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CAN pulations, however, have been at- heard among them. Much is antended with little benefit to Nor- ticipated from that diffusion of inthern Africa, for they have conti- formation on the subject, which nued to be most grossly and exten. the liberty of the Portuguese Press sively violated by her subjects: will now facilitate. “ While the some even of her public function provinces,” observe the Directors, aries, governors of African colo- « which formerly belonged to Spain nies, have not scrupled by their on the American continent, and own practice, openly to sanction which almost surround Brazil, have the violation, and to set at nought proclaimed with one voice the the laws they were bound to exe- emancipation of their bondsmen— cute.”
and while the political agitations An active Slave Trade bad been which prevail in Brazil itself must unceasingly carried on between the in a greater or less degree produce islands of Bissao and Cape de a fermentation in the miods of its Verd, and the adjoining continent. Black and Coloured populationThese islands are used as depôts Portugal cannot be so infatuated for the Slaves taken thither in ca- as to believe that she may continue noes and small vessels, by French with impunity annually to import and other slave-traders, with the into that colony tens of thousands view of being afterwards removed of enslaved Africans, smarting unto the Havannah or to the French der the sense of recent injury, and West-India Islands. But it is to eager to break the chains to which the rivers which run into the Bight they are still unaccustomed.” Our of Benin, and into that of Biafra, readers are aware, that the recent that the Portuguese slave-ships revolutions in South America bave chiefly resort. Many such vessels, extended to the Portuguese coloin the course of the last year, have nies, and that neither Spain nor been found there by his Majesty's Portugal has at present any real ships completely furnished with all control over the settlements on that the implements of their criminal continent. These and other cirtraffic, and in a state of readiness cumstances will have modified some to embark their human cargo. The of the views under which the subtraffic, however, has been but in ject appeared a year or two since. a slight degree checked by these We forbear, however, to enter discoveries.
upon the many important consiThe Directors are happy to per- derations which present themselves ceive that Portugal, as well as Spain in reference to this new order of afand the Netherlands, has acceded fairs, till further information shall to an important amendment in the have been laid before the public. terms of the convention for re- Spain.-Until a recent period, pressing the Slave Trade. It is the communications between our agreed, that if there shall be clear Government and that of Spain conproof that a slave or slaves have sisted of a succession of unarailing been put on board, for the pur- remonstrances on the part of the pose of illegal traffic, the vessel former, met with apparent indiffermay be lawfully detained and con- ence on the part of the latter. So demned.
lately as the month of April, 1821, The Directors express a hope Spain appeared still so attached to that the Portuguese nation, in the Slave Trade, that not only was vigorously asserting its own rights, a law for its more effectual represas it has lately done, will not be sion, proposed by the Count de forgetful of the equally sacred Torreno, rejected by the Cortes, rights of their African brethren, but an intimation was given of their and that they will allow the voice intending to apply for two years' of justice and humanity to be farther extension of the term fised
by treaty for its abolition. To this Independent States, have been deintimation lord Londonderry re- clared free from their birth. And plied in the most peremptory terms, whatever other variations may apthat his Majesty neither would nor pear in the plan of the Constitucould lend himself to such a pro- tions to be adopted by the several position.
independent governments, all have A few months later, bowever, a agreed, that difference of colour much better spirit began to mani- shall not produce any difference fest itself. On the 27th of August in the civil condition of their subthe Spanish Minister declared, that jects. Even in Mexico, the Indians orders had been given for the punc- and Africans are entitled to the tual enforcement of the treaty on same civil and political privileges this subject; and in January last, as the Whites. an article was introduced into the Netherlands. It appears that no criminalcode, enacting that allown- effectual legal check bad been put ers, fitters out, captains, masters, to the importation of Slaves into and officers of Spanish vessels who the Dutch colonies. It is stated, shall purchase Negroes on the coast that thousands of new Negroes of Africa, or introduce them into have been imported into Surinam, any part of the Spanish dominions, since the Mixed Commission bas or be captured with Slaves on board, been sitting there; and that there shall forfeit their vessel; and the no doubt the importations offending persons shall be condemn. would be continued, unless very ed to ten years' hard labour on the strong and decisive measures were public works. The same penalties adopted. attach to all owners, proprietors, France.-The Slave Trade under captains, masters, and officers of the flag of France maintains its all foreign vessels, who shall ille. guilty pre-eminence. Almost every gally introduce Slaves into any of part of the African coast, whether the ports of the monarchy. All on its western or eastern shores, is Negroes found on board, or intro- crowded with French contrabandduced by any of the above-men- ists. Although a French squadron tioned means, are declared free; bad for some time been stationed and of the produce arising from on the coast of Africa, for the exthe sale of the slave-ships, one press purpose of suppressing the part is to be distributed among the Slave Trade, no useful effort apNegroes, that they may be recon- peared 10 have been made by it. veyed to their own country, or be The French cruisers had not, as enabled to form establishments in far as was known, made a single cap. the country where they are jutro- ture. They had even met with duced.
ships trading for Slaves under the At the period, however, of this flag of France, and, after exchangReport, there had been no relaxa- ing civilities with them, had left tion of the trade in Cuba and Porto them unmolested to pursue their Rico.
illegal and criminal traffic. At Our readers are already apprised Senegal and Goree, which form the of the gratifying circumstance, that head-quarters of the squadron, the throughout the whole range of merchants, and even some public Spanish America, now become in- functionaries, were still deeply endependent, not only has the Slave gaged in this traffic. Trade been effectually prohibited, But the ravages of the French but the very incentive to this crime Slave-Iraders are not confined to has been removed, by providing the western shores of that devoted for the early and gradual abolition continent. The eastern coast, and of slavery itself. All persons of especially the island of Zanzebar, every colour, boru subjects of the have attracted the cupidity of these
Jawless adventurers; and an exten- lic discredit attaches to the offen. sive traffic has been carried on der. The Directors, therefore, thence for the supply not only of feel fully persuaded, that until the the Isle of Bourbon, but even of laws of France shall be so far althe island of Cuba. A vessel, with tered, as to place the slave-trader in 344 Slaves on board, named Le the list of criminals whose offence Succés, was detained in April 1821 is to be visited with a disgraceby his Majesty's ship Menai, Cap- ful punishment, little hope can tain Moresby, and carried into the be entertained of any material diIsle of France, where, no claim of minution in the existing Slave Trade possession or property being pre- of France. The same view of the ferred, she was condemned, and the subject has happily been adopted Slaves were liberated. This very by the friends of humanity in vessel had already made a success- France itself. In the sessions of ful slave-voyage from Zanzebar to 1821 and 1822 various important the Isle of Bourbon, where she had discussions took place on this subsafely landed 248 Slaves ; and the ject in the legislative chambers; Governor, M. Mylius, having been and although the French governinformed of the transaction, had ment appears to have become more instituted judicial proceedings reluctant than ever to adopt the against ber; but the judges whose measures required for its represoffice it was to try the cause, hav. sion, yet good may be expected ing themselves participated in the to arise from the frequent agitation crime by purchasing some of her of the question. Information will Slaves, concurred in acquitting be extensively diffused, and a diher; and, encouraged by this im- rection given to public opinion, punity, she was immediately dis- which cannot fail to produce, in patched for another cargo of Afri. no long tiine, important results. cans,
and was returning with After these painful details, it is them to the Isle of Bourbon, wlien with no small satisfactioo that the she was detained by the Menai. Directors state the formation, at Governor Mylius has since unfor- Paris, of a Committee, under hightunately been recalled, as it would ly respectable patronage, for ihe appear because he was determin- express purpose of promoting the ed conscientiously to fulfil the du- entire Abolition of the Slave Trade. ties of his office, and was alive to The Society will use every effort to the calls of humanity and justice. diffuse just information on the sub
This state of things may be con- ject of ihis base traffic: it will also sidered as arising in part from a co-operate with benevolent persons want of due vigilance in the pub- in other countries in promoting the lic functionaries ; but it is mainly civilization of Africa, and the geto be attributed to the defective- neral welfare of its unfortunate naness of the laws abolishing the tives. Slave Trade. Even if the pe- Diffusion of Information in Foreign nally of confiscation, the only one
Countries. which attaches to the violation of The Directors in their last Rethe French Abolition Laws, were port stated, that, with the view more frequently enforced than it of promoting the universal aboliis, it would do little to arrest the tion of the Slave Trade, they had progress of the Slave Trade ; the turned their attention to the diffagains being large, and the risk of sion, in foreign countries, of inforcapture and condemnation so small, mation respecting the real nature as to be easily insurable : besides of that traffic. Several highly inte. which, in the case of a judicial resting and appropriate publications conviction, followed only by con- have, in consequence, been widely fiscation of the property, no pub- circulated in France, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands. In France duction to the Supplementary Reespecially, these have excited con- port of last year, to go a step besiderable attention; and fresh edi- yond any other nation, even betions of some of them have been yond Great Britain herself, in its undertaken by booksellers in Paris, measures of repression. An Act with a view to the profit to be de- was passed, declaring the crime of rived from the sale. A pamphlet Slave-trading by American ships, by M. Gregoire, and the excellent or American subjects, to be piracy, speech of the Duc de Broglie have and as such affixing to it the pu. been read with avidity. Mr. Wil nishment of death. berforce also has published, in the Another important document had French language, a letter addressed reached the Directors from the to the Emperor of Russia; in which United States; the Report of a with all the fervour of his elo. Commitee of the House of Reprequence, he paints the atrocities of sentatives, in the session of 1820 the existing Slave Trade, and urges and 1821, relative to the mutual bis Imperial Majesty 10 fulfil ihe exercise of the right of search by obligations so solemnly contracted Great Britain and America, with a by himself, and the other powers view to the suppression of the assembled in congress at Vienna, Slave Trade. This Report contains to put an end to this enormous a clear and decided opinion in faevil. It would have been impos- vour of the exercise of such a right, -sible to make these efforts bui for as the only effectual means of supthe silent and unostentatious, yet pressing the Slave Trade; while it effectual, liberality of many of ihe demonstrates that its use involves members of the Society of Friends, no sacrifice of national interest, who have contributed largely to the vor any compromise of national diffusion of information on the con- bonour. A correspondence which tinent. Further aid, however, is followed on this subject between needed; and the Directors add, that Mr. Stralsord Canning, our am“they are persuaded that the Bri- bassador at Washington, and the tish public will never suffer such Secretary of State of the Anerican a cause to fail for want of sup- Government, manifested a strong report: and it is in this confidence pugnance, on the part of that Goihat they make their appeal to its verument, to the measure recomtried benevolence."
mended by the Committee. Tbis . United States.-The Government. sentiment, however, appeared to and Legislature of the United States be confined to the Executive; for, bave continued to manifest the notwithstanding the arguments so same anxious desire to put an end recently urged by the American to the Slave Trade which has al- Secretary of State, a Report of the ways distinguished them.
Senate of the United States, pre: Their cruisers on the African sented during the session of 1821coast bave well seconded their 1822, concurred entirely in the wishes; and five slave-ships de- view taken the year before by the tained on suspicion of being Ame- House of Representatives, and rican property, though disguised earnestly urged the adoption of the under foreign flags, had already proposed expedient of a reciprocal been condemned in tbeir Vice-Ad- right of search as a most desirable miralty Courts, previously to the measure. month of January 1821.
The Report goes on to allude to The pertinacity with which some various other topics, to a few only of the subjects of the United States of which we can advert. Several still adbered to this infamous con- of them have indeed appeared bemerce, induced the American Legis- fore our readers in other shapes. lature, as was stated in the intro- A treatybelween Radama, King of Madagascar, and Mr. Farquhar, for the other course might arise out of the suppression of the Slave Trade the train of events. in that island, had been carried No less do the Directors regret into effect, and every attempt to the tardy progress of general inelude its beneficent provisions had provement in ihe state of colonial been defeated.
bondage. More than fifteen years In the Isle of France, Governor have elapsed since the Abolition Farquhar had exerted himself with of the Slave Trade was enacted great zeal, in endeavouring to sup- by the British Parliament; but press the Slave Trade within the during that long period no effeclimits of his own government; and tive measures have been adoptthe measures he has adopted it was ed eilber by the Imperial Letrusted would prove effectual. gislature, or by the
An Act had been passed giving Assemblies, for ameliorating the to the captors of slave-ships a condition of the Slave, or paving moiety of bis Majesty's share of the way to his future emancipation. the prize, and a bounty of 10l. per In many of the colonies, voluntary head, on all Slaves liberated under manumissions by the master still the treaties with Spain, Portugal, continue to be loaded with heavy and the Netherlands, and granting imposts; and this cruel tax upon also the same bounties in some private benevolence prerails even other cases
not previously pro- in colonies where the crown is the vided for by Act of Parliament. sole legislator. In all, the Slave This salutary provision will both continues absolutely inadmissable stimulate and reward the exertious as a witness in any cause, whether of our cruizers.
civil or criminal, which concerns The Directors express their con- persons of free condition ; and even cern, that when an important change in questions affecting his own perwas about to take place in the sonal freedom, and that of his posnavigation laws of this country terity for ever, the onus still rests as they affect the intercourse of the on him to prove that be is free, and West-Indian Colonies with foreign not, as in all justice it ought to nations, it should not have been do, upon the person denying his made a substantive part of the freedom to prove that he is a slave. measure that an efficient and ope. In none is the marriage of the Slave rative Register Act should be made legal, or guarded by any adopted by every colony to which legal sanctions; and, with partial The boon was to be extended. exceptions, his instruction iu ChrisWhile the sugars of the West Indies tianity is left to the fortuitous efforts are protected in their monopoly of of voluntary missionaries. These the home market by a high duty, are some of the opprobrious cirnot merely on foreign sugars, but cumstances which continue to aton the sugars grown in our own East- tach with undiminished force to Indian possessions, thus giving a our colonial system, and for which decided and exclusive preference it is clearly the duty of this country to the produce of cultivation by to provide a remedy, slave labour, over that by free la. In urging upon The British pubbour,-the least that could be de. lic the duty of assisting by Their sired seemed to be, that no means
efforts and pecuniary liberality in should bave been omitted of effec- this great work of mercy and of justually preventing both the clandes- tice, ihe Directors thus energetically tine introduction of Slaves into our remark: “ For centuries we were own colonies, and their clandestine foremost in carrying on this guilty removal to the more productive traffic. Other nations may plead colonies of foreign nations, accord- that they are but treading in our ing as templations to the one or steps, and committing a crime into