing in our Churches unautho- been felt; and every intelligent rized Psalms and Hymns. Lon- churchman will concur with that don. 1820. pp. 38.
respected prelate in wishing to re3. An Inquiry into historical Facts move it. But with whom must tbis
relative to parochial Psal- work of reformation commence ? mody, in Reference to the Re- And in what way is it to be accommarks of the Bishop of Peter. plished? Are clergymen and conborough. By J. GRAY. York. gregations to be restricted to par1821. pp. 72.
ticular versions of the Psalms, or 4. A Selection of Psalms and Hymns may they have recourse to any
for the Use of St. Paul's and versions, according to their taste St. James's, Sheffield. Shef- and judgment? Is it, moreover,
field. 1819. pp. 382. lawful to introduce hymus; or are 5. A new metrical Version of the metrical compositions of all kinds,
Psalms of David, with an except literal versions of the Psalms,
London. 1821. Pp. 343. while Mr. Kennedy, assuming for 6. Psalms and Hymns adapted to the basis of bis selection, the old
the Service of the Church. By and new versions, dwells rather HENRY Lowe. London. pp. upon the music of Psalmody, and 531.
the rules and principles which are to guide him in the selection itself. song used in all parts of the ComWe sball endeavour to state the mon Prayers of the Church," it is chief points of the question in such added, “Yet, nevertheless, for the a way as to render it most plain and comforting of such as delight in perspicuous. cessor.
music, it may be permitted, that 1. What was the order of church in the beginning*, or in the end of music prescribed by our Establish- Cominon Prayer, either at mornment?
ing or evening, there may be sung Mr. Gray, as he has stated in a hymn, or such like song, to the the introduction to bis pamphlet, praise of Almighty Godt." From sent a paper on this subject to the the indefinite nature of the expresChristian Observer, which was pu- sion, it is not quite certain, wheblished in our Number for March ther the phrase, “ hymn or such 1818. By referring to that paper, like song,” is meant to indicate meit will appear that the only church trical Psalmody. We are inclined music, sanctioned by primitive to think with Mr. Gray, that it was usage, adapted to the Psalms avd a concession to metrical Psalms : Hymns of the rubric and Bible, and especially as they were introduced established by the laws of the realın, in that very year, and used preis the chanting of the pointed Psal- cisely in the way specified in this ter, and the singing of the Litur- injunction. In proof of this fact, gical Hymns and of Anthems, as Mr. Gray cites the following exat present practised in cathedrals*. tracts from Sirype's Annals. Our reformers, in the time of Henry VIII. and Edward VI.,contemplated, “ ' 1559, September, my diary obas it should seem, nothing beyond serves, that on the day of this month this system : the Book of Common of September began the new morning Prayer, containing the authorized prayer at Saint Antholin's
, London; the formularies of the Church of Eng- Psalm was sung after the Geneva fa
bell begioning to ring at five; when a land, makes no recognition of me- shion, all the congregation, men, women, trical Psalms; and they come pot and boys, singing together.' within the scope of any Act of Uni
“ ' 1559-60, March the 3d, Grindal, formity. On the accession of Eli- the new bishop of London, preached zabeth, church music was placed at St. Paul's Cross in his rocket and on the same footing as in the reign chimere; the mayor and aldermen preof Edward VỊ.
2. Metrical Psalms were intro- * Not only this Injuuction, but the duced, " after the Geneva fa- very title-page of the old version, clear. shiont,” by the Reformers who, hav- ly authorize the commencement of Di. ing fled from the Marian Persecu- vine Service with singing. Yet this tion, returned to England in the custom has, in some qnarters, been
treated as a grievons innovation; so reign of Elizabeth.
much so that we understand the present For the proof of this fact, we
bishop of Lincoln, whep bishop of Exeagain refer to the paper on Psal. ter, obliged his clergy, in those cases, mody, in our Number for March where service was opened with a Psalm, 1818. The new method of sing. to discontinue the practice, demanding ing soon became popular; and Eli- by what authority they ventured to in zabeth, who well knew when to troduce singing at the commencement urge her own plans, and when to of the prayers. Were it not for the irgive way to the feelings and wishes responsible power of punishment with of ber people, found it expedient which our prelates are armed, his lordto connive at the change. In her by some of his clergy, that the metrical
ship surely would have been reminded Injunctions to the Clergy, in the Psalms were expressly " set forth, and year 1559, after directing that allowed to be sung in all churches of all. " there be a modest and distinct the people together, before and after * See Gray's Inquiry, p. 68.
morning and evening prayer." + Strype.
+ See Christian Observer, March 1818.
sont, and a great auditory. And after “ The old version of the Psalms, by sermon, a Psalm was sung (which was Sternhold, Hopkins, aud others, has the common practice of the reformed likewise the sanction of royal authority. churches abroad,) wherein the people It is true, that no act of the king in also joined their voices.'
council, as far as I know, is now on re" * 1559-60, March the 17th, Mr. Ve. cord, by which they were formally al. ron, a Frenchman by birth, preached lowed at the introduction of them, which at St. Paul's Cross before the mayor and was in the reign of Edward the Sixth. aldermen; and after sermon was done, But if the royal permission has not been they sung all in common a Psalm in expressed in that way, it has in another. metre, as it seems now was requently In every Prayer-book which contains done; the custom having been brought the oid version, it is declared to be set in from abroad by the exiles.'
forth and allowed to be sung in all “ The following extract from a let- churches ;' but it could not be so al. ter addressed by Bishop Jewell to Peter lowed except by the king. And the Martyr, dated March 5th, 1560, con- permission of the king is signified by firms the fact recorded by Strype. "A the very act of printing them with change now appears more visible among the Prayer-book by the king's priothe people, which nothing promotes ter, and his continuing to do so time immore than the inviting them to sing memorial without contradiction. The Psalms. This was begun in ove church royal permission is further signified by in London, and did soon spread itself the order of the king in council with not only through the city, but in the respect to the uew version. By that neighbouring places. Sometimes at order the new version is allowed and Paul's Cross there will be six thousand permitted to be used in all such people singing together. Bishop Blir. churches, chapels, and congregations, net observes, that the Psalms translated as suall tbink fit to receive the same.' into metre were much sung by all who This order implies therefore, that such loved the Reformation; and it was a sign congregations as did not tliiuk fit to reby which men's affections to that work ceive the same, might retain the old were measured whether they used to version. The old version therefore bas sing these or not.”—Gray on Psalmody, the sanction or permission of royal au.
thority, as well as the new."-Bishop of
Peterborough's Charge, p. 36. 3. And this brings us down to the introduction of the old version. The reasons assigned by the bi
The principal contributors to this shop for his opinion, appear to be work were, Thomas Sternbold, John tbree. We will notice each in its Hopkins, and William Whytting- order. ham, the celebrated Dean of Dur- First, The title-page of the old ham, and Calvin's chief favourite, version assumes the fact of an alfrom whom Wbyttingham received lowance. “In every Prayer-book ordination. So zealous was this which contains the old version, it is Dean to innovate upon the establish. declared to be set forth and allowed rules of antiquity, and “ 10 ed to be sung in all churches; but clothe our whole Liturgy in the it could not be so allowed, except garb of Geneva," that he added by the king." to his olber metrical feats the Suppose the identity of this titleextraordinary versification of the page to be established from tlie three creeds, the Ten Command- first, what is the couclusion? Why, ments, the Song of the Three Chil. simply, that the version was allowdren, &c. &c. In 1562, the entire ed : that is, churches, chapels, and version of the Psalter was publish- congregations might either use it ed by John Day : aud it gradually or not at their pleasure. made its way into our churches. By what king was it even allowConcerning the authority which be- ed? Not surely by Edward VI. for longs to this version there are very it did not appear till after his death. different opinions. The bishop of Mr. Gray informs us, that this ver. Peterborough argues thus :
sion was not introduced, as bére érro
neously stated, in the reign of Edward Warton.
VI, but in ibat of Elizabeth in 15 62.
An attempt was made in Parliament Sternhold or his printer, founded on the duriog that reign to procure the public exercise of metrical Psalmody in insertion of Sternhold's fifty-one churches. Not to insist,' observes Mr. Psalms, as part of the Liturgy Warton, on the incompatibility of these established by the second and third metrical Psalms with the spirit of our of King Edward VI.; but the ques- style, it should be remembered, that
Liturgy, and the barbarism of their tion was carried in the negative. they were vever admitted into our “ It could not be so allowed,” ob- church by lawful anthority. They were serves the bishop, " except by the first introduced by the Puritans, and king.” This remark assumes the afterwards continued by connivance. fact of an allowance: but what But they never received any royal ap. says the evidence of former times? probation or parliamentary sanction., and what is the recorded opinion --Gray on Psalmody, pp. 24-26. of those who have examined the
Secondly, says the Bishop's Apquestion ?
pendix, “ The permission of the “ Heylin states,' that these Psalms king is signified by the very act of were by little and little brought into the printing them with the Prayer-book church; permitted, rather than allow. by the king's printer, and his coned, to be sung, before and after ser- tinuing to do so, time immemorial, mons, afterwards printed and bound up without contradiction.” with the Common Prayer-book; and at last added by the Stationers at the end “ This assertion,” says Mr. Gray," I of the Bible. For, thongh it is express. do not find to be founded in fact. It is ed in the title-page of these singing true the use of the old version is now 80 Psalms, that they were set forth, and completely exploded, that it is not easy allowed to be sung in ail churches before to meet with copies of it; but amongst and after morning and evening prayer, those which I have seen, there is not and also before and after sermons, yet one printed by the Kiug's printer. A this allowance seems rather to have been friend of mind has in his possession the a connivance than an approbation; to following:spch allowance being any where found
“ The old version in folio, imprinted by such as have been most industrious at London, by John Day: Cum gratia and concerned in the search. At first et privilegio Regiæ Majestatis. Anno it was pretended only that the said 1578 :' bound np with an old translation Psalms should be sung before and after of the Bible, imprinted at London, by morning and evening prayer, and before Christopher Barker, Printer to the and after sermons, which shews they Queen's Majestie, 1582. were not to be intermingled in the pub- " The following are in York Minster lic Liturgy. But in some tract of time, Library :as the Puritan faction grew in strength “ 2. The old version in folio, without and confidence, they prevailed so far in a Prayer-book-London, printed for the most places, as to thrust the Te Deum, Company of Stationers, 1618. the Benedictus, the Magnificat, and the “ 3. The old version-London, print. Nunc Dimittis, quite out of the church.' ed by T. P. for the Company of StaCollier, in his Ecclesiastial History, ob. tioners, 1635: bound up with a Prayer. serves,. When the Puritan faction grew book, printed at London, by Robert up to strength and assurance, this metre Barker, Printer to the King's most Exmade the antient hymns disrelished; cellent Majesty, and by the assignes of and threw the Te Deum, the Magnifi. John Bill. cat, &c. out of the church in many
• 4. The old version-London, printed places. Thus sometimes, things con- by Stephen Gilbert, for the Company nived at at first, govern at last.' Again; of Stationers, 1716: bound up with a speaking of the pretended allowance for Prayer-book, printed at Oxford, by John this version, he says, • Those who have Baskett, Printer to the King's most Exa searched with the utmost care and cu- cellent Majesty. riosity, could never discover any au- " At Messrs. Todds', booksellers, in thority, either from the Crown or Con York, vocation.' Mr. Mason, also, the late " 5. The old version-London, print. precentor of York, considers this al. ed by J. Hepinstall for the Company lowance to have been an assumption of of Stationers, 1704 : bound up with !
Prayer-book, printed by Charles Bill, ance in bebalf of the old version, and the executrix of Thomas Newcomb, rests upon long and widely admitted deceased, Printers to the Queen's most
usage : whether this presumption Excellent Majesty. “ I am in possession of the following: the testimony of Heylin, Collier,
be of any value, when opposed by “ 0. The old version, printed at the Theatre, Oxford, and are to be sold by for himself. It is certainly curious,
&c., every person must determine Peter Parker, at the Leg and Star, over against the Royal Exchange, in Cornhill, that in the only case in which we London, 1685:' bound up with a Prayers have any evidence of an appeal to book, imprinted at London, hy Bonham authority in behalf of any part of Norton, and John Bill, Printers to the the old version, the proposal was King's most Excellent Majesty.
negatived*. “ 7.. The old version, printed by Wm.
4. But although the old version Pearson for the Company of Stationers, carries with it no evidence of 1732: bound up with a Prayer-book, printed at London, by the assignes of authority, several versions and his Majesty's Printer, and of Hy. Mills, varieties of metrical Psalmody have deceased.
at different intervals been honoured “ At Mr. Wolstenholme's, bookseller, by the royal sanction. in York,
« A version of the nine first Psalms, “ 8. The same edition of the old ver- by Dodd, was privileged by James I. sion : bound up with a Prayer-book, in 1603. printed at London, by John Baskett,
“King James himself composed a Printer to the King's most Excellent Ma- version of the Psalms, which was recomjesty.
mended, as well as allowed, by his suc“ Bishop Marsh asserts, that the prac. tice of printing by the King's Printer
“ In 1623, George Wither published has continued time immemorial with. Hymnes and Songs of the Church, out contradiction.' Sorely, if so, the authorised by a royal license from James proof would be easy. But, until it he I., which, after reciting that the said produced, I cannot admit the fact.”—
book is ' esteemed worthie and proffit. Gray on Psalmody, pp. 27–29.
able to be incerted in convenient manSuppose, however, the assertion
ner and due place into everie Englishe to be correct, what does it prove ?
Psalme-Book in meeter,'-grants full Nothing more, in the absence of and free license to imprint the said
book.' other proof, than politic conni
“ This royal license also contains the
following clause :- And we doe for us With regard to the third reason our heirs and successors chardge and mentioned by the bishop at the commaonde, that noe Englishe Psalme conclusion of the paragraph, Mr. Booke in meeter, aloane, or with apie Gray justly remarks,
other booke or bookes, be hereafter
bonnde up, nor apie such booke bounde « This is a very subtle mode of prov. upp hereafter, be uttered, sould or put ing the point; but it will scarcely satisfy to sale, unles the said book intitled the any one who weighs the evidence on the “Hymnes and Songes of the Church” be other side. It has been already shewn incerted aud bound up in due place in the first section, that the king can do with the same booke or bookes.' It no more than allow and permit a ver- also gives power to the said George sion; and the discretion whether to re. Wither, his heirs, and assigns, with a ceive it or not, rests with congrega. constable or other public officer, to tions. This is all that the • allowance' "take and seize anie Englishe Psalme of the new version expresses and im- Booke in meeter, alone, or with any plies. To suppose that the king intend. other booke or bookes, which shall be ed to sanction the old versiou by the very act of permitting a new one, is It is uot undeserving of remark, more ingenious than probable."--Gray that Mr. Kennedy states the version of on Psalmody, p. 29.
Sternhold and Hopkins to have been at
first introduced “ by sufferance," (p. It appears therefore, that the only 36.) although he afterwards speaks of presumption for any royal allow- it as an authorized version,