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manded general respect and admiration, nized its ninth anniversary on the 26th and never failed to produce in public of February last. The Archbishop of meetings, an harmonious feeling of ma- Moscow, Philaret; the Bishop of Di. tual regard among all who had the pri- mitroff, Athanasius;

the Governor-Ge. vilege of attending them."

neral of Moscow, Prince Demitreas The following are extracts from the Galitzin; the Marshal of the Nobility, Society's forelgn correspondence. General Obolianenoff, Vice-Presidents Letter from Professor Kieffer, dated of the Society, with many other gene. Paris, April 14, 1822.

rals, nobles, and clergy; together with “Our third anniversary was cele. many ladies of the first families, graced brated on Tnesday the 16th inst. The this assembly, which was more splendid president was sarrounded by all his than any preceding, and consisted of vice-presidents, among whom about 1600 individuals. The solemnity Couut Boissy d'Anglas, Connt Verhuell, commenced with a vocal concert of sa. admiral of France, Baron Cuvier ; by 'cred music; after which bis eminence several members of the corps diploma. the Archbishop of Moscow, Philaret, tique-among the rest CountLovenhielm, delivered an impressive address, of son of the president of the Ladies' Bible which tbe following is the conclusion. Society of Stockholm; by several Ca. 6 Are you desirous of seeing the tholics of distinction, among whom were springing up of part of the seed sown the Dukes de Caze, de la Rochefou. by the Bible Society? Behold! - In all cauld, de Broglie, peers of France; Mr. our seminaries and schools the word of Jordan, lead of the division for public God is now read; people, who formerly worship ; Mr. Laget, head of the office never read any thing, or read oply what for the public worship which is nor Ca. was useless and hurtful, now read the tholic, belonging to ihe department of word of God :-in prisous, where the the minister for the interior; the major convicts used to teach each other new of the 10th district, &c. We had uever crimes, they begin to read the word of had such a brilliant audience, and the God, aud to recogoize their Saviour : Marquis de Jancourt never presided nations, that hardly knew the name of with more dignity and firmness. During Jesus Christ, or were entirely iguorant the reading of the Report, tears of emo- of him, begin also to read the word of tion were several times perceived tlow. God, and to know their Saviour.” ing, and all present seemed to take the From the Report it appears, that liveliest interest in the different instan- the receipts during the year 1821 ces of piety, zeal, charity, and success, amounted to 30,560 rubles ; the expenwhich were recited. The generous aid diture 32,537 rubles. The number of of the British and Foreign Bible So- copies printed since the foandation of ciety was mentioned with all that gra- the society is 57,000, in five languages, titude which it deserves."

including 7000 Polish Bibles for CathoFrom the Rev. Dr. Pinkertou, dated lics, and 5000 Russ Testaments, that

St. Petersburg, 2d May, 1822. are nearly printed off. The number of “ The Moscow Bible Society solem. members and benefactors is 1092.

VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

FOREIGN.

doubt. The situation of Spain, and CONGRESS AT VERONA.—The Congress the conduct which it became the has not as yet issued any document members of the holy alliance to purexplanatory of its views and proceed- sue with respect to that power, were ings, or of the objects of its assem- unquestionably brought under discusbliog. One of those objects was pro- sion. We learo this from a kind of bably the settlement of the affairs of official statement in the Moniteur of Italy and the neighbouring states; to France; in which we are told that the which would naturally be added the Congress, after mature deliberation, still more momentous and perplexing had left the government of France to topics arisiog out of the circumstances act, with respect to interference in the of Spain and Turkey. In the absence affairs of Spain, as it might think esof official disclosures, we can only pedient; with a pledge, it is added, conjecture what may have been the of concurring to give effect to whatever subjects of deliberation in the Con- resolutions the French cabinet may gress, and what its determinations. adopt. Such an unqualified engageOn one point indeed we are left in no ment as this, however, seems scarcely probable. Great Britain is alleged and concentration to revolutionary not only to have declined sanctioning principles, and perhaps render it imany invasion of Spain, but to have possible, without another army of ocstrongly protested against it on every cupation, to keep the Bourbons on the ground of policy, justice, and huma- throne. To any new combined effort nity. She has even given something for this purpose, we feel the strongest like an indirect pledge to resist such moral assurance that Great Britain an attempt. She has intimated to would be no party. The base and Portugal that she considers herself faithless conduct of France, with rebound to fulfil the terms of her de- spect to the Slave Trade, bas alienated fensive alliance, in case the safety of many a heart in this country from the that kingdom should be compromised Bourbons, which once beat high in by foreign aggression; and it is not their favour. The moral interest they very obvious how Spain can be attack- once excited is wholly extinguished. ed without endangering Portugal. In- We see now in that government, the deed, in such an event, these two enemy of humanity and justice, the countries have determined to make cruel" devastator of innocent Africa, 'common cause with each other. The the grand hiudrance to her repose and French government has evidently been improvement. We cannot bope, nay vacillating between the wishes of the we cannot even wish for the prolone ultra-royalist party, in whose hands gation of power thus cruelly and reit is now placed, and their fears of morselessly employed. Those who a growing opposition at home, which compose it have already themwould be exceedingly strengthened selves been made to taste the miseries by discomfiture abroad, and of being of exile in a foreign land ; but they eventually involved perhaps in bosti- have not learnt from that impressive lity with England, The prevailing dispensation, the lessons of sympathy reporis (for mere reports are at pre- and benevolence it was so well fitted sent our only sources of information) to teach. What can we expect from are, that the Russian and French ca- retributive justice, but that, baving binets were exceedingly eager for in- hardened their hearts against such reterfering by force of arms in the af- proof, they should, in the emphatic fairs of Spain; but that the reluctance language of Scripture, " suddenly be of Austria to concur in such a measure, destroyed, and that without remedy?" and above all the firm and strenuous But, to return to our subject: There tone adopted by the duke of Welling- certainly seems at present to be no ton in opposing it, prevented a deter- immediate prospect of war; and all the mination to that effect on the part of accounts we have from various quarCongress, and led to that reference of ters decidedly speak an opposite lanthe matter to the decision of the French guage. Still the bare hazard of hosticabinet which has been already re- lities continues to agitate the public ferred to. . Since then, the pacific re- mind throughout Europe, and no presentations of our great commander where more than in France, where are said to have made a strong impres commerce, and with it agriculture aud sion on the mind of the king of France, manufactures, have suffered considerand of the more moderate members ably even from the state of doubt and of his administration. And certainly uncertainty which has existed on that there has of late been a visible altera- subject. And, in case of actual war, tion in the warlike tone that had been France may lay her account with havassumed by the government writers of ing her commerce completely destroythat country, with regard to Spain. ed in a very few weeks, by the system Prepared as we have been for proceed- of privateering which would infallijogs of the most imprudent, head- bly, and instantaneously spring up strong, and infatuated character on the under the Spanish flag, without the part of the present ultra-royalist go- possibility of any adequate reprisals. vernment of France, we nevertheless FRANCE.-In consequence of some have been unable to persuade ourselves tumultuous proceedings among the that they would carry their infatuation pupils of the Faculty of Medicine in 80 far as actually to plunge into a war Paris, the government has proceeded of this description; a war so uncalled to the decided step of suppressing for by any assignable interests of their that celebrated school of science, in country, and which, while it could not which were found students from all fail again to light up a flame through- parts of Europe. The number of staout Europe, would give new vigour dents, this year, is stated to have been about 4000. It is very probable that peace, and concord," and favourably both revolutionary and anti-Christian dispose the hearts of those who may principles may have been widely pre- have it in their power every where to valent among the members of that assuage the tumults of contending body; but we doubt whether the French parties. government has best consulted its own Spain and Portugal have entered interests by the above liarsh and in- into a league of offensive and defensive discriminating measure. What might alliance; and a body of Portuguese pass with little censure in Austria, troops is said to be already on its will be severely canvassed in France ; way to join the Spanish armies in the and, unless the government could by north. force suppress the popular feeling,

TURKEY.-Constantinople has been which seems impossible, it would in a state of almost entire lawlessness. surely be much wiser to adopt preven- The Janissaries and the populace have tive and remedial measures for con- vied in open contention with the ciliating public opinion, and training government, and have succeeded in the rising generation in Christian and forcing the Sultan to change his constitutional principles, teaching ministers and to accept the popular them, without superstition or bigotry; favourites. It is impossible for a to fear God and to honour the king, Christian mind not to commiserate than fruitlessly to irritate large masses the miseries of the inhabitants of this of the intelligence of the country with. distracted empire, entailed as they out any adequate benefit, or to give certainly are by the 'crimes of its occasion, however unjustly, to the out- governors and people, and especially cry that the dominant party wish to by the barbarous oppression which suppress, science as well as liberty, and has marked the conduct of the Turks to establish the reign of despotism and in all their dealings with their unforJesuitisne in their place.

tunate Christian subjects. No intelliSpain.-Amidst the contradictory gence of much moment has been restatenients of the contending parties ceived from the immediate scenes of in Spain respecting the details of the war ; but the general complexion of campaign in the north, the general the accounts continues favourable to fact seems very clearly ascertained, the Greeks. The Turks seem in no that the Constirutionalists have scat: condition, at the present moment, to tered their opponents, and driven them resume extensive operations either by not only to the very verge of the sea or land; and the accounts before Pyrenees, but across the French fron- received relative to the reverses which tier, without foreign aid. The cause were stated to have overtaken both of the latter seems almost desperate their feet and army, derive strong The Spanish regency, as it calls itself, concurrent probability from the otherhad retreated to Toulouse. On the wise inexplicable supineness which other hand, the conduct of General bas of late been visible in all their Mina and his troops is stated to liave measures. We sincerely rejoice to been ferocious and sanguinary; and add, that the conduct of the British numbers of monks, priests, and others authorities in the Ionian isles has are said to have been massacred by begun to wear a more favourable as. them. This account, though probably pect towards the Greek's'; a circumexaggerated, seems in some measure stance which is stated to have diffused corroborated by a proclamation issued great consolation and satisfaction in the name of that general, threaten- among that suffering people. ing with destruction not only all individuals who are found in arms

DOMESTIC. against the constitution, but even The meeting of Parliament is fixed neutral towns and villages, and all for the 4th of February. magistrates and clergymen within The Cambridge election closed in three leagues of the general's head- favour of Mr. Bankes. The other quarters, by whose non-resistance, or candidates who stood the poll were " by whose failure to furnish infor. Lord Harvey and Mr. Scarlett. mation, any disadvantage shall befal The usual monotony of the month the constitutional army.” How forci- of December has been varied by the bly do scenes like these call upon painful and affecting solemnities of a every Christian to redouble his sup- special assize commission and gaol plications to Him who is “ the Author delivery for the home circuit, intended of peace and lover of concord,” that partly as an experiment, and with a he would " give to all nations unity, view, we trust, to the general introduction of quarterly assizes. The hu- assizes no less than 92 prisoners at manity and moral duty of adopting Chelmsford, (78 of whom were comsome such measure have been often mitted for felony, burglary, and highand forcibly proved. “ There are two way robbery), and a proportionate points,” remarked one of the judges number at the other assize towns. commissioned on this occasion, (Mr. These numbers had accumulaied in Justice Bayley, in his charge to the four months: was there then no necesgrand jury at Maidstone)" Theresity for a gaol delivery? His lordship are two points, in the justice and neces alludes to the inconvenience to the sity of which all must agree; first, that judges; but especially dwells on that prisoners against whom the evidence of the grand jurors, who could not be may be deficient may be as speedily thinks, be fairly expected to leave as possible removed from the danger. their homes“ at a season of the year ous tendency of prison associations, devoted to domestic comfort and reand restored to that liberty to which pose." We trust, however, that there they are by right entitled; and se- is sufficient public spirit and humanity condly, that those whose guilt shall in our gentry to make this sacrifice, be proved may be removed from prison great as it may be ; though, after all, it inactivity to that beneficial industry is but for a few days at most; and we to which their sentence may consiga are very sure that it would not conduce them." His lordship justly esteemed to their peace of mind, amidst the it " a most grateful sight to witness friendly intercourse of the domestic gentlemen of rank, consideration, and circle, to reflect that there were laninfluence coming forward in a full at- guishing, in the wintry inclemencies tendance, gratuitously and with great of a prison, many whom a small sacreadiness, to discharge the office of rifice on their part would rescue, not grand jururs;" and he strongly recom- only from their bodily confinement, mended that the experiment of a win- but what is far worse, from the moral ter's assize should be regarded with contamination wbich too often accomthe most impartial consideration. His panies imprisonment in crowded and lordship's learned colleague, Mr. Jus- unclassified gaols. We cannot quit tice Graham, we lament to state, has the subject without again adverting expressed himself very differently on to Sir J. Bayley's charge, in order to this subject. At the Hertford special mention, with great satisfaction, a assizes, his lordship remarked, that suggestion in it, not only applicable though a lengthened imprisonment to winter assizes, but to a variety of anterior to trial is a great hardship to similar cases; namely, that both policy the really innocent, yet, that of those and bumanity require that when perdeclared innocent at ihe assizes many sons are liberated from confinement, are in fact guilty, though not convicted; attention should be given, as far as and that the number of innocent sul practicable, to prevent their being ferers is therefore very limited. But reduced to the temptation of falling why, we would ask, should even one into dishonest practices, by affording thus suffer undeservedly, if the injus- them such temporary relief as their tice can be reasonably avoided? The case requires and Christian charity speech of that learned judge has been suggests even to the guilty, and, where read, we feel persuaded, with almost practicable, procuring them the means universal surprise and regret. His of obtaining an honest subsistence in lordship himself found at these very future.

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. A CONSTANT READER; PBESBYTER; Y. Z.; D, R. N.; D.; and THEOPHILUS;

are under consideration. Any intelligeot bookseller will give CORNUBIA the information required. Much literary and religious information arrived too late. It is incompatible with our limits to apnounce new editions of works. The question agitated by C. does not appear to us of any great practical importance. Surely the sacred Scriptures are " the word of God," in one very clear scriptural sense, as much as the Second Person in the Trinity is in another. Nor are we aware that any mistake or inconvenience is found in practice to arise from the double use of the expression. Our correspondent, however, may be assured that we attribute to the Society of Friends no intention of disparaging the Scriptures when they decline to make use of this expression. --C.'s paper is left at the Publisher's; and also that of L. T. N.

TO THE

CHRISTIAN OBSERVER,

VOLUME THE TWENTY-SECOND,

FOR 1822.

THI

AFRICAN INSTITUTION. THE following is the substance produced any material effect in di.

of the Society's Sixteenth Re- minishing the Slave Trade. On port, read at the last annual meet- the contrary, the Directors of the ing, of which we presented some African lostitution state, that the account in our Number for Septem- extent of that trade appeared raber. Some subsequent occurrences ther to have increased. The whole might be added ; but we give the line of Western Africa, from the facts at present as they stood at river Senegal to Benguela; that is the date of this Report.

to say, from latitude 16° north, to AnAddress to his Majesty,found. latitude 13° south, bad swarmed ed on authentic parliamentary do with slave vessels; and an active cuments, exhibiting a most afflicting and increasing Slave Trade has also view of the exteut to which the Slave been carried on upon the eastern Trade was still carried on by the sub- shores of that continent, particujects of several European powers, Jarly from the island of Zanzebar. and of the enormities, which at- From July 1820 10 October 1821, tended its continuance, was moved 190 slave-ships had entered the in the House of Lords by the Mar. river Bonny, and 162 the river quis of Lansdowne, and in the Calabar, for the purpose of purHouse of Commons by Mr. Wil- chasing slaves. berforce, imploring his Majesty to Portugal.-" In this work of represent in the most urgent man. iniquity and devastation,” remark ner, to the different governments the Directors, “ Portugal still takes whose subjects were engaged in a prominent part; the only Euro. ibis nefarious commerce, the ne- pean power that has refused entirecessity of their adopting stronger ly to prohibit her subjects from and more effectual measures of re-. trading in slaves. She retains the pression, in order to discharge their guilty distinction of still legalizing plainest and most incumbent obli-, a traffic, which she acknowledges, gations, and to redeem the solemo at the same time, to be a crime of, pledges they had given to this the worst description. She engagcountry and to Europe, respecting ed, it is true, at the Congress of the entire Trade. Til bolition of the Slave Vienna, to limit ber Slave Trade to

These addresses should her own possessions south of Ibe seem not to have been officially Equator; and she held out a quacommunicated to any of the fo- lified expectation, tbat in the year reign goveroments, and therefore 1823, it should cease every where, can bardly be supposed to have and for ever. Her restrictive stia CHRIST. OBSERV. APP.

5 N

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