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gen, an operation requiring the presence of that universal stimulus of nature, light. The principles of vegetable composition,namely, carbon and hydrogen, enter also as a source of mediate or immediate nutriment into the composition of animal bodies. But the constitution of animals demands that a great portion of this hydrogen and carbon should be got rid of from time to time, and that azote should be absorbed. This operation is effected through the medium of the atmosphere, the oxygen of which, combining with the carbon and hydrogen of the blood, is exhaled with them in the form of carbonic acid and water, the azote appearing to remain. According to the experiments of Dr. Edwards, an absorption and discharge of azote is perpetually going on; the discharge varying according to habit, constitution, or the circumstances to which an individual may be subjected.
Plants and animals may thus be said to become mutual sources for the production of the elements each requires; the relations they bear to the atmosphere are inverse. The former demand water and carbonic acid, the latter produce it. Animals demand oxygen, and the vegetable creation is perpetually exhaling it .
And shall we not admire the wisdom of God, shall -we not pay our tribute of adoration to Him "who hath done all things well?" Wonderful and mysterious as is the plan which we see displayed in the laws of organized beings, there is a plan, reader, still more wonderful and more mysterious, and which exhibits more fully the boundless wisdom and goodness of God—a plan by which justice and mercy are reconciled—the plan of man's salvation, the results of which will outlive the laws of the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and the great globe itself.
Having thus separated between the animal and vegetable kingdoms, it is not our purpose to enter into the details of animal physiology, which, although it unfolds in a most striking manner the glorious power and design of the Almighty, would carry us beyond our prescribed limits; but we shall proceed at once to the general divisions under which the scientific men of our day have arranged all that has a claim to animal existence. In so doing we propose to take Cuvier for our guide.
The woods and fields resound on every side with the cries and voices of creatures, varying in form and nature; the air is peopled with busy tribes that wander through its boundless regions; the wing of the bird rustles as it passes us, and myriads of insects are dancing in the sun; the waters teem with life; the ocean, the mighty ocean is replete; even the "drop upon the bucket" is a lake to multitudes of animalcules, that rejoice and multipy in its mimic floods, or pine and die as it evaporates. We cannot pluck a leaf from a tree, and examine it, but we discover it to be a little world, peopled with pigmy inhabitants, that play their part in the balance of creation, a part which may, indeed, escape the research of the philosopher, but which infinite wisdom has appointed. Diversified, however, and multitudinous as they are, they admit of arrangements or classifications which unravel the intricacy of the subject, and divest the study of its apparent difficulties. It was a want of this
system which has rendered the works of the ancients, on natural objects, little more than records of disjointed facts, or opinions, without mutual bearing, or order, or plan, and without a definite end. Hence the little comparative progress in the natural sciences, and the mistakes and absurdities which we find to have prevailed among nations the most civilized and refined. Modern science received a new impetus from the writings of Bacon, Ray, and Linnaeus, which has regulated inquiry, and introduced method and order. Among the philosophers of modern times Cuvier is pre-eminent, and his general outline is that which is now most commonly received. He divides the animal kingdom into four grand divisions; namely,
1. Animalia Vertebrata.
Vertebrate animals, having a brain inclosed in an osseous covering, or skull, and a vertebral column.
2. Animalia Molusca.
Moluscous animals, without any internal skeleton, but whose muscles are attached to a soft skin, often enclosed in a hard case or shell of lime.
3. Animalia Articulata.
Articulated animals, in which the body is divided by transverse folds into a certain number of rings; the integuments are sometimes hard, sometimes soft; but the muscles are always attached to the interior; the trunk is often furnished with many limbs, consisting of numerous joints, but is often also deficient; such are insects, crustaceous animals, as lobsters, etc.
4. Animalia Radiata.
Radiate animals, or zoophytes, in which the organs of movement are not disposed symmetrically on each side, but consist of an uneven number, disposed like rays round a centre; they possess no nervous system, nor particular organs of sense, barely traces of a circulation, and approach in their structure the homogeneity of plants.
Vertebrate animals (Animalia vertebrata) are distinguished by an internal osseous frame-work, or skeleton, which affords solidity and support. Their body is composed of a head, trunk, and limbs: the head consists of the skull, which incloses and protects the brain; and of the face, which embraces the organs of taste, smell, sight, and hearing. The head rests upon, or is attached to the vertebral column, which is composed of a number of bones moveable one on another, and forming altogether a canal for the medulla oblongata, or spinal marrow. The limbs never exceed four, and are in pairs; but sometimes one pair is wanting, sometimes both. The blood is always red.
This great family is divided into four classes:—
1. Mammalia, or Mammiferous animals.
2. Aves, or Birds.
3. Reptilia, or Reptiles.
4. Pisces, or Fishes.
The first of these classes is the most interest
ORDERS OF THE CLASS MAMMALIA.
ing; it comprehends those animals whose organization is most developed, whose senses are the most delicate, whose intelligence is the most perfect, who are more intimately connected with ourselves, who possess more of our attention, and are more essential to our immediate welfare: it comprehends man himself.
To the beings which belong to this class our observations will be exclusively confined.
As the class Mammalia (and it is the case throughout every other) contains groups of animals, which present common agreements in form and structure, and common dissimilarities from other groups, we are led naturally, as it were, or by an involuntary operation of the mind, to institute a series of sections, in each of which those animals are thrown together which have a mutual resemblance to each other in certain prominent characteristics. These sections are termed orders. The following Table exhibits the arrangement of Cuvier, and most naturalists of the present day, and is that which is generally received.
TABLE OF THE ORDERS OF THE
THE FINGERS AND TOES FURNISHED WITH NAILS.
Extremities four; of which only the posterior are adapted for progression, and the anterior terminated by hands; the teeth are of three kinds; the body in its natural attitude vertical.
The extremities four, all terminated by hands; the teeth of three kinds.
Extremities four: neither in this nor in the succeeding orders is there a thumb free and antagonising with fingers, and consequently no true hands; teeth of three kinds.
Teeth variable; body furnished with an external pouch for the reception of the young, the birth of which appears premature, and their organic development imperfect .
V.—Rodentia, or Glires.
Extremities four; the teeth of two kinds, incisores and molares.
Teeth more or less deficient; the incisores always wanting, and sometimes both the canine and molares.
FEET DEFENDED BY HOOFS.
Limbs four, and furnished with hoofed toes, variable in number; the stomach not construct
ed for ruminating; the body generally massive, and the skin thick.
Limbs four, and terminating in two hoofed toes, (the feet being called cloven;) the teeth usually of two, but sometimes of three kinds ; the stomach constructed for ruminating.
Body constructed for inhabiting the water; limbs consisting of an anterior pair only, forming paddles or oars; the teeth variable: in some cases there are only horny laminae instead.
Each order, as we have seen, is composed of an associated group, having certain essential points in common, which draw around it, so to speak, a line of circumvallation. Still in each order, thus constituted, numerous but minor points of difference exist, by which numbers may be mutually distinguished; and as many as thus agree are separated into genera. Genera includes species, which have each their especial characteristics.
Extremities four; of which oniy the posterior are adapted for progression, and the anterior terminated by hands; the teeth are of three kinds; the body in its natural attitude vertical.
This order includes but one genus, and that genus but one species—Man.
"And God said, let us make man in our own image, after our own likeness." "So God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them."
Man was created the last and most excellent of God's mighty works. Confining our attention to him in a merely physical point of view, he is the most perfect of all terrestrial beings; not, indeed, in size or animal strength, for in these qualities many excel him, but in the refined, the exalted plan and model upon which he is constructed. The eagle, it is true, may have a more powerful vision; the hare be more alive to every sound; the wild dog or vulture catch the faintest scent upon the gale; but in Man there is a nice balance, an adjustment, a felicitous accuracy of the senses, which thus expressly tend to his elevation and happiness; and, at the same time that they minister to his pleasure, enable him to obtain an intimate and minute acquaintance with the properties of the world around him. Hence the voice of melody; the colours of earth and sky; the odours of spring; the fruits of summer; the glorious sun, and the spangled canopy of heaven, are sources of gratification and delight to him. Language, in which he can convey his wants, his desires, and the most abstract ideas of his mind, is his alone; and his alone are reason, and an immortal soul.
While, however, on the topic of Man's physical superiority, we cannot omit noticing a few circumstances, because peculiar to Man, at once proclaiming his own dignity and his separation
from inferior creatures;—we mean his attitude, the freedom and exquisite mechanism of his hands, and his natural deficiency in weapons of aggression or defence.
With the attitude of man we naturally associate ideas of exaltation; and this attitude is in truth connected with his moral greatness: no quadruped approaches him in volume or extent of brain; and the blood necessary for an organ so developed is carried to it by arteries, which do not subdivide as in most quadrupeds, but allow that full and free circulation its energies require: hence, an horizontal position would induce a perpetual liability to apoplexy, and render every bodily or mental exertion a hazardous experiment.
Man (sustaininghimself on his feet alone) preserves the entire liberty of his hands; and the situation of these organs is that which is best calculated to render them available and useful. But great as are the advantages derived from their liberty, more are attributable to their structure. The human hand is strong and powerful, but at the same time exquisitely susceptible of impressions, and gifted with the most delicate tact. Every finger, except that called the ring finger, is capable of independent movements, a power possessed by no other animal; and the thumb is so elongated as to meet readily the tips of any of the fingers: the fingers themselves, and especially the pulpy tips at their extremities, are freely supplied by a nervous tissue, which communicates a discriminating sensibility peculiar to our race. Hence the admirable fitness of the hand for the prehension and examination of the minutest objects, and the precision with which its actions are executed.
Man possesses neither offensive nor defensive weapons; but this very deficiency adds to his improvement, inasmuch as it throws him back upon his internal resources, and calls forth the energies of his mind. His first step in civilization is to clear out a spot of ground for his dwelling; resist the inroads of the wild and ferocious animals; drive to a distance or exterminate the intractable; and subdue the more docile to himself. Art supplies the means which nature has withheld; and the rude hunter of the forest founds an abode, and rears a family to be the forefathers of a mighty nation.
Multiplying after the subsidence of the deluge, the human race has spread itself over every portion of the globe, and ramified into a thousand tongues and nations. Capable of inhabiting every plimate, and in every situation surrounding himself with the necessaries of life, Man peoples the burning regions of the torrid zone, and the ice-girt shores of the Arctic Ocean. To him the mountain, the valley, the morass, and the desert, are alike; and, modifying his food according to locality, he thrives upon rice, and the plantain, and the palm-nut on the plains of India; upon the raw flesh and blubber of the seal, on the frozen snows of Greenland. Between these points there are innumerable grades and distinctions in habits, in manners, in food, in civilization, and moral qualities; but different as the tribes into which the human race is divided may appear, they may be ultimately reduced to about five standing varieties, the descendants of a common parent.
These have been characterised as the Caucasian, which includes the nations of Europe, and such in ancient times as have been most distinguished for civilization and power; the Mongolian, to which are referred the mighty empires of China and Japan; the Ethiopian, occupying the interior of Africa; the American; and the Malay, which includes the natives of the peninsula of Malacca, and of Borneo, Java, the isles of the Indian ocean, Australia, and the islands of the Pacific. To these, perhaps, some others may be added.
It were useless to inquire, and impossible to give any satisfactory solution, or theory, upon which to account for the hereditary characteristics which attach to these different varieties of mankind: climate, food, modes of life in remote ages, a primeval peculiarity in the original parents, which has continued itself to their latest descendants, or causes now unknown, and which have long ceased to operate, may have all in their turn contributed. One feature, however, which pervades human nature through all its varieties, in every age, in every nation, proclaims a common origin. History, however remotely we trace its records, whether sacred or profane, discovers this trait in every page, and our own experience has made us acquainted with it: we mean the universal degeneracy of the human race; a fact which, however men may have differed as to its cause, has in every generation been acknowledged; and, as if the memory of Eden still lingered on the earth, has been blended with a looking back to a traditionary period of innocence and purity before "all flesh had corrupted his way;" and the sage and the poet have alike lamented the long-passed golden age. But amidst the errors of the ancient philosophers and the vain speculations of the modern, the Christian has a sure word of revelation, which at once clears up the mystery; and he learns that by one man's disobedience sin entered the world, and death by sin. Hence the Scriptures may emphatically be said to contain an account of the Natural History of the Human Race, presenting us with our true origin and destiny. Who can read the affecting details, the touching histories, the striking narratives, which those records so simply and so beautifully portray, without feelings of sympathy and delight? Who can reflect, without admiration and instruction, upon the deep knowledge of human nature they unfold, from the time in which Adam fell, through successive ages, and in every condition of society; to the times of primitive simplicity, when Abraham led his son Isaac up the mount of Moriah, thus shadowing forth a Saviour that should become an offering for sin; and up to the days of refinement and luxury, when Felix trembled on his throne, and Paul preached the "unknown God" at Athens?
The Scriptures, thus interesting to our feelings, by the pictures of human characters and motives they display, contain subjects of a higher import, subjects more nearly connected with our eternal welfare: they alone teach the true nature of God, and of ourselves as immortal beings; they alone give us an account of Man's first transgression and apostasy, by which a stain has been transmitted down the chain of human existence, contaminating every child of Adam, and bringing death into the world. Hence do they insist
upon the necessity of a mediatorial sacrifice for sin; hence was the first promise given, "the Seed of the woman shall bruise the serpent's head;" hence the Messiah foretold who should destroy sin and death, to whom a series of prophets pointed, and whom Pilate crucified on Calvary. But until the coining of the Messiah, we learn that God ordered typical sacrifices of slain animals, through which, looking by faith to the antitype, Man might approach his offended Maker. Thus, without shedding of blood, there was no remission of sins till the Mediator came, who, "after He had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down at the right hand of God."
How long after the subsidence of the deluge the patriarchal religion and faith continued pure on the earth, it is, perhaps, impossible to say; most probably but a short time, becoming more and more corrupted as nations diverged from the common stock: and yet as if every nation should, with an indication of its origin, preserve a remnant of the mode of worship appointed by God, and alone acceptable, as an accusing witness, we find the offering of sacrifices to have been a universal practice among all nations, a belief in the necessity of approach to Deity through a mediatorial altar surviving the wreck of their religion. Among the idolatrous heathens of the present day, among nations who forbid and abhor the ordinary slaughter even of the meanest animal, (considering all living things as an emanation of Deity, and about to return into the essence of Deity again,) this religious practice still prevails. Nor is it a little singular, that the Brahmins entertain a proverbial saying, not only similar in import, but in words, to that of the Jewish law—" Without shedding of blood there is no remission of sins."
Thus do we see that all nations, in ancient as well as in modern times, preserving the sacrificial mode of worship, however disfigured their religion might be with idolatry, concur in the necessity of a mediator through whom to approach offended Deity. But the Jews, to whom a clearer light was given, looked expressly forward to a Messiah, the subject of prophecy, the "rod out of the stem of Jesse," and the " Prince of peace" —a Messiah, whom their sacrifices, the scapegoat, and their many ceremonials, so evidently set forth. The Messiah came. "God sent his Son in the fulness of time ;" but he was despised, rejected, and crucified, offering himself an oblation for the sins of the world, that "whosoever believeth on Him should not perisri, but have everlasting life." "Surely He has borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows!"
Hence, as the holy prophets of old looked forward to the office and person of a promised Redeemer, whose days on earth were yet to come, do we, on the contrary, look back upon a finished work, a complete atonement, and recognise a Mediator who hath ascended the Holy of holies, and ever liveth to make intercession for us, not with the blood of slain beasts, but by pleading his own blood and his own merits, according to "an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things and sure." There is, however, this difference between the Christian and the pious Jew of old; that, whereas he saw indeed darkly, and through a glass, and beheld his Messiah in the dim visions
of prophecy, we see with unbeclouded eyes, the dark sayings having been fulfilled, and the dim outline having been completed; so that our faith may repose on facts, which are matters of history, while his rested on the bare promise of things yet to come.
If under such circumstances, with the light of day around us, the Morning Star having arisen, we be found without faith, how doubly awful is our condition!" The soul that sinneth, it shall die." But Christ has endured this penalty; he has paid the forfeit of the bond; nay, he has magnified the Iaw.and asks but our belief,our reliance, and our heart. "He that believeth in me shall have everlasting life." The Redeemer came not clothed with the terrors of omnipotence to destroy, but clad in mercy to save; and "though he was rich, yet for our sakes he became poor, that we, through his poverty, might be made rich ;"—rich in that peace which passeth understanding; rich in the love of God, in the abiding influences of the Holy Spirit; rich in the bright prospect of a glorious eternity; and rich in the final inheritance of a mansion in the upper world, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens: there to mingle with the prophets and martyrs of old, and the spirits of the just made perfect. Thus, reader, may our faith be fixed on the Rock of ages, and our hopes full of immortality.
The extremities four, all terminated by hands; the teeth of three kinds.—This Order is divided into two Genera —Monkeys, and Lemurs.
MONKEYS. Santa, Linnjeus.
Between man and the creatures below him there is a vast hiatus, or chasm, by which he is severed from them; nor is he only thus separated, but he is exalted upon a pinnacle far above them all. On his countenance and air are imprinted majesty and dominion: reason and speech, those sacred gifts of God, sanction his pre-eminence, and forbid that it should be called usurpation. Hence, between the lowest savage, "that bends his bow, and lives upon the chase," and the brute that may be considered highest in the scale, there is an immeasurable distance. We are led to these observations because some, judging neither wisely nor well, have endeavoured to reduce the human species to the same degrading level, or nearly so, with the singular animals of this order, which, notwithstanding their fancied resemblance, have little of even the "masque" of the human figure, and nothing of its motions and attitude.
It requires little philosophy to confute the fallacy of such doctrines, which have issued only from the atheist or the fool, and at once discriminate between man, made in the likeness of his Maker, a moral agent, a reasoning soul, and the ape, whose boasted intelligence is scarcely above, some may think below, that of the faithful dog. Writers and travellers, too credulous themselves, too fond of the marvellous, or designedly propagating falsehoods, have, it is true, misled even the learned with their wonderful accounts of
"men with long tails, and covered with yellowish hair, navigating the ocean in boats, and bartering parrots in exchange for iron;" or of "longarmed hairy men," whose language was a hissing sound, acting the part of robbers and banditti. But such descriptions, which in charity we would refer to ignorance, credulity, and a heated fancy, have faded before science, and would now excite ridicule even in the nursery. But what shall we say of Bontius, a grave physician, who, in the description of an ape, to which he assigns every grace and virtue, affirms the capability of these animals for language, which they would exercise were it not for the well grounded fear of being compelled to labour! What of Gassendi, who asserts, in behalf of some species of ape, his aptitude for our attitude, actions, and dress; his discrimination and ear in music, and his capacity for learning the flute or guitar! Maupertuis longed for the brilliant and instructive conversation of the unsophisticated men with tails; and even Linnaeus fancied a homo troglodytes but little lower than himself, and capable of progressive refinement. The best refutation of such fabulous nonsense is to present our readers with a description of a few of the leading species which have come under our personal observation, premising a few general remarks.
The ape and monkey tribes (Simice of Linn.) are exclusively confined to the warmer latitudes of the old and new continents, peopling in multitudes the deep forests of the torrid zone, and occasionally wandering for fruits or grain into the more cultivated portions of the adjacent districts. The only point of Europe in which any one of the species is found, in a wild state, is the rock of Gibraltar, where the Barbary ape, an aboriginal of the opposite coast of Africa, appears to have become naturalized, most probably from individuals which at some period have been purposely introduced, or have escaped from confinement.
The almost illimitable number of distinct species comprehended by the genus Siniia, has rendered a subdivision of it into subordinate groups not only convenient, but necessary, inasmuch as they are characterized by essential points of difference. Of these, several are peculiar to the old continent; others to the warmer regions of America: and it is worthy of remark, that these two portions of the globe possess their peculiar tribes; the Simiae of the old world being never found in America, and vice versd. The American species may always be distinguished by the lateral position of the nostrils, between which there intervenes a considerable space: this is an invariable sign. Moreover, no transatlantic species has ever been discovered in which the tail is wanting; but, on the contrary, in many that organ is endowed with the singular power of prehension, a circumstance which never occurs in any species proper to Asia or Africa. Another peculiarity in many consists in the imperfection of the thumb, that portion of the hand being reduced to a mere rudiment, and in some altogether wanting. These are known by the name of Spider Monkeys: on the ground they are awkward and embarrassed in their manners beyond measure, dragging themselves along with pain and difficulty, their loosely-jointed limbs appa
rently giving no support; but in the trees, on the other hand, they exhibit the most astonishing agility, suspending themselves by the tail, and swinging from one bough to another beyond their reach with inconceivable address, or traversing the smallest branches with the utmost care and rapidity. Another singular tribe of American monkeys are known by the name of Howlers; wild, ferocious, and untractable, they abound in large troops in the dense forests of Guiana and the Brazils, which, as night sets in, resound with their hideous and terrific yellings.
New Holland, among its singular animals, presents us with no monkeys; and it is presumed that none are inhabitants of the large island of Madagascar. The monkeys of the old and new world form therefore two subgenera, each, as we have hinted, including numerous groups, from which we shall select the most striking examples as illustrative of our subject.
We first notice the Oranc-outan. (Simia Satyrus, Linn.) (See Engraving, No. 1.) This celebrated species is a native of the islands of Borneo and Sumatra, and the peninsula of Malacca, dwelling in the deepest recesses of forests of gigantic growth, and seldom venturing into the more thinly wooded districts: hence it is an object of curiosity even to the natives. Until within the last few years a great degree of obscurity has rested upon the Orang-outan, as to its identity with the Pongo, which, however, is now ascertained to be the same species in the adult age, the young alone having been seen alive in Europe. The height of the full-grown animal has been stated as at least equal to that of man; an assertion, however, to be received with some degree of hesitation, as it is not borne out by the skins or skeletons which have hitherto reached Europe. The height of the largest preserved specimen of the adult we have seen is about four feet; but we are aware of the description of one, by the late Dr. Abel, killed at Ramboon, the stature of which, according to the details which he laid before the Asiatic Society at Calcutta, January 5, 1825, must have exceeded seven feet.
The hair of the Orang is long, coarse, and of a brownish red; it covers the body and limbs, but is thinly scattered over the hands and feet: on the forehead its direction is upwards. In a very young individual of this species, which, while alive, came under notice, the hair was very dark, approaching black ; but we have reasons to suspect that it becomes lighter as it advances in age. The forehead and face, as well as the palms of the hands and feet, are naked; the skin, where exposed, being somewhat lead-coloured.
The arms are of immense length, the hands long and narrow, the fingers slender, the thumb very short. The feet are also long, and resemble hands; the heel, however, projects: the great toe, or, as its true use would lead us to call it, hinder thumb, is also very short, and furnished in the male only with a small or imperfect nail, which appendage would seem not to exist in the female. The inferior extremities are very short, and bear a singular disproportion to the arms, whose extent of sweep is very great; like the arms, however, they have a peculiar freedom of motion, owing to a constitution of the hip-joint,